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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569141

RESUMO

Genetic correlations suggest that the genetic relationship of alcohol use with internalizing psychopathology depends on the measure of alcohol use. Problematic alcohol use (PAU) is positively genetically correlated with internalizing psychopathology, whereas alcohol consumption ranges from not significantly correlated to moderately negatively correlated with internalizing psychopathology. To explore these different genetic relationships of internalizing psychopathology with alcohol use, we performed a multivariate genome-wide association study of four correlated factors (internalizing psychopathology, PAU, quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of alcohol consumption) and then assessed genome-wide and local genetic covariance between these factors. We identified 14 significant regions of local, largely positive, genetic covariance between PAU and internalizing psychopathology and 12 regions of significant local genetic covariance (including both positive and negative genetic covariance) between consumption factors and internalizing psychopathology. Partitioned genetic covariance among functional annotations suggested that brain tissues contribute significantly to positive genetic covariance between internalizing psychopathology and PAU but not to the genetic covariance between internalizing psychopathology and quantity or frequency of alcohol consumption. We hypothesize that genome-wide genetic correlations between alcohol use and psychiatric traits may not capture the more complex shared or divergent genetic architectures at the locus or tissue specific level. This study highlights the complexity of genetic architectures of alcohol use and internalizing psychopathology, and the differing shared genetics of internalizing disorders with PAU compared to consumption.

2.
Nat Neurosci ; 24(10): 1367-1376, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34446935

RESUMO

Behaviors and disorders related to self-regulation, such as substance use, antisocial behavior and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are collectively referred to as externalizing and have shared genetic liability. We applied a multivariate approach that leverages genetic correlations among externalizing traits for genome-wide association analyses. By pooling data from ~1.5 million people, our approach is statistically more powerful than single-trait analyses and identifies more than 500 genetic loci. The loci were enriched for genes expressed in the brain and related to nervous system development. A polygenic score constructed from our results predicts a range of behavioral and medical outcomes that were not part of genome-wide analyses, including traits that until now lacked well-performing polygenic scores, such as opioid use disorder, suicide, HIV infections, criminal convictions and unemployment. Our findings are consistent with the idea that persistent difficulties in self-regulation can be conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental trait with complex and far-reaching social and health correlates.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Autocontrole , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Sintomas Comportamentais/genética , Sintomas Comportamentais/psicologia , Biologia Computacional , Crime/psicologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Herança Multifatorial , Análise Multivariada , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Suicídio , Desemprego
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5071, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417470

RESUMO

Identification of causal variants and genes underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is essential to understand the biology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drinks per week (DPW). Multi-omics integration approaches have shown potential for fine mapping complex loci to obtain biological insights to disease mechanisms. In this study, we use multi-omics approaches, to fine-map AUD and DPW associations at single SNP resolution to demonstrate that rs56030824 on chromosome 11 significantly reduces SPI1 mRNA expression in myeloid cells and lowers risk for AUD and DPW. Our analysis also identifies MAPT as a candidate causal gene specifically associated with DPW. Genes prioritized in this study show overlap with causal genes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Multi-omics integration analyses highlight, genetic similarities and differences between alcohol intake and disordered drinking, suggesting molecular heterogeneity that might inform future targeted functional and cross-species studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feto/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
4.
Epilepsy Behav ; 122: 108179, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256338

