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1.
Nutrients ; 12(5)2020 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365848

RESUMO

We investigated the impact of nutrient intake on hydration biomarkers in cyclists before and after a 161 km ride, including one hour after a 650 mL water bolus consumed post-ride. To control for multicollinearity, we chose a clustering-based, machine learning statistical approach. Five hydration biomarkers (urine color, urine specific gravity, plasma osmolality, plasma copeptin, and body mass change) were configured as raw- and percent change. Linear regressions were used to test for associations between hydration markers and eight predictor terms derived from 19 nutrients merged into a reduced-dimensionality dataset through serial k-means clustering. Most predictor groups showed significant association with at least one hydration biomarker: 1) Glycemic Load + Carbohydrates + Sodium, 2) Protein + Fat + Zinc, 3) Magnesium + Calcium, 4) Pinitol, 5) Caffeine, 6) Fiber + Betaine, and 7) Water; potassium + three polyols, and mannitol + sorbitol showed no significant associations with any hydration biomarker. All five hydration biomarkers were associated with at least one nutrient predictor in at least one configuration. We conclude that in a real-life scenario, some nutrients may serve as mediators of body water, and urine-specific hydration biomarkers may be more responsive to nutrient intake than measures derived from plasma or body mass.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155865

RESUMO

The biological feedback provided by human water intake upon our physiology is grossly under-investigated [...].

3.
Ann Nutr Metab ; 76(1): 30-36, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is elevated in response to heat and dehydration and has been postulated to have a role in the chronic kidney disease of unknown origin being observed in Central America. The aims of this study were to examine whether the vasopressin pathway, as measured by copeptin, is associated with the presence of kidney dysfunction, and to examine whether higher fluid intake is associated with lower circulating copeptin and thereby preserves kidney health among sugarcane workers exposed to hot conditions. METHODS: Utilizing a longitudinal study of 105 workers in Guatemala, we examined relationships between hydration indices, plasma copeptin concentrations, and kidney function markers at 3 times during the 6-month harvest. We also examined whether baseline copeptin concentrations increased the odds of developing an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. RESULTS: Copeptin concentrations were positively associated with serum creatinine (ß 1.41, 95% CI 0.88-2.03) and negatively associated with eGFR (ß -1.07, 95% CI -1.43 to -0.70). In addition, as workers improved their hydration (measured by increases in fluid balance), copeptin concentrations were reduced, and this reduction was associated with an improvement in kidney function. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that copeptin should be studied as a potential prognostic biomarker.

4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972822

RESUMO

Keener, MM, Critchley, ML, Layer, JS, Johnson, EC, Barrett, SF, and Dai, B. The effect of stirrup length on impact attenuation and its association with muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Horseback-riders have a high prevalence of low back injuries, which may be related to the repetitive low back impacts experienced in riding. The purposes of this study were to quantify the effect of 3 stirrup lengths and 2 riding styles on the peak acceleration experienced by the rider and the association between the peak acceleration and the rider's different elements of muscle strength. Thirteen female riders performed a sitting or rising trot at each of the 3 stirrup lengths (2-point length, mid-seat length, or dressage length), while the acceleration of the tibia, sacrum, seventh cervical vertebra (C7), and head were collected. Subjects completed a push-up, a vertical jump, and 4 core exercises to assess upper-body strength, lower-body strength, and core endurance, respectively. Peak acceleration of the sacrum, C7, and head were generally lower in the standing phase of the rising trot compared with the sitting phase of either the sitting or rising trot, particularly at the shortest stirrup length. Peak acceleration of the sacrum, C7, and head decreased as the stirrup length was shortened in the standing phase of the rising trot. Canonical correlations showed nonsignificant correlations between strength measurements and peak acceleration. Riding with more weight supported through the legs with a short stirrup length may decrease low back impacts and their associated injury risk. Technique training is likely needed to encourage riders to use lower-body and core strength for impact attenuation.

