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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239556

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pathogenic variants in the chromatin organizer CTCF were previously reported in seven individuals with a neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD). METHODS: Through international collaboration we collected data from 39 subjects with variants in CTCF. We performed transcriptome analysis on RNA from blood samples and utilized Drosophila melanogaster to investigate the impact of Ctcf dosage alteration on nervous system development and function. RESULTS: The individuals in our cohort carried 2 deletions, 8 likely gene-disruptive, 2 splice-site, and 20 different missense variants, most of them de novo. Two cases were familial. The associated phenotype was of variable severity extending from mild developmental delay or normal IQ to severe intellectual disability. Feeding difficulties and behavioral abnormalities were common, and variable other findings including growth restriction and cardiac defects were observed. RNA-sequencing in five individuals identified 3828 deregulated genes enriched for known NDD genes and biological processes such as transcriptional regulation. Ctcf dosage alteration in Drosophila resulted in impaired gross neurological functioning and learning and memory deficits. CONCLUSION: We significantly broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum of CTCF-associated NDDs. Our data shed light onto the functional role of CTCF by identifying deregulated genes and show that Ctcf alterations result in nervous system defects in Drosophila.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(1): 43-49, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556256

RESUMO

Biallelic loss of function variants in the TMCO1 gene have been previously demonstrated to result in cerebrofaciothoracic dysplasia (CFTD; MIM #213980). The phenotype of this condition includes severe intellectual disability, as well as distinctive craniofacial features, including brachycephaly, synophrys, arched eyebrows, "cupid's bow" upper lip, and microdontia. In addition, nonspecific skeletal anomalies are common, including bifid ribs, scoliosis, and spinal fusion. Only 19 molecularly confirmed patients have been previously described. Here, we present four patients with CFTD, including three brothers from a Pakistani background and an additional unrelated white Scottish patient. All share the characteristic craniofacial appearance, with severe intellectual disability and skeletal abnormalities. We further define the phenotype with comparison to the published literature, and present images to define the dysmorphic features in a previously unreported ethnic group. All of our patient series are homozygous for the same c.292_293del (p.Ser98*) TMCO1 pathogenic variant, which has been previously reported only in an isolated Amish population. Thus we provide evidence that CFTD may be more common than previously thought. The patients presented here further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of CFTD and provide evidence for a recurrent pathogenic variant in TMCO1.

3.
Genome Res ; 29(2): 159-170, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587507

RESUMO

Mutations that perturb normal pre-mRNA splicing are significant contributors to human disease. We used exome sequencing data from 7833 probands with developmental disorders (DDs) and their unaffected parents, as well as more than 60,000 aggregated exomes from the Exome Aggregation Consortium, to investigate selection around the splice sites and quantify the contribution of splicing mutations to DDs. Patterns of purifying selection, a deficit of variants in highly constrained genes in healthy subjects, and excess de novo mutations in patients highlighted particular positions within and around the consensus splice site of greater functional relevance. By using mutational burden analyses in this large cohort of proband-parent trios, we could estimate in an unbiased manner the relative contributions of mutations at canonical dinucleotides (73%) and flanking noncanonical positions (27%), and calculate the positive predictive value of pathogenicity for different classes of mutations. We identified 18 patients with likely diagnostic de novo mutations in dominant DD-associated genes at noncanonical positions in splice sites. We estimate 35%-40% of pathogenic variants in noncanonical splice site positions are missing from public databases.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Mutação , Sítios de Splice de RNA , Exoma , Humanos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
4.
Science ; 362(6419): 1161-1164, 2018 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30409806

RESUMO

We estimated the genome-wide contribution of recessive coding variation in 6040 families from the Deciphering Developmental Disorders study. The proportion of cases attributable to recessive coding variants was 3.6% in patients of European ancestry, compared with 50% explained by de novo coding mutations. It was higher (31%) in patients with Pakistani ancestry, owing to elevated autozygosity. Half of this recessive burden is attributable to known genes. We identified two genes not previously associated with recessive developmental disorders, KDM5B and EIF3F, and functionally validated them with mouse and cellular models. Our results suggest that recessive coding variants account for a small fraction of currently undiagnosed nonconsanguineous individuals, and that the role of noncoding variants, incomplete penetrance, and polygenic mechanisms need further exploration.