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To gain an understanding of the views of young people with epilepsy, their parents and school staff regarding educational and therapeutic provision, understanding of epilepsy and seizure management in schools. METHODS: School-aged children (n = 20) with 'active epilepsy' (taking Anti-Seizure Medications (ASMs) for epilepsy), their parents (n = 68), and school staff (n = 56) were interviewed or completed bespoke questionnaires. In addition, all participating children underwent psychological assessment including measures of behavior and cognition. RESULTS: Only 15% of participating children had received psychological support despite 60% scoring within the at-risk range on a measure of behavioral and emotional difficulties. More than half of the responding children reported that some of their teachers and friends did not know that they had epilepsy. A significant minority of parents (32%) did not feel that the child's transition from preschool to primary, or primary to secondary school was managed well. Knowledge of the child's epilepsy was felt to be significantly better in special schools than mainstream schools according to both parents and school staff. Staff in special schools perceived they were more knowledgeable about the child's ASMs and changes to ASMs than staff in mainstream schools. Staff in special schools were significantly more likely to have received training on general aspects of epilepsy, seizure management, and impacts on learning and/or behavior. Parental interviews indicated difficulties accessing educational and therapeutic supports. Parents often felt that they had to drive the process to gain supports themselves. They also reported limited professional support, and inadequate communication between themselves and the school and school staff and medical/therapeutic professionals regarding their child's needs. Parents would like more school staff to recognize the impacts of epilepsy on learning and behavior and to support their child more holistically. Many parents wanted more resources for assessment and therapeutic provision in relation to their child's learning, behavior, and emotions. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of epilepsy is felt by parents and staff to be significantly better in special schools compared with mainstream schools. Parents highlighted the need for increased knowledge of the impacts of epilepsy on learning and behavior and perceived a need for more resources for assessment of these difficulties.


Assuntos
Epilepsia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/terapia , Humanos , Pais , Convulsões , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235496

RESUMO

Background: Vulnerability to COVID-19 hospitalization has been linked to behavioral risk factors, including combustible psychoactive substance use (e.g., tobacco smoking). Paralleling the COVID-19 crisis have been increasingly permissive laws for recreational cannabis use. Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) is a psychiatric disorder that is heritable and genetically correlated with respiratory disease, independent of tobacco smoking. We examined the genetic relationship between CUD and COVID-19 hospitalization. Methods: We estimated the genetic correlation between CUD (n case=14,080, n control=343,726) and COVID-19 hospitalization (n case=9,373, n control=1,197,256) using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Using independent GWASs conducted prior to the pandemic, we controlled for several covariates (i.e., tobacco use phenotypes, problematic alcohol use, BMI, fasting glucose, forced expiration volume, education attainment, risk-taking, ADHD, and Townsend Deprivation Index; as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes) using genomic structural equation modeling. Genetic causality between CUD and COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated using latent causal variable models. Results: Genetic vulnerability to COVID-19 was correlated with genetic liability to CUD (rG=0.423(.0965), p=1.33e-6); this association remained when accounting for genetic liability to related risk factors and covariates (b = 0.381 - 0.539, p=0.012 - 0.049). Latent causal variable analysis revealed causal effect estimates that were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Problematic cannabis use and vulnerability to serious COVID-19 complications share genetic underpinnings that are unique from common correlates. While CUD may plausibly contribute to severe COVID-19 presentations, causal inference models yielded no evidence of putative causation. Curbing excessive cannabis use may mitigate COVID-19's impact.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) often precede the development of later severe psychopathology. This study examined whether childhood PLEs are associated with several psychopathology-related polygenic scores (PGSs) and additionally examined possible neural and behavioral mechanisms. METHODS: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study baseline data from children with European ancestry (n = 4650, ages 9-10 years, 46.8% female) were used to estimate associations between PLEs (i.e., both total and presence of significantly distressing) and PGSs for psychopathology (i.e., schizophrenia, psychiatric cross-disorder risk, PLEs) and related phenotypes (i.e., educational attainment [EDU], birth weight, inflammation). We also assessed whether variability in brain structure indices (i.e., volume, cortical thickness, surface area) and behaviors proximal to PGSs (e.g., cognition for EDU) indirectly linked PGSs to PLEs using mediational models. RESULTS: Total and significantly distressing PLEs were associated with EDU and cross-disorder PGSs (all %ΔR2s = 0.202%-0.660%; false discovery rate-corrected ps < .006). Significantly distressing PLEs were also associated with higher schizophrenia and PLE PGSs (both %ΔR2 = 0.120%-0.216%; false discovery rate-corrected ps < .03). There was evidence that global brain volume metrics and cognitive performance indirectly linked EDU PGS to PLEs (estimated proportion mediated = 3.33%-32.22%). CONCLUSIONS: Total and significantly distressing PLEs were associated with genomic risk indices of broad-spectrum psychopathology risk (i.e., EDU and cross-disorder PGSs). Significantly distressing PLEs were also associated with genomic risk for psychosis (i.e., schizophrenia, PLEs). Global brain volume metrics and PGS-proximal behaviors represent promising putative intermediary phenotypes that may indirectly link genomic risk to psychopathology. Broadly, polygenic scores derived from genome-wide association studies of adult samples generalize to indices of psychopathology risk among children.