5.
Nutrients ; 12(1)2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906335

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency is not seen as a public health concern in the US. However certain subpopulations may be vulnerable due to inadequate dietary sources. The purpose of the present study was to determine the dietary habits that influence iodine status in young adult men and women, and to evaluate the relationship between iodine status and thyroid function. METHODS: 111 participants (31.6 ± 0.8 years, 173.2 ± 1.0 cm, 74.9 ± 1.7 kg) provided 24 h urine samples and completed an iodine-specific Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessment of urinary iodine content (UIC) as a marker of iodine status and habitual iodine intake, respectively. Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) concentration was evaluated as a marker of thyroid function. Spearman correlational and regression analysis were performed to analyze the associations between iodine intake and iodine status, and iodine status and thyroid function. RESULTS: 50.4% of participants had a 24 h UIC < 100 µg/L). Dairy (r = 0.391, p < 0.000) and egg intake (r = 0.192, p = 0.044) were the best predictors of UIC, accounting for 19.7% of the variance (p ≤ 0.0001). There was a significant correlation between UIC and serum TSH (r = 0.194, p < 0.05) but TSH did not vary by iodine status category (F = 1.087, p = 0.372). DISCUSSION: Total dairy and egg intake were the primary predictors of estimated iodine intake, as well as UIC. Iodized salt use was not a significant predictor, raising questions about the reliability of iodized salt recall. These data will be useful in directing public health and clinical assessment efforts in the US and other countries.

6.
Eur J Nutr ; 59(3): 991-1000, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945033

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the psychological factors (knowledge, barriers and facilitators) that can contribute to hydration-related behaviors (i.e., fluid intake) in the general population and how these relate to physical health. METHODS: A structured survey was developed to examine the links between hydration knowledge (29 items), attitudes about hydration (80 items), and fluid intake behavior (8 items) among US adults. Survey data from Phase 1 (n =301, US adults) psychometrically evaluated the items via item analysis (knowledge and fluid behavior) and factor analysis (attitudes). Phase 2 survey data (n =389, US adults and college students) refined and validated the new 16-item hydration knowledge measure, 4-item fluid intake behavior index, and 18-item attitude measure (barriers and facilitators of hydration-related behaviors) alongside indices of physical health (BMI and exercise behaviors). RESULTS: Participants had a moderate level of hydration knowledge (Phase 1: 10.91 ± 3.10; Phase 2: 10.87 ± 2.47). A five-factor measure of attitudes which assessed both facilitators (social pressure and attention to monitoring) and barriers (lack of effort, physical barriers and lack of a fluid container) to hydration demonstrated strong internal consistency (αs from 0.75 to 0.90). Attitudes about hydration-most notably barriers to hydration-were associated with indicators of health and with fluid intake behaviors, whereas hydration knowledge was not. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing hydration knowledge may be necessary for people who hold inaccurate information about hydration, but attitudes about hydration are likely to have a larger impact on fluid intake behaviors and health-related outcomes.

7.
Subst Use Misuse ; 55(3): 367-376, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608735

RESUMO

Background: More than 47,000 people in the United States died from opioid drug overdoses in 2017. Among college students, opioid drugs are the second most abused drug. Objective: This study aimed to examine if an educational intervention impacted college students' attitudes towards prescription opioid drugs (POD). Methods: Two hundred forty-two participants (72 males, 21 ± 3 years) from an American university participated. After collecting demographic data (questionnaire 1; Q1), investigators recited a narrative in which the protagonist was injured and prescribed POD. Next, participants rated their agreement on 10 Likert prompts and two visual analog scales (VAS) before (Q2) and after (Q3) an educational intervention, then noted (Q4) which topics were most or least influential in any changed responses. Results: 7/10 Likert prompts (all p < 0.002) and both VAS (both p < 0.001) changed between Q2 and Q3. Educational intervention topics related to risk were most influential and topics related to alternative therapies were least influential. Conclusion/Importance: Educational interventions may be beneficial for college students. Any interventions that are employed should focus on risks associated with POD use.

