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1.
Curr Osteoporos Rep ; 2022 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36040543

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weight loss is recommended for improving glycemic control and reducing cardiovascular risk factors in persons with diabetes. However, both diabetes and weight loss have been associated with detrimental skeletal health. This review aims to summarize recent study findings on the effects of lifestyle interventions for weight loss on skeletal health among persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D). RECENT FINDINGS: A few large-scale observational studies have demonstrated an increased fragility fracture risk associated with weight loss among persons with T2D. Randomized control trials in persons with T2D also have shown that intentional lifestyle interventions for weight loss are associated with a greater decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increase in the risk of fracture. The biological mechanisms underlying the compromised bone health during lifestyle interventions for weight loss are complex and not yet conclusive. However, there is evidence to suggest that bone loss and increased fracture risk during intentional weight loss may be mitigated by some intervention approaches, such as high protein intake, calcium supplementation, and resistance and balance training. There is still a lack of studies investigating the effects of different interventions for weight loss on skeletal health among persons with T2D. However, certain types of diet and physical activity intervention combined with bone monitoring and fracture risk prediction may help achieve weight loss goals and maintain skeletal health among persons with T2D during intentional weight loss.

2.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(9): 1863-1874, 2022 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35920161

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The 10-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) of the Look AHEAD study left a legacy of relative deficits in cognitive function among participants who entered the clinical trial with obesity or a history of cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that altered levels of two weight-sensitive proangiogenic cytokines, leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), accounted for this concerning finding. METHODS: Serum leptin and VEGF concentrations were determined in 1,279 Look AHEAD participants at baseline, proximal to cessation of the interventions (Epoch 1), and an average of 4 years later (Epoch 2). Up to four standardized assessments of attention, executive function, and memory were collected during follow-up. Mixed effects models were used to assess relative differences in leptin and VEGF concentrations between intervention groups and whether these accounted for changes in cognitive composite scores. RESULTS: ILI and diabetes support and education differences in VEGF, but not leptin, concentrations varied depending on baseline history of cardiovascular disease and obesity, but neither leptin nor VEGF concentrations accounted for the relative decrements in cognitive function in participants assigned to ILI. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations in two weight-sensitive proangiogenic cytokines did not account for the long-term adverse effects of ILI on cognitive function among adults with diabetes and either obesity or cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Cognição , Citocinas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/complicações , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular , Redução de Peso
3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35945470

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Communication of the benefits and harms of blood pressure lowering strategy is crucial for shared decision-making. OBJECTIVES: To quantify the effect of intensive versus standard systolic blood pressure lowering in terms of the number of event-free days DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial PARTICIPANTS: A total of 9361 adults 50 years or older without diabetes or stroke who had a systolic blood pressure of 130-180 mmHg and elevated cardiovascular risk INTERVENTIONS: Intensive (systolic blood pressure goal <120 mmHg) versus standard blood pressure lowering (<140 mmHg) MAIN MEASURES: Days free of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), serious adverse events (SAE), and monitored adverse events (hypotension, syncope, bradycardia, electrolyte abnormalities, injurious falls, or acute kidney injury) over a median follow-up of 3.33 years KEY RESULTS: The intensive treatment group gained 14.7 more MACE-free days over 4 years (difference, 14.7 [95% confidence interval: 5.1, 24.4] days) than the standard treatment group. The benefit of the intensive treatment varied by cognitive function (normal: difference, 40.7 [13.0, 68.4] days; moderate-to-severe impairment: difference, -15.0 [-56.5, 26.4] days; p-for-interaction=0.009) and self-rated health (excellent: difference, -22.7 [-51.5, 6.1] days; poor: difference, 156.1 [31.1, 281.2] days; p-for-interaction=0.001). The mean overall SAE-free days were not significantly different between the treatments (difference, -14.8 [-35.3, 5.7] days). However, the intensive treatment group had 28.5 fewer monitored adverse event-free days than the standard treatment group (difference, -28.5 [-40.3, -16.7] days), with significant variations by frailty status (non-frail: difference, 38.8 [8.4, 69.2] days; frail: difference, -15.5 [-46.6, 15.7] days) and self-rated health (excellent: difference, -12.9 [-45.5, 19.7] days; poor: difference, 180.6 [72.9, 288.4] days; p-for-interaction <0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Over 4 years, intensive systolic blood pressure lowering provides, on average, 14.7 more MACE-free days than standard treatment, without any difference in SAE-free days. Whether this time-based effect summary improves shared decision-making remains to be elucidated. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Registration: NCT01206062.