7.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287779

RESUMO

Associations between brain structure and problematic alcohol use may reflect alcohol-induced toxicity and/or preexisting risk. Here, we applied a latent causal variable approach to genome-wide association study summary statistics of problematic alcohol use (n = 435,563) and magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain structure phenotypes (e.g., cortical volume, cortical thickness, white matter volume; ns ranging from 17,706 to 51,665) to test whether variability in brain structure may plausibly contribute to problematic alcohol use and/or whether problematic alcohol use influences brain structure. After correction for multiple testing within each modality, we find evidence that greater volume of the pars opercularis, greater thickness of the cuneus, and lower volume of the basal forebrain may plausibly contribute to problematic alcohol use. All other nominally-significant associations identify brain structure as a potential causal contributor to problematic alcohol use; there was no evidence suggesting that problematic alcohol use may cause differences in brain structure. Collectively, these results challenge common interpretations that associations between alcohol use and brain structure reflect consequences of alcohol, instead supporting emerging work suggesting that brain structure may reflect a predispositional risk factor for alcohol involvement.

8.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders. METHODS: We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific. RESULTS: We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.

9.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12756, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092032

RESUMO

Brain imaging-derived structural correlates of alcohol involvement have largely been speculated to arise as a consequence of alcohol exposure. However, they may also reflect predispositional risk. In substance naïve children of European ancestry who completed the baseline session of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (n = 3013), mixed-effects models estimated whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for problematic alcohol use (PAU-PRS) and drinks per week (DPW-PRS) are associated with magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain structure phenotypes (i.e., total and regional: cortical thickness, surface area and volume; subcortical volume; white matter volume, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity). Follow-up analyses evaluated whether any identified regions were also associated with polygenic risk among substance naïve children of African ancestry (n = 898). After adjustment for multiple testing correction, polygenic risk for PAU was associated with lower volume of the left frontal pole and greater cortical thickness of the right supramarginal gyrus (|ßs| > 0.009; ps < 0.001; psfdr < 0.046; r2 s < 0.004). PAU PRS and DPW PRS showed nominally significant associations with a host of other regional brain structure phenotypes (e.g., insula surface area and volume). None of these regions showed any, even nominal association among children of African ancestry. Genomic liability to alcohol involvement may manifest as variability in brain structure during middle childhood prior to alcohol use initiation. Broadly, alcohol-related variability in brain morphometry may partially reflect predisposing genomic influence. Larger discovery genome-wide association studies and target samples of diverse ancestries are needed to determine whether observed associations may generalize across ancestral origins.