8.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717985

RESUMO

The study objective was to validate a food frequency and lifestyle questionnaire (FFLQ) to assess vitamin D intake and lifestyle factors affecting status. METHODS: Data collected previously during the fall (n = 86), winter (n = 49), and spring (n = 67) in collegiate-athletes (Study 1) and in active adults (n = 123) (Study 2) were utilized. Study 1: Vitamin D intake and ultraviolet B exposure were estimated using the FFLQ and compared to serum 25(OH)D concentrations via simple correlation and linear regression modeling. Study 2: Vitamin D intake from food was estimated using FFLQ and compared to vitamin D intake reported in 7-Day food diaries via paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. RESULTS: Study 1: Serum 25(OH)D was not associated with vitamin D intake from food, food plus supplements, or sun exposure, but was associated with tanning bed use (r = 0.39) in spring, supplement use in fall (r = 0.28), and BMI (body mass index) (r = -0.32 to -0.47) across all seasons. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were explained by BMI, tanning bed use, and sun exposure in fall, (R = 0.42), BMI in winter (R = 0.32), and BMI and tanning bed use in spring (R = 0.52). Study 2: Estimated Vitamin D intake from food was 186.4 ± 125.7 via FFLQ and 148.5 ± 228.2 IU/day via food diary. There was no association between intake estimated by the two methodologies (r = 0.12, p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: FFLQ-estimated vitamin D intake was not associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration or food-record-estimated vitamin D intake. Results highlight the difficulty of designing/utilizing intake methodologies for vitamin D, as its status is influenced by body size and both endogenous and exogenous (dietary) sources.


Assuntos
Atletas/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais/normas , Luz Solar , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Physiol Renal Physiol ; 317(5): F1087-F1093, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461350

RESUMO

The mammalian circadian clock governs physiological, endocrine, and metabolic responses coordinated in a 24-h rhythmic pattern by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN also dictates circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues like the kidney. The kidney has several important physiological functions, including removing waste and filtering the blood and regulating fluid volume, blood osmolarity, blood pressure, and Ca2+ metabolism, all of which are under tight control of the molecular/circadian clock. Normal aging has a profound influence on renal function, central and peripheral circadian rhythms, and the sleep-wake cycle. Disrupted circadian rhythms in the kidney as a result of increased age likely contribute to adverse health outcomes such as nocturia, hypertension, and increased risk for stroke, cardiovascular disease, and end organ failure. Regular physical activity improves circadian misalignment in both young and old mammals, although the precise mechanisms for this protection remain poorly described. Recent advances in the heart and skeletal muscle literature suggest that regular endurance exercise entrains peripheral clocks, and we propose that similar beneficial adaptations occur in the kidney through regulation of renal blood flow and fluid balance.


Assuntos
Relógios Biológicos/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Rim/fisiologia , Adaptação Fisiológica , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
10.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428854

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This investigation had three purposes: (a) to evaluate changes in hydration biomarkers in response to a graded rehydration intervention (GRHI) following 3 days of water restriction (WR), (b) assess within-day variation in urine concentrations, and (c) quantify the volume of fluid needed to return to euhydration as demonstrated by change in Ucol. METHODS: 115 adult males and females were observed during 1 week of habitual fluid intake, 3 days of fluid restriction (1000 mL day-1), and a fourth day in which the sample was randomized into five different GRHI groups: no additional water, CON; additional 500 mL, G+0.50; additional 1000 mL, G+1.00; additional 1500 mL, G+1.50; additional 2250 mL, G+2.25. All urine was collected on 1 day of the baseline week, during the final 2 days of the WR, and during the day of GRHI, and evaluated for urine osmolality, color, and specific gravity. RESULTS: Following the GRHI, only G+1.50 and G+2.25 resulted in all urinary values being significantly different from CON. The mean volume of water increase was significantly greater for those whose Ucol changed from > 4 to < 4 (+ 1435 ± 812 mL) than those whose Ucol remained ≥ 4 (+ 667 ± 722 mL, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: An additional 500 mL of water is not sufficient, while approximately 1500 mL of additional water (for a total intake between 2990 and 3515 mL day-1) is required to return to a urine color associated with adequate water intake, following 3 days of WR.