4.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(9): 108268, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35926332

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess associations that endogenous estradiol and testosterone levels have with cognitive function in older adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: We use data from the Look AHEAD clinical trial of behavioral weight loss. Endogenous estradiol and total testosterone levels were determined using stored serum from 996 individuals, mean age 69 years, at two times (averaging 4 years apart) during years 8-18 of follow-up. One to four standardized assessments of attention, executive function, memory, and verbal fluency were collected during this follow-up. Mixed effects models and multiple imputation were used to assess associations that estradiol and total testosterone levels had with body mass index and cognitive function. RESULTS: Estradiol levels were not associated with cognitive function in either sex. Total testosterone levels were not associated with cognitive function in women, but greater total testosterone levels were associated with better verbal fluency in men (p < 0.001), most strongly among those carrying the APOE-e4 allele (interaction p = 0.02). The weight loss intervention left a legacy of relatively lower cognitive functioning among women, which was not mediated by current levels of sex hormones. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral weight loss intervention does not affect cognitive functioning through mechanisms related to estradiol or testosterone. CLINICALTRIALS: gov Identifier: NCT00017953.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Testosterona , Idoso , Cognição , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Estradiol , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redução de Peso
5.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(8): 108230, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35753926

RESUMO

AIMS: Low blood 25(OH)D level is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Additionally, individuals with prediabetes are at higher risk for CVD than individuals with normoglycemia. We investigated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on CVD outcomes in the vitamin D and type 2 diabetes (D2d) study, a large trial among adults with prediabetes. METHODS: 2423 participants were randomized to 4000 IU/day of vitamin D3 or placebo and followed for median 3.0 years for new-onset diabetes. In pre-specified secondary analyses, we examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation on composite Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events (MACE); expanded MACE (MACE + revascularization); atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) risk score; and individual CVD risk factors (blood pressure, lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein). Cox models compared hazard ratios (HR) between the two groups on MACE and expanded MACE. RESULTS: Mean age was 60 years, 45 % were women, 13 % had history of CVD. Twenty-one participants assigned to vitamin D and 12 participants assigned to placebo met the MACE outcome (HR 1.81, 95%CI 0.89 to 3.69). There were 27 expanded MACE outcomes in each group (HR 1.02, 95%CI, 0.59 to 1.76). There were no significant differences between vitamin D and placebo in individual CVD risk factors, but change in ASCVD risk score favored the vitamin D group (-0.45 %, 95%CI -0.75 to -0.15). CONCLUSIONS: In people with prediabetes not selected for vitamin D insufficiency and with intermediate CVD risk, vitamin D supplementation did not decrease MACE but had a small favorable effect on ASCVD risk score. TRIAL REGISTRATION: D2d ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01942694, prospectively registered September 16, 2013.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/complicações , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
6.
Am J Hypertens ; 35(9): 795-802, 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35522983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recommended systolic blood pressure targets often do not consider the relationship of low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) levels with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality risk, which is especially relevant for older people with concurrent comorbidities. We examined the relationship of DBP levels to CVD and all-cause mortality in older women in the Women's Health Initiative Long Life Study (WHI-LLS). METHODS: The study sample included 7,875 women (mean age: 79 years) who underwent a blood pressure measurement at an in-person home visit conducted in 2012-2013. CVD and all-cause mortality were centrally adjudicated. Hazard ratios (HRs) were obtained from adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: After 5 years follow-up, all-cause mortality occurred in 18.4% of women. Compared with a DBP of 80 mm Hg, the fully adjusted HR for mortality was 1.33 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.71) for a DBP of 50 mm Hg and 1.67 (95% CI: 1.29-2.16) for a DBP of 100 mm Hg. The HRs for CVD were 1.14 (95% CI: 0.78-1.67) for a DBP of 50 mm Hg and HR 1.50 (95% CI: 1.03-2.17) for a DBP of 100 mm Hg. The nadir DBP associated with lowest mortality risk was 72 mm Hg overall. CONCLUSIONS: In older women, consideration should be given to the potential adverse effects of low and high DBP. Low DBP may serve as a risk marker. DBP target levels between 68 and 75 mm Hg may avoid higher mortality risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , Hipotensão , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
7.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35421225