6.
Nat Genet ; 50(10): 1442-1451, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30224647

RESUMO

The etiological spectrum of ultra-rare developmental disorders remains to be fully defined. Chromatin regulatory mechanisms maintain cellular identity and function, where misregulation may lead to developmental defects. Here, we report pathogenic variations in MSL3, which encodes a member of the chromatin-associated male-specific lethal (MSL) complex responsible for bulk histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation (H4K16ac) in flies and mammals. These variants cause an X-linked syndrome affecting both sexes. Clinical features of the syndrome include global developmental delay, progressive gait disturbance, and recognizable facial dysmorphism. MSL3 mutations affect MSL complex assembly and activity, accompanied by a pronounced loss of H4K16ac levels in vivo. Patient-derived cells display global transcriptome alterations of pathways involved in morphogenesis and cell migration. Finally, we use histone deacetylase inhibitors to rebalance acetylation levels, alleviating some of the molecular and cellular phenotypes of patient cells. Taken together, we characterize a syndrome that allowed us to decipher the developmental importance of MSL3 in humans.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 39(9): 1246-1261, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924900

RESUMO

Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is a rare developmental disorder, characterized by scalp aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) and transverse terminal limb defects (TTLD). Autosomal dominant forms of AOS are linked to mutations in ARHGAP31, DLL4, NOTCH1 or RBPJ, while DOCK6 and EOGT underlie autosomal recessive inheritance. Data on the frequency and distribution of mutations in large cohorts are currently limited. The purpose of this study was therefore to comprehensively examine the genetic architecture of AOS in an extensive cohort. Molecular diagnostic screening of 194 AOS/ACC/TTLD probands/families was conducted using next-generation and/or capillary sequencing analyses. In total, we identified 63 (likely) pathogenic mutations, comprising 56 distinct and 22 novel mutations, providing a molecular diagnosis in 30% of patients. Taken together with previous reports, these findings bring the total number of reported disease variants to 63, with a diagnostic yield of 36% in familial cases. NOTCH1 is the major contributor, underlying 10% of AOS/ACC/TTLD cases, with DLL4 (6%), DOCK6 (6%), ARHGAP31 (3%), EOGT (3%), and RBPJ (2%) representing additional causality in this cohort. We confirm the relevance of genetic screening across the AOS/ACC/TTLD spectrum, highlighting preliminary but important genotype-phenotype correlations. This cohort offers potential for further gene identification to address missing heritability.

8.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29908352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases due to impaired lipid and protein glycosylation. It comprises a characteristic high frequency of intellectual disability (ID) and a wide range of clinical phenotypes. OBJECTIVE: To identify the underlying diagnosis in two families each with two siblings with variable level of ID through trio whole exome sequencing. METHODS: Both the families were recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study to identify the aetiology for their ID. Further work-up included isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin done to add evidence to the molecular diagnosis. RESULTS: These patients were found to have three novel variants in MAN1B1 inherited from their healthy parents. Serum transferrin IEF showed a type 2 pattern. DISCUSSION: MAN1B1 variants were initially described in association with non-syndromic ID; subsequent literature suggested that variants in MAN1B1 resulted in a CDG-type II syndrome. However, there remains a paucity of literature on detailed clinical phenotyping and it still remains a rare form of CDG. The present patients showed the phenotype previously reported in MAN1B1-CDG: a characteristic facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, truncal obesity and in some, behavioural problems. CONCLUSIONS: In unexplained ID, serum transferrin should be included in the first-line screening. With advances in genomic medicine, it is important to diagnose CDG as this has implications for management and recurrence risk counselling.