11.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ; 92(7): 977-990, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997573

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Agricultural workers worldwide exposed to heat stress could be at the risk of kidney injury, which could lead to chronic kidney disease of an unknown origin (CKDu). Hydration has been promoted as a key measure to reduce kidney injury. In the presence of a hydration intervention, the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) was calculated in a sugarcane worker population in Guatemala and several risk factors were evaluated. METHODS: We measured kidney function at the beginning and end of the work shift at three time points in 517 sugarcane workers. We defined AKI as an increase in serum creatinine of 26.5 µmol/L or 50% or more from the pre-shift value. Associations between AKI and risk factors were examined, including interactions with hydration status. RESULTS: The prevalence of dehydration post-shift (> 1.020 specific gravity) was 11% in February, 9% in March, and 6% in April. Cumulative incidence of AKI was 53% in February, 54% in March, and 51% in April. AKI was associated with increasing post-shift specific gravity, a dehydration marker, (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.02-1.52) and with lower electrolyte solution intake (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: Dehydration and insufficient electrolyte consumption are risk factors for AKI. However even well-hydrated sugarcane workers routinely experience AKI. While hydration is important and protective, there is a need to understand other contributors to risk of AKI and identify prevention strategies with these workers.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Fazendeiros , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Lesão Renal Aguda/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/sangue , Desidratação/epidemiologia , Desidratação/prevenção & controle , Eletrólitos , Guatemala , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Saccharum , Gravidade Específica
12.
Temperature (Austin) ; 6(1): 37-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906810

RESUMO

Heat acclimation or acclimatization (HA) occurs with repeated exposure to heat inducing adaptations that enhance thermoregulatory mechanisms and heat tolerance leading to improved exercise performance in warm-to-hot conditions. HA is an essential heat safety and performance enhancement strategy in preparation for competitions in warm-to-hot conditions for both individual and team sports. Yet, some data indicate HA is an underutilized pre-competition intervention in athletes despite the well-known benefits; possibly due to a lack of practical information provided to athletes and coaches. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide actionable evidence-based implementation strategies and protocols to induce and sustain HA. We propose the following suggestions to circumvent potential implementation barriers: 1) incorporate multiple induction methods during the initial acclimation period, 2) complete HA 1-3 weeks before competition in the heat to avoid training and logistical conflicts during the taper period, and 3) minimize adaptation decay through intermittent exercise-heat exposure or re-acclimating immediately prior to competition with 2-4 consecutive days of exercise-heat training. Use of these strategies may be desirable or necessary to optimize HA induction and retention around existing training or logistical requirements.

13.
Nutrients ; 10(12)2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563134

RESUMO

Water is essential for metabolism, substrate transport across membranes, cellular homeostasis, temperature regulation, and circulatory function. Although nutritional and physiological research teams and professional organizations have described the daily total water intakes (TWI, L/24h) and Adequate Intakes (AI) of children, women, and men, there is no widespread consensus regarding the human water requirements of different demographic groups. These requirements remain undefined because of the dynamic complexity inherent in the human water regulatory network, which involves the central nervous system and several organ systems, as well as large inter-individual differences. The present review analyzes published evidence that is relevant to these issues and presents a novel approach to assessing the daily water requirements of individuals in all sex and life-stage groups, as an alternative to AI values based on survey data. This empirical method focuses on the intensity of a specific neuroendocrine response (e.g., plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentration) employed by the brain to regulate total body water volume and concentration. We consider this autonomically-controlled neuroendocrine response to be an inherent hydration biomarker and one means by which the brain maintains good health and optimal function. We also propose that this individualized method defines the elusive state of euhydration (i.e., water balance) and distinguishes it from hypohydration. Using plasma AVP concentration to analyze multiple published data sets that included both men and women, we determined that a mild neuroendocrine defense of body water commences when TWI is ˂1.8 L/24h, that 19⁻71% of adults in various countries consume less than this TWI each day, and consuming less than the 24-h water AI may influence the risk of dysfunctional metabolism and chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/fisiologia , Ingestão de Líquidos , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Desidratação , Humanos
14.
Glob Chang Biol ; 24(10): 4554-4565, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29940071