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 2 diabetes are encouraged to lose weight, but excessive weight loss in older adults may be a marker of poor health and subsequent mortality. We examined weight change during the postintervention period of Look AHEAD, a randomized trial comparing intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) with diabetes support and education (DSE) (control) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes and sought to identify predictors of excessive postintervention weight loss and its association with mortality. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: These secondary analyses compared postintervention weight change (year 8 to final visit; median 16 years) in ILI and DSE in 3,999 Look AHEAD participants. Using empirically derived trajectory categories, we compared four subgroups: weight gainers (n = 307), weight stable (n = 1,561), steady losers (n = 1,731), and steep losers (n = 380), on postintervention mortality, demographic variables, and health status at randomization and year 8. RESULTS: Postintervention weight change averaged -3.7 ± 9.5%, with greater weight loss in the DSE than the ILI group. The steep weight loss trajectory subgroup lost on average 17.7 ± 6.6%; 30% of steep losers died during postintervention follow-up versus 10-18% in other trajectories (P < 0001). The following variables distinguished steep losers from weight stable: baseline, older, longer diabetes duration, higher BMI, and greater multimorbidity; intervention, randomization to control group and less weight loss in years 1-8; and year 8, higher prevalence of frailty, multimorbidity, and depressive symptoms and lower use of weight control strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Steep weight loss postintervention was associated with increased risk of mortality. Older individuals with longer duration of diabetes and multimorbidity should be monitored for excessive unintentional weight loss.

9.
Diabetes Care ; 2022 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312758

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Look AHEAD, a randomized trial comparing intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and diabetes support and education (DSE) (control) in 5,145 individuals with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes, found no significant differences in all-cause or cardiovascular mortality or morbidity during 9.6 (median) years of intervention. Participants in ILI who lost ≥10% at 1 year had lower risk of composite cardiovascular outcomes relative to DSE. Since effects of ILI may take many years to emerge, we conducted intent-to-treat analyses comparing mortality in ILI over 16.7 years (9.6 years of intervention and then observation) to DSE. In a secondary exploratory analysis, we compared mortality by magnitude of weight loss in ILI relative to DSE. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Primary outcome was all-cause mortality from randomization to 16.7 years. Other outcomes included cause-specific mortality, interactions by subgroups (age, sex, race/ethnicity, and cardiovascular disease history), and an exploratory analysis by magnitude of weight loss in ILI versus DSE as reference. Analyses used proportional hazards regression and likelihood ratio. RESULTS: The incidence of all-cause mortality did not differ significantly in ILI and DSE (549 and 589 participants, respectively) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.91 [95% CI 0.81, 1.02]; P = 0.11). There were no significant differences between treatments in cause-specific mortality or within prespecified subgroups. ILI participants who lost ≥10% at 1 year had a 21% reduced risk of mortality (HR 0.79 [95% CI 0.67, 0.94]; P = 0.007) relative to DSE. CONCLUSIONS: ILI focused on weight loss did not significantly affect mortality risk. However, ILI participants who lost ≥10% had reduced mortality relative to DSE.