10.
Addiction ; 116(11): 3227-3234, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While epidemiological studies support a role for heavy, high-potency cannabis use on first-episode psychosis, genetic models of causation suggest reverse causal effects of schizophrenia on cannabis use liability. We estimated the genetic relationship between cannabis use disorder (CUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and tested whether liability for CUD is causally associated with increased liability to SCZ while adjusting for tobacco smoking. DESIGN: This study used summary statistics from published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We used genomic structural equation modeling, latent causal variable analysis, and multivariable Mendelian randomization to examine genetic relationships between CUD, cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly, nicotine dependence and SCZ, and to test for a causal relationship between liability to CUD and liability to SCZ. SETTING: Genome-wide association studies were published previously as part of international consortia. PARTICIPANTS: Sample sizes of the GWAS summary statistics used in this study ranged from 161 405 to 357 806 individuals of European ancestry. MEASUREMENTS: Genome-wide summary statistics for CUD and SCZ were the primary measurements, while summary statistics for cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence were included as additional variables in the genomic structural equation models and the multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses. FINDINGS: Genetic liability to CUD was significantly associated with SCZ [ß = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11, 0.46, P = 0.001], even when accounting for cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence as simultaneous predictors. We found mixed evidence of a causal relationship, with the latent causal variable analysis finding no evidence of causality (genetic causality proportion = -0.08, 95% CI = -0.40, 0.23, P = 0.87) but the multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses suggesting a significant, risk-increasing effect of CUD on liability to SCZ (ß = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.18, P = 0.02), accounting for the additional risk factors (cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic liability for cannabis use disorder appears to be robustly associated with schizophrenia, above and beyond tobacco smoking and cannabis ever-use, with mixed evidence to support a causal relationship between cannabis use disorder and schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Esquizofrenia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética
11.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202020091390, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a 10-item screen for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g., measurement error, selection bias), which may have led to inconsistent genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and AUD, as well as paradoxically negative genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and psychiatric disorders and/or medical conditions. The authors used genomic structural equation modeling to elucidate the genetics of alcohol consumption and problematic consequences of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT. METHODS: To explore these unexpected differences in genetic correlations, the authors conducted the first item-level and the largest GWAS of AUDIT items (N=160,824) and applied a multivariate framework to mitigate previous biases. RESULTS: The authors identified novel patterns of similarity (and dissimilarity) among the AUDIT items and found evidence of a correlated two-factor structure at the genetic level ("consumption" and "problems," rg=0.80). Moreover, by applying empirically derived weights to each of the AUDIT items, the authors constructed an aggregate measure of alcohol consumption that was strongly associated with alcohol dependence (rg=0.67), moderately associated with several other psychiatric disorders, and no longer positively associated with health and positive socioeconomic outcomes. Lastly, by conducting polygenic analyses in three independent cohorts that differed in their ascertainment and prevalence of AUD, the authors identified novel genetic associations between alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse, and health. CONCLUSIONS: This work further emphasizes the value of AUDIT for both clinical and genetic studies of AUD and the importance of using multivariate methods to study genetic associations that are more closely related to AUD.

12.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12738, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893716

RESUMO

The National Institute on Drug Abuse and Joint Institute for Biological Sciences at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosted a meeting attended by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in substance use disorders (SUDs), computational biology, and FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) data sharing. The meeting's objective was to discuss and evaluate better strategies to integrate genetic, epigenetic, and 'omics data across human and model organisms to achieve deeper mechanistic insight into SUDs. Specific topics were to (a) evaluate the current state of substance use genetics and genomics research and fundamental gaps, (b) identify opportunities and challenges of integration and sharing across species and data types, (c) identify current tools and resources for integration of genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic data, (d) discuss steps and impediment related to data integration, and (e) outline future steps to support more effective collaboration-particularly between animal model research communities and human genetics and clinical research teams. This review summarizes key facets of this catalytic discussion with a focus on new opportunities and gaps in resources and knowledge on SUDs.

13.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(7): 1127-1135, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852959

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Because of widespread use, understanding the pulmonary effects of cannabis use is important; but its role independent from tobacco smoking is yet to be elucidated. We used Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess the effect of genetic liability to lifetime cannabis use and cannabis use disorder on pulmonary function and lung cancer. METHODS: We used four single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with lifetime cannabis use (p value <5 × 10-8) from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 184,765 individuals of European descent from the International Cannabis Consortium, 23andme, and U.K. Biobank as instrumental variables. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (p value <5 × 10-8) were selected as instruments for cannabis use disorder from a GWAS meta-analysis of 17,068 European ancestry cases and 357,219 controls of European descent from Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Substance Use Disorders working group, Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative PsychiatricResearch, and deCode. To assess lung function, GWAS included 79,055 study participants of the SpiroMeta Consortium, and for lung cancer GWAS from the International Lung Cancer Consortium contained 29,266 cases and 56,450 controls. RESULTS: MR revealed that genetic liability to lifetime cannabis use was associated with increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma (OR = 1.22, 95%, confidence interval = 1.07-1.39, p value = 0.003, q value = 0.025). Pleiotropy-robust methods and positive and negative control analyses did not indicate bias in the primary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this MR analysis suggest evidence for a potential causal association between genetic liability for cannabis use and the risk of squamous cell carcinoma. Triangulating MR and observational studies and addressing orthogonal sources of bias are necessary to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Psychol Med ; 51(13): 2189-2200, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879270