9.
Genet Med ; 20(1): 42-54, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28617417

RESUMO

PurposeIn 2012 we reported in six individuals a clinical condition almost indistinguishable from PLOD1-kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (PLOD1-kEDS), caused by biallelic mutations in FKBP14, and characterized by progressive kyphoscoliosis, myopathy, and hearing loss in addition to connective tissue abnormalities such as joint hypermobility and hyperelastic skin. FKBP14 is an ER-resident protein belonging to the family of FK506-binding peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases); it catalyzes the folding of type III collagen and interacts with type III, type VI, and type X collagens. Only nine affected individuals have been reported to date.MethodsWe report on a cohort of 17 individuals with FKBP14-kEDS and the follow-up of three previously reported patients, and provide an extensive overview of the disorder and its natural history based on clinical, biochemical, and molecular genetics data.ResultsBased on the frequency of the clinical features of 23 patients from the present and previous cohorts, we define major and minor features of FKBP14-kEDS. We show that myopathy is confirmed by histology and muscle imaging only in some patients, and that hearing impairment is predominantly sensorineural and may not be present in all individuals.ConclusionOur data further support the extensive clinical overlap with PLOD1-kEDS and show that vascular complications are rare manifestations of FKBP14-kEDS.


Assuntos
Alelos , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Peptidilprolil Isomerase/genética , Fenótipo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 768-788, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100089

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2) is one of the first proteins shown to be essential for normal learning and synaptic plasticity in mice, but its requirement for human brain development has not yet been established. Through a multi-center collaborative study based on a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified 19 exceedingly rare de novo CAMK2A or CAMK2B variants in 24 unrelated individuals with intellectual disability. Variants were assessed for their effect on CAMK2 function and on neuronal migration. For both CAMK2A and CAMK2B, we identified mutations that decreased or increased CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation at Thr286/Thr287. We further found that all mutations affecting auto-phosphorylation also affected neuronal migration, highlighting the importance of tightly regulated CAMK2 auto-phosphorylation in neuronal function and neurodevelopment. Our data establish the importance of CAMK2A and CAMK2B and their auto-phosphorylation in human brain function and expand the phenotypic spectrum of the disorders caused by variants in key players of the glutamatergic signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase Tipo 2 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Animais , Encéfalo/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Ácido Glutâmico/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neurônios/patologia , Fosforilação/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
11.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 5(3): 261-268, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28546996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Campomelic dysplasia (CD) is a semilethal developmental disorder caused by mutations in and around SOX9. CD is characterized by multiple skeletal malformations including bending (campomelia) of long bones. Surviving patients frequently have the acampomelic form of CD (ACD). METHODS: This is a single case report on a patient with clinical and radiological features of ACD who has no mutation in the SOX9 protein-coding sequence nor a translocation with breakpoint in the SOX9 regulatory domain. We include functional studies of the novel mutant protein in vitro and in cultured cells. RESULTS: The patient was found to have a de novo heterozygous mutation c.-185G>A in the SOX9 5'UTR. The mutation creates an upstream translation start codon, uAUG, with a much better fit of its flanking sequence to the Kozak consensus than the wild-type AUG. By in vitro transcription-translation and transient transfection into COS-7 cells, we show that the uAUG leads to translation of a short peptide from a reading frame that terminates just after the wild-type AUG start codon. This results in reduced translation of the wild-type protein, compatible with the milder phenotype of the patient. CONCLUSION: Findings support the notion that more mildly affected, surviving CD/ACD patients carry mutant SOX9 alleles with residual expression of SOX9 wild-type protein. Although rarely described in human genetic disease and for the first time here for CD, mutations creating upstream AUG codons may be more common than generally assumed.