10.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 30(6): 1268-1278, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-reported life experiences in older adults with diabetes and obesity. METHODS: Participants were surveyed in 2020 regarding negative and positive impacts of the pandemic across domains of personal, social, and physical experiences. A cumulative negative risk index (a count of all reported negative impacts of 46 items) and a positive risk index (5 items) were characterized in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, BMI, and multimorbidity. RESULTS: Response rate was high (2950/3193, 92%), average age was 76 years, 63% were women, and 39% were from underrepresented populations. Women reported more negative impacts than men (6.8 vs. 5.6; p < 0.001 [of 46 items]) as did persons with a greater multimorbidity index (p < 0.001). Participants reporting African American/Black race reported fewer negative impacts than White participants. Women also reported more positive impacts than men (1.9 vs. 1.6; p < 0.001 [of 5 items]). CONCLUSIONS: Older adults with diabetes and obesity reported more positive impacts of the pandemic than negative impacts, relative to the number of positive (or negative) items presented. Some subgroups experienced greater negative impacts (e.g., for women, a greater multimorbidity index). Efforts to reestablish personal, social, and physical health after the pandemic could target certain groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias
11.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 76(8): 1117-1124, 2022 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35140313

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Routine use of vitamin D supplements has increased substantially in the United States. However, the safety and tolerability of long-term use of high-dose vitamin D are not known. We assessed the safety and tolerability of high-dose, daily vitamin D3 in the vitamin D and type 2 diabetes (D2d) study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: In total, 2423 overweight/obese persons with prediabetes were randomized in a double-blind manner to either 4000 IU of vitamin D3 (the tolerable upper intake level for adults by the National Academy of Medicine) taken daily or matching placebo. All participants were included in this analysis. Incident adverse events (AE) were ascertained 4 times a year at in-person visits (twice a year) and interim remote encounters (twice a year) and were defined as untoward or unfavorable medical occurrences. Serious adverse events (SAE) included death, life-threatening events, and hospitalizations. RESULTS: A total of 8304 AEs occurred during 3 years of follow-up and were less frequent in the vitamin D group compared to placebo (Incidence Rate Ratio [IRR] = 0.94; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.90, 0.98). The overall frequency of protocol-specified AEs of interest, which included nephrolithiasis, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, or low estimated glomerular filtration rate, was low and did not differ by group. There were no significant between-group differences in total SAEs (IRR = 0.96 (0.81, 1.14)). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D3 supplementation at 4000 IU per day was safe and well tolerated among overweight/obese participants at high risk for diabetes who were appropriately monitored for safety. In this population, this dose of vitamin D3 did not increase risk of AEs or SAEs, including those previously associated with vitamin D such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, or nephrolithiasis. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01942694, prospectively registered September 16, 2013.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipercalcemia , Nefrolitíase , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Colecalciferol , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Hipercalcemia/induzido quimicamente , Hipercalcemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hipercalcemia/epidemiologia , Hipercalciúria/induzido quimicamente , Hipercalciúria/tratamento farmacológico , Nefrolitíase/induzido quimicamente , Nefrolitíase/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/tratamento farmacológico , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D , Vitaminas
12.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(5): e024270, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35191329

RESUMO

Background Prior studies suggested lower risk of heart failure (HF) in individuals taking H2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) compared with H2RA nonusers in relatively small studies. We evaluated the association of H2RA use and incident HF in postmenopausal women in the large-scale WHI (Women's Health Initiative) study. Methods and Results This study included postmenopausal women from the WHI without a history of HF at baseline. HF was defined as first incident hospitalization for HF and physician adjudicated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models evaluated the association of H2RA use as a time-varying exposure with HF risk, after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and medical history variables. Sensitivity analyses examined (1) risk of HF stratified by the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) score, (2) propensity score matching on H2RA use, (3) use of proton pump inhibitors rather than H2RA nonuse as the referent, and (4) exclusion of those taking diuretics at baseline. The primary analysis included 158 854 women after exclusion criteria, of whom 9757 (6.1%) were H2RA users. During median 8.2 years of follow-up, 376 H2RA users (4.9 events/1000 person-years) and 3206 nonusers (2.7 events/1000 person-years) developed incident HF. After multivariable adjustment, there was no association between H2RA use and HF in the primary analysis (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.94-1.22; P=0.31) or in any of the sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Clinical H2RA use was not associated with incident HF among postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to evaluate potential effect modification by sex, HF severity, or patterns of use on H2RA exposure and HF risk. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00000611.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Histamina , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Antagonistas dos Receptores H2 da Histamina/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Pós-Menopausa , Fatores de Risco , Saúde da Mulher
13.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-26, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139933