RESUMO

Substance use disorders (SUDs) are prevalent and result in an array of negative consequences. They are influenced by genetic factors (h2 = ~50%). Recent years have brought substantial progress in our understanding of the genetic etiology of SUDs and related traits. The present review covers the current state of the field for SUD genetics, including the epidemiology and genetic epidemiology of SUDs, findings from the first-generation of SUD genome-wide association studies (GWAS), cautions about translating GWAS findings to clinical settings, and suggested prioritizations for the next wave of SUD genetics efforts. Recent advances in SUD genetics have been facilitated by the assembly of large GWAS samples, and the development of state-of-the-art methods modeling the aggregate effect of genome-wide variation. These advances have confirmed that SUDs are highly polygenic with many variants across the genome conferring risk, the vast majority of which are of small effect. Downstream analyses have enabled finer resolution of the genetic architecture of SUDs and revealed insights into their genetic relationship with other psychiatric disorders. Recent efforts have also prioritized a closer examination of GWAS findings that have suggested non-uniform genetic influences across measures of substance use (e.g. consumption) and problematic use (e.g. SUD). Additional highlights from recent SUD GWAS include the robust confirmation of loci in alcohol metabolizing genes (e.g. ADH1B and ALDH2) affecting alcohol-related traits, and loci within the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster influencing nicotine-related traits. Similar successes are expected for cannabis, opioid, and cocaine use disorders as sample sizes approach those assembled for alcohol and nicotine.

15.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(1): 64-76, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965490

RESUMO

Importance: In light of increasing cannabis use among pregnant women, the US Surgeon General recently issued an advisory against the use of marijuana during pregnancy. Objective: To evaluate whether cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes among offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from the baseline session of the ongoing longitudinal Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, which recruited 11 875 children aged 9 to 11 years, as well as a parent or caregiver, from 22 sites across the United States between June 1, 2016, and October 15, 2018. Exposure: Prenatal cannabis exposure prior to and after maternal knowledge of pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Symptoms of psychopathology in children (ie, psychotic-like experiences [PLEs] and internalizing, externalizing, attention, thought, and social problems), cognition, sleep, birth weight, gestational age at birth, body mass index, and brain structure (ie, total intracranial volume, white matter volume, and gray matter volume). Covariates included familial (eg, income and familial psychopathology), pregnancy (eg, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco), and child (eg, substance use) variables. Results: Among 11 489 children (5997 boys [52.2%]; mean [SD] age, 9.9 [0.6] years) with nonmissing prenatal cannabis exposure data, 655 (5.7%) were exposed to cannabis prenatally. Relative to no exposure, cannabis exposure only before (413 [3.6%]) and after (242 [2.1%]) maternal knowledge of pregnancy were associated with greater offspring psychopathology characteristics (ie, PLEs and internalizing, externalizing, attention, thought and, social problems), sleep problems, and body mass index, as well as lower cognition and gray matter volume (all |ß| > 0.02; all false discovery rate [FDR]-corrected P < .03). Only exposure after knowledge of pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight as well as total intracranial volume and white matter volumes relative to no exposure and exposure only before knowledge (all |ß| > 0.02; all FDR-corrected P < .04). When including potentially confounding covariates, exposure after maternal knowledge of pregnancy remained associated with greater PLEs and externalizing, attention, thought, and social problems (all ß > 0.02; FDR-corrected P < .02). Exposure only prior to maternal knowledge of pregnancy did not differ from no exposure on any outcomes when considering potentially confounding variables (all |ß| < 0.02; FDR-corrected P > .70). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that prenatal cannabis exposure and its correlated factors are associated with greater risk for psychopathology during middle childhood. Cannabis use during pregnancy should be discouraged.

16.
Psychol Med ; 51(7): 1147-1156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds. METHODS: We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes. RESULTS: In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47-0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10-8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10-6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10-11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10-7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10-16). CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.