RESUMO

Rapid evolution in response to environmental change will likely be a driving force determining the distribution of species across the biosphere in coming decades. This is especially true of microorganisms, many of which may evolve in step with warming, including phytoplankton, the diverse photosynthetic microbes forming the foundation of most aquatic food webs. Here we tested the capacity of a globally important, model marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, for rapid evolution in response to temperature. Selection at 16 and 31°C for 350 generations led to significant divergence in several temperature response traits, demonstrating local adaptation and the existence of trade-offs associated with adaptation to different temperatures. In contrast, competitive ability for nitrogen (commonly limiting in marine systems), measured after 450 generations of temperature selection, did not diverge in a systematic way between temperatures. This study shows how rapid thermal adaptation affects key temperature and nutrient traits and, thus, a population's long-term physiological, ecological, and biogeographic response to climate change.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Mudança Climática , Diatomáceas/fisiologia , Fitoplâncton/fisiologia , Nitrogênio , Fenótipo , Fotossíntese , Temperatura
15.
J Am Coll Nutr ; 37(1): 17-23, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used to assess hydration status, particularly around athletic competition, but it is unknown whether high USG is indicative of plasma volume (PV) reduction (i.e., hypohydration). We tested the hypothesis that if high USG is reflective of reduced PV, subsequent fluid ingestion would increase PV. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine 24-hour changes in USG and PV in individuals presenting with high and low spot USG. METHODS: Nineteen healthy males were provided food and water over 24 hours with a total water volume of 35 ml·kg-1 body mass. Absolute PV and blood volume (BV), measured using the CO-rebreathe technique, along with USG were measured before and after a 24-hour intervention period. Based on a preintervention morning spot USG, subjects were post hoc assigned to groups according to USG (≤1.020 or >1.020; low and high USG, respectively). RESULTS: Despite presenting with an elevated spot USG (1.026 ± 0.004), subsequent fluid ingestion over 24 hours did not lead to changes (∆) in PV (-75 ± 234 ml) or BV (-156 ± 370 ml) in the high USG group (p > 0.05). However, a spot USG after the 24-hour intervention in this group decreased (p = 0.018) to a level indicating improved hydration status (1.017 ± 0.007). In the low USG group, there were no changes in PV (-39 ± 274 ml), BV (-82 ± 396 ml), or USG (0.003 ± 0.007) over the 24-hour fluid intervention (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Despite a high preintervention USG and subsequent decrease after 24-hour fluid intake, measures of PV and BV were not indicative of this seemingly improved hydration status. This suggests that a highly concentrated spot sample USG and subsequent changes are not accurately representative of PV or BV.


Assuntos
Desidratação/diagnóstico , Ingestão de Líquidos/fisiologia , Volume Plasmático/fisiologia , Urinálise , Adulto , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Volume de Eritrócitos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidade Específica , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico , Adulto Jovem
16.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 72(3): 420-427, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29238038

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Children consume various fluids to meet dietary water intake needs. However, the contribution of different fluid types on hydration is unclear. The purpose of this study was to develop fluid intake patterns and examine their association with hydration, as indicated by 24-h urine osmolality. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Two hundred ten (105 girls) healthy children (height: 1.49 ± 0.13 m, weight: 43.4 ± 12.6 kg, body fat: 25.2 ± 7.8%) recorded their fluid intake for two consecutive days, and collected their urine for 24-h during the 2nd day, while conducting their normal daily activities. Urine samples were analyzed for specific gravity and osmolality. Factor analysis with principal components method was applied to extract dietary patterns from six fluid groups. Linear regression analysis evaluated the associations between the extracted dietary patterns and hydration based on 24-h urine osmolality. RESULTS: The analysis revealed the following six components: 1, characterized by consumption of milk and fresh juice, but not packaged juice; 2, by regular soda and other drinks, but not water; 3, by fresh juice and other drinks; 4, by packaged juice, but not regular soda; 5, by water and milk; and 6, by fresh juice. Component 5 was negatively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001) indicating better hydration, whereas component 2 was positively correlated with urine osmolality (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A drinking pattern based on water and milk was associated with better hydration, as indicated by lower urine osmolality, whereas drinking regular soda and other drinks but not water was associated with inferior hydration.