12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 25(6): 669-679, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28327575

RESUMO

Over 150 different proteins attach to the plasma membrane using glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors. Mutations in 18 genes that encode components of GPI-anchor biogenesis result in a phenotypic spectrum that includes learning disability, epilepsy, microcephaly, congenital malformations and mild dysmorphic features. To determine the incidence of GPI-anchor defects, we analysed the exome data from 4293 parent-child trios recruited to the Deciphering Developmental Disorders (DDD) study. All probands recruited had a neurodevelopmental disorder. We searched for variants in 31 genes linked to GPI-anchor biogenesis and detected rare biallelic variants in PGAP3, PIGN, PIGT (n=2), PIGO and PIGL, providing a likely diagnosis for six families. In five families, the variants were in a compound heterozygous configuration while in a consanguineous Afghani kindred, a homozygous c.709G>C; p.(E237Q) variant in PIGT was identified within 10-12 Mb of autozygosity. Validation and segregation analysis was performed using Sanger sequencing. Across the six families, five siblings were available for testing and in all cases variants co-segregated consistent with them being causative. In four families, abnormal alkaline phosphatase results were observed in the direction expected. FACS analysis of knockout HEK293 cells that had been transfected with wild-type or mutant cDNA constructs demonstrated that the variants in PIGN, PIGT and PIGO all led to reduced activity. Splicing assays, performed using leucocyte RNA, showed that a c.336-2A>G variant in PIGL resulted in exon skipping and p.D113fs*2. Our results strengthen recently reported disease associations, suggest that defective GPI-anchor biogenesis may explain ~0.15% of individuals with developmental disorders and highlight the benefits of data sharing.


Assuntos
Aciltransferases/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Exoma , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/genética , Fosfotransferases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Aciltransferases/metabolismo , Adulto , Criança , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Células HEK293 , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , N-Acetilglucosaminiltransferases/metabolismo , Linhagem , Fosfotransferases/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo
13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(12): 1684-8, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873011

RESUMO

Mutations of FLNA, an X-linked gene that encodes the cytoskeletal protein filamin A, cause diverse and distinct phenotypes including periventricular nodular heterotopia and otopalatodigital spectrum disorders (OPDS). Craniofacial abnormalities associated with OPDS include supraorbital hyperostosis, down-slanting palpebral fissures and micrognathia; craniosynostosis was previously described in association with FLNA mutations in two individual case reports. Here we present four further OPDS subjects who have pathological FLNA variants and craniosynostosis, supporting a causal link. Together with the previously reported patients, frontometaphyseal dysplasia was the most common clinical diagnosis (four of six cases overall); five patients had multiple suture synostosis with the sagittal suture being the most frequently involved (also five patients). No genotype-phenotype correlation was evident in the distribution of FLNA mutations. This report highlights the need to consider a filaminopathy in the differential diagnosis of craniosynostosis, especially in the presence of atypical cranial or skeletal features.


Assuntos
Craniossinostoses/genética , Filaminas/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Craniossinostoses/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo
14.
J Med Genet ; 51(10): 659-68, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25125236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a multisystem disorder with distinctive facial appearance, intellectual disability and growth failure as prominent features. Most individuals with typical CdLS have de novo heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in NIPBL with mosaic individuals representing a significant proportion. Mutations in other cohesin components, SMC1A, SMC3, HDAC8 and RAD21 cause less typical CdLS. METHODS: We screened 163 affected individuals for coding region mutations in the known genes, 90 for genomic rearrangements, 19 for deep intronic variants in NIPBL and 5 had whole-exome sequencing. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations [including mosaic changes] were identified in: NIPBL 46 [3] (28.2%); SMC1A 5 [1] (3.1%); SMC3 5 [1] (3.1%); HDAC8 6 [0] (3.6%) and RAD21 1 [0] (0.6%). One individual had a de novo 1.3 Mb deletion of 1p36.3. Another had a 520 kb duplication of 12q13.13 encompassing ESPL1, encoding separase, an enzyme that cleaves the cohesin ring. Three de novo mutations were identified in ANKRD11 demonstrating a phenotypic overlap with KBG syndrome. To estimate the number of undetected mosaic cases we used recursive partitioning to identify discriminating features in the NIPBL-positive subgroup. Filtering of the mutation-negative group on these features classified at least 18% as 'NIPBL-like'. A computer composition of the average face of this NIPBL-like subgroup was also more typical in appearance than that of all others in the mutation-negative group supporting the existence of undetected mosaic cases. CONCLUSIONS: Future diagnostic testing in 'mutation-negative' CdLS thus merits deeper sequencing of multiple DNA samples derived from different tissues.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Lange/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Mosaicismo , Face/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Mutação , Fenótipo
15.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 8: 146, 2013 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24053514