17.
Mol Biol Cell ; 32(4): 314-330, 2021 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378226

RESUMO

TRIM9 and TRIM67 are neuronally enriched E3 ubiquitin ligases essential for appropriate morphogenesis of cortical and hippocampal neurons and fidelitous responses to the axon guidance cue netrin-1. Deletion of murine Trim9 or Trim67 results in neuroanatomical defects and striking behavioral deficits, particularly in spatial learning and memory. TRIM9 and TRIM67 interact with cytoskeletal and exocytic proteins, but the full interactome is not known. Here we performed the unbiased proximity-dependent biotin identification (BioID) approach to define TRIM9 and TRIM67 protein-protein proximity network in developing cortical neurons and identified putative neuronal TRIM interaction partners. Candidates included cytoskeletal regulators, cytosolic protein transporters, exocytosis and endocytosis regulators, and proteins necessary for synaptic regulation. A subset of high-priority candidates was validated, including Myo16, Coro1A, MAP1B, ExoC1, GRIP1, PRG-1, and KIF1A. For a subset of validated candidates, we utilized total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to demonstrate dynamic colocalization with TRIM proteins at the axonal periphery, including at the tips of filopodia. Further analysis demonstrated that the RNA interference-based knockdown of the unconventional myosin Myo16 in cortical neurons altered growth cone filopodia density and axonal branching patterns in a TRIM9- and netrin-1-dependent manner. Future analysis of other validated candidates will likely identify novel proteins and mechanisms by which TRIM9 and TRIM67 regulate neuronal form and function. [Media: see text].


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Morfogênese/fisiologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/fisiologia , Feminino , Cones de Crescimento/metabolismo , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Morfogênese/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas/métodos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Pseudópodes/metabolismo , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/genética , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/fisiologia , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/fisiologia
18.
Addict Biol ; 26(1): e12880, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32064741

RESUMO

Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [rg ], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from ~2400 to ~537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (rg = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (rg = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (rg = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (rgs = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.


Assuntos
Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Tabagismo/genética
19.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(1): 86-97, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791514

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies and other discovery genetics methods provide a means to identify previously unknown biological mechanisms underlying behavioral disorders that may point to new therapeutic avenues, augment diagnostic tools, and yield a deeper understanding of the biology of psychiatric conditions. Recent advances in psychiatric genetics have been made possible through large-scale collaborative efforts. These studies have begun to unearth many novel genetic variants associated with psychiatric disorders and behavioral traits in human populations. Significant challenges remain in characterizing the resulting disease-associated genetic variants and prioritizing functional follow-up to make them useful for mechanistic understanding and development of therapeutics. Model organism research has generated extensive genomic data that can provide insight into the neurobiological mechanisms of variant action, but a cohesive effort must be made to establish which aspects of the biological modulation of behavioral traits are evolutionarily conserved across species. Scalable computing, new data integration strategies, and advanced analysis methods outlined in this review provide a framework to efficiently harness model organism data in support of clinically relevant psychiatric phenotypes.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais , Técnicas Genéticas , Genômica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Fenótipo
20.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236033

RESUMO

Behavioral and life style factors plausibly play a role in likelihood of being hospitalized for COVID-19. Genetic vulnerability to hospitalization after SARS-CoV2 infection may partially relate to comorbid behavioral risk factors, especially the use of combustible psychoactive substances. Paralleling the COVID-19 crisis has been increasingly permissive laws for recreational cannabis use. Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) is a psychiatric disorder that is heritable and genetically correlated with respiratory disease, independent of tobacco smoking. By leveraging genome-wide association summary statistics of CUD and COVID-19, we find that at least 1/3 rd of the genetic vulnerability to COVID-19 overlaps with genomic liability to CUD (rg=.34, p=0.0003). Genetic causality as a potential mechanism of risk could not be excluded. The association between CUD and COVID-19 remained when accounting for genetics of trying marijuana, tobacco smoking (ever smoking regularly, cigarettes per day, smoking cessation, age of smoking initiation), BMI, fasting glucose, forced expiration volume, education attainment, and Townsend deprivation index. Heavy problematic cannabis use may increase chances of hospitalization due to COVID-19 respiratory complications. Curbing excessive cannabis use may be an essential strategy in COVID-19 mitigation.

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