Assuntos
Bebidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Água Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Animais , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Desidratação/urina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Leite , Concentração Osmolar , Gravidade Específica , Urinálise , Água
17.
J Nutr ; 147(10): 2001-2007, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878034

RESUMO

Background: Mean daily water intake from fluids (WATER-FL) has proven to be difficult to measure because of a range of nonvalidated data collection techniques. Few questionnaires have been validated to estimate WATER-FL against self-reported diaries or urinary hydration markers, which may limit their objectivity.Objectives: The goals of this investigation were 1) to assess the validity of a 7-d fluid record (7dFLR) to measure WATER-FL (WATER-FL-7dFLR) through comparison with WATER-FL as calculated by measuring deuterium oxide (D2O) disappearance (WATER-FL-D2O), and 2) to evaluate the reliability of the 7dFLR in measuring WATER-FL.Methods: Participants [n = 96; 51% female; mean ± SD age: 41 ± 14 y; mean ± SD body mass index (in kg/m2): 26.2 ± 5.1] completed body water turnover analysis over 3 consecutive weeks. They completed the 7dFLR and food diaries during weeks 2 and 4 of the observation. The records were entered into nutritional software to determine the water content of all foods and fluids consumed. WATER-FL-D2O was calculated from water turnover (via the D2O dilution method), minus water from food and metabolic water. The agreement between the 2 methods of determining WATER-FL were compared according to a Bland-Altman plot at week 2. The test-retest reliability of 7dFLR between weeks 2 and 4 was assessed via intraclass correlation (ICC).Results: The mean ± SD difference between WATER-FL-7dFLR and WATER-FL-D2O was -131 ± 845 mL/d. In addition, no bias was observed (F[1,94] = 0.484; R2 = 0.006; P = 0.488). When comparing WATER-FL-7dFLR from weeks 2 and 4, no significant difference (mean ± SD difference: 71 ± 75 mL/d; t[79] = 0.954; P = 0.343) and an ICC of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.90) was observed.Conclusions: The main findings of this study were that the use of the 7dFLR is an effective and reliable method to estimate WATER-FL in adults. This style of questionnaire may be extremely helpful for collecting water intake data for large-scale epidemiologic studies.


Assuntos
Água Corporal/metabolismo , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Avaliação Nutricional , Inquéritos e Questionários , Água/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Óxido de Deutério , Feminino , Análise de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Água/metabolismo , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico
18.
Nutr Res ; 43: 25-32, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739050

RESUMO

Epidemiological research has demonstrated that low daily total water intake is associated with increased diagnosis of hyperglycemia. Possible mechanisms for this increase include hormones related to the hypothalamic pituitary axis as well as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Therefore, the hypothesis of the present study was that acute low water intake would result in differential hormonal profiles and thus impaired blood glucose regulation during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Nine men (53 ± 9 years, 30.0 ± 4.3 m∙kg-2, 32% ± 6% body fat) diagnosed with T2DM completed OGTTs in euhydrated (EUH) and hypohydrated (HYP) states in counterbalanced order. Water restriction led to hypohydration of -1.6% of body weight, with elevated plasma (EUH: 288 ± 4, HYP: 298 ± 6 mOsm·kg-1; P < .05) and urine (EUH: 512 ± 185, HYP: 994 ± 415 mOsm·kg-1; P < .05) osmolality. There was a significant main effect of condition for serum glucose (at time 0 minute 9.5 ± 4.2 vs 10.4 ± 4.4 mmol∙L-1 and at time 120 minutes 19.1 ± 4.8 vs 21.0 ± 4.1 mmol∙L-1 for EUH and HYP, respectively; P < .001) but not insulin (mean difference between EUH and HYP -12.1 ± 44.9 pmol∙L-1, P = .390). An interaction between time and condition was observed for cortisol: decrease from minute 0 to 120 in EUH (-85.3 ± 82.1 nmol∙L-1) vs HYP (-25.0 ± 43.0 nmol∙L-1; P = .017). No differences between conditions were found within RAAS-related hormones. Therefore, we can conclude that 3 days of low total water intake in people with T2DM acutely impairs blood glucose response during an OGTT via cortisol but not RAAS-mediated glucose regulation.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado de Hidratação do Organismo , Concentração Osmolar , Projetos Piloto , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina
19.
J Strength Cond Res ; 31(3): 630-637, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27442332