RESUMO

X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento (MIM #300860), caused by mutations in UBE2A (MIM *312180), is characterized by craniofacial dysmorphism (synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, deep-set, almond-shaped eyes, depressed nasal bridge, prominent columella, hypoplastic alae nasi, and macrostomia), skin anomalies (hirsutism, myxedematous appearance, onychodystrophy), micropenis, moderate to severe intellectual disability (ID), motor delay, impaired/absent speech, and seizures. Hitherto only five familial point mutations and four different deletions including UBE2A have been reported in the literature.We present eight additional individuals from five families with UBE2A associated ID - three males from a consanguineous family, in whom we identified a small deletion of only 7.1 kb encompassing the first three exons of UBE2A, two related males with a UBE2A missense mutation in exon 4, a patient with a de novo nonsense mutation in exon 6, and two sporadic males with larger deletions including UBE2A. All affected male individuals share the typical clinical phenotype, all carrier females are unaffected and presented with a completely skewed X inactivation in blood. We conclude that 1.) X-linked intellectual disability type Nascimento is a clinically very distinct entity that might be underdiagnosed to date. 2.) So far, all females carrying a familial UBE2A aberration have a completely skewed X inactivation and are clinically unaffected. This should be taken in to account when counselling those families. 3.) The coverage of an array should be checked carefully prior to analysis since not all arrays have a sufficient resolution at specific loci, or alternative quantitative methods should be applied not to miss small deletions.


Assuntos
Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Enzimas de Conjugação de Ubiquitina/genética , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 152A(12): 3138-42, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21108398

RESUMO

IMAGe syndrome is a rare condition, first reported by Vilain et al., in 1999, characterized by intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, congenital adrenal hypoplasia, and genital anomalies. Patients with this condition may present shortly after birth with severe adrenal insufficiency, which can be life-threatening if not recognized early and commenced on steroid replacement therapy. Other reported features in this condition include, hypercalciuria and/or hypercalcemia, craniosynostosis, cleft palate, and scoliosis. We report on a 7-year-old boy with IMAGe syndrome, who in addition to the features in the acronym also has bilateral sensorineural hearing loss which has not been reported in previously published cases of IMAGe syndrome. We discuss the clinical presentation in our patient and review the literature in this rare multisystem disorder.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/congênito , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Perda Auditiva Neurossensorial/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/complicações , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Fissura Palatina/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Radiografia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome
17.
Hum Mutat ; 31(6): 722-33, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20513142

RESUMO

The etiology of mental retardation remains elusive in the majority of cases. Microdeletions within chromosomal bands 5q14.3q15 were recently identified as a recurrent cause of severe mental retardation, epilepsy, muscular hypotonia, and variable minor anomalies. By molecular karyotyping we identified two novel 2.4- and 1.5-Mb microdeletions of this region in patients with a similar phenotype. Both deletions contained the MEF2C gene, which is located proximally to the previously defined smallest region of overlap. Nevertheless, due to its known role in neurogenesis, we considered MEF2C as a phenocritical candidate gene for the 5q14.3q15 microdeletion phenotype. We therefore performed mutational analysis in 362 patients with severe mental retardation and found two truncating and two missense de novo mutations in MEF2C, establishing defects in this transcription factor as a novel relatively frequent autosomal dominant cause of severe mental retardation accounting for as much as 1.1% of patients. In these patients we found diminished MECP2 and CDKL5 expression in vivo, and transcriptional reporter assays indicated that MEF2C mutations diminish synergistic transactivation of E-box promoters including that of MECP2 and CDKL5. We therefore conclude that the phenotypic overlap of patients with MEF2C mutations and atypical Rett syndrome is due to the involvement of a common pathway.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Adolescente , Sequência de Bases , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Deleção de Genes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Cariotipagem , Luciferases/genética , Luciferases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/química , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2 , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/química , Fatores de Regulação Miogênica/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/metabolismo , Síndrome
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