RESUMO

Johnson, EC, Pryor, RR, Casa, DJ, Ellis, LA, Maresh, CM, Pescatello, LS, Ganio, MS, Lee, EC, and Armstrong, LE. Precision, accuracy, and performance outcomes of perceived exertion vs. heart rate guided run-training. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 630-637, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to compare run-prescription by heart rate (HR) vs. rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during 6 weeks to determine which is superior for consistent achievement of target intensities and improved performance. Forty untrained men participated in this laboratory-controlled and field-controlled trial. Participants were divided into heart rate (HRTG) and rating of perceived exertion training groups (RPETG). All underwent maximal-graded exercise testing and a 12-minute run test before and after training. Intensity was prescribed as either a target HR or RPE that corresponded to 4 relative intensity levels: 45, 60, 75, and 90% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 reserve (V[Combining Dot Above]O2R). Mean exercise intensity over the 6 weeks did not differ between HRTG (65.6 ± 7.2%HRR) and RPETG (61.9 ± 9.0%HRR). V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (+4.1 ± 2.5 ml·kg·min) and 12 minutes run distance (+240.1 ± 150.1 m) improved similarly in HRTG and RPETG (p > 0.05). HRTG displayed lower coefficients of variation (CV) (5.9 ± 4.1%, 3.3 ± 3.8%, and 3.0 ± 2.2%) and %error (4.1 ± 4.7%, 2.3 ± 4.1% and 2.6 ± 3.2%) at 45, 60, and 75% V[Combining Dot Above]O2R compared with RPETG (CV 11.1 ± 5.0%, 7.7 ± 4.1% and 5.6 ± 3.2%; all p < 0.005) %error (15.7 ± 9.2%, 10.6 ± 9.2% and 6.7 ± 3.2%; all p < 0.001), respectively. Overall, HR-prescribed and RPE-prescribed run-training resulted in similar exercise intensity and performance outcomes over 6 weeks. Differences in the CV and %error suggest use of HR monitoring for individuals that are new to running as it improves precision and accuracy but does not increase performance improvements across 6 weeks.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Desempenho Atlético/psicologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Corrida/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab ; 27(2): 139-147, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27710151

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Exertional hyponatremia (EH) during prolonged exercise involves all avenues of fluid-electrolyte gain and loss. Although previous research implicates retention of excess fluid, EH may involve either loss, gain, or no change of body mass. Thus, the etiology, predisposing factors, and recommendations for prevention are vague-except for advice to avoid excessive drinking. PURPOSE: This retrospective field study presents case reports of two unacquainted recreational cyclists (LC, 31y and AM, 39 years) who began exercise with normal serum electrolytes but finished a summer 164-km ride (ambient, 34±5°C) with a serum [Na+] of 130 mmol/L. METHODS: To clarify the etiology of EH, their pre- and post-exercise measurements were compared to a control group (CON) of 31 normonatremic cyclists (mean ± SD; 37±6 years; 141±3 mmol Na+/L). RESULTS: Anthropomorphic characteristics, exercise time, and post-exercise ratings of thermal sensation, perceived exertion and muscle cramp were similar for LC, AM and CON. These two hyponatremic cyclists consumed a large and similar volume of fluid (191 and 189 ml/kg), experienced an 11 mmol/L decrease of serum [Na+], reported low thirst sensations; however, LC gained 3.1 kg (+4.3% of body mass) during 8.9 hr of exercise and AM maintained body mass (+0.1kg, +0.1%, 10.6h). In the entire cohort (n = 33), post-event serum [Na+] was strongly correlated with total fluid intake (R2 = 0.45, p < .0001), and correlated moderately with dietary sodium intake (R2=0.28, p = .004) and body mass change (R2 = 0.22, p = .02). Linear regression analyses predicted the threshold of EH onset (<135 mmol Na+/L) as 168 ml fluid/kg. CONCLUSIONS: The wide range of serum [Na+] changes (+6 to -11 mmol/L) led us to recommend an individualized rehydration plan to athletes because the interactions of factors were complex and idiosyncratic.


Assuntos
Atletas , Comportamento Competitivo , Ingestão de Líquidos , Exercício Físico , Hiponatremia/etiologia , Resistência Física , Esforço Físico , Adulto , Desempenho Atlético , Ciclismo , Estudos de Coortes , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hiponatremia/sangue , Hiponatremia/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Cãibra Muscular/etiologia , Cãibra Muscular/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sódio/sangue , Sódio na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Texas , Sede , Tempo (Meteorologia)
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