RESUMO

Although, biological evidence suggests that tea consumption may protect against non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), epidemiologic evidence has been unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between tea-drinking habits and the risk of NHL in a large nationwide prospective cohort of postmenopausal US women. 68,854 women who were enrolled from 1993 through 1998 in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS) and responded to year 3 annual follow-up questionnaire comprised the analytic cohort. Newly diagnosed NHL cases after the year 3 visit were confirmed by medical and pathology reports. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were performed to assess the associations of tea-drinking habits (specifically, the amounts of caffeinated/herbal/decaffeinated tea intake) with the overall risk of NHL and 3 major subtypes (Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, DLBCL, (n=195, 0.3%), follicular lymphoma, FL, (n=128, 0.2%), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, CLL/SLL, (n=51, 0.1%)). Among 62,622 participants, a total of 663 (1.1%) women developed NHL during a median follow-up of 16.51(SD±6.20) years. Overall, different amounts of type-specific tea intake were not associated with the risk of NHL regardless of its histologic subtypes after adjustment for confounders. Our findings suggest that tea intake at the current consumption level does not influence the risk of NHL, regardless of its histologic types.

14.
J Nutr ; 152(4): 1107-1117, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We recently developed protein and carbohydrate intake biomarkers using metabolomics profiles in serum and urine, and used them to correct self-reported dietary data for measurement error. Biomarker-calibrated carbohydrate density was inversely associated with chronic disease risk, whereas protein density associations were mixed. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate and extend this earlier work through biomarker development for protein and carbohydrate components, including animal protein and fiber. METHODS: Prospective disease association analyses were undertaken in Women's Health Initiative (WHI) cohorts of postmenopausal US women, aged 50-79 y when enrolled at 40 US clinical centers. Biomarkers were developed using an embedded human feeding study (n = 153). Calibration equations for protein and carbohydrate components were developed using a WHI nutritional biomarker study (n = 436). Calibrated intakes were associated with chronic disease incidence in WHI cohorts (n = 81,954) over a 20-y (median) follow-up period, using HR regression methods. RESULTS: Previously reported elevations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) with higher-protein diets tended to be explained by animal protein density. For example, for coronary heart disease a 20% increment in animal protein density had an HR of 1.20 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.42) relative to the HR for total protein density. In comparison, cancer and diabetes risk showed little association with animal protein density beyond that attributable to total protein density. Inverse carbohydrate density associations with total CVD were mostly attributable to fiber density, with a 20% increment HR factor of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.94). Cancer risk showed little association with fiber density, whereas diabetes risk had a 20% increment HR of 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.98) relative to the HRs for total carbohydrate density. CONCLUSIONS: In a population of postmenopausal US women, CVD risk was associated with high-animal-protein and low-fiber diets, cancer risk was associated with low-carbohydrate diets, and diabetes risk was associated with low-fiber/low-carbohydrate diets.


Assuntos
Proteínas na Dieta , Pós-Menopausa , Biomarcadores , Doença Crônica , Carboidratos da Dieta , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Diabetes Care ; 45(3): 742-749, 2022 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35019976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct post hoc secondary analysis examining the association between change in physical activity. Measured with self-report and accelerometry, from baseline to 1 and 4 years and cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes in the Look AHEAD Trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants were adults with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes with physical activity. Data at baseline and year 1 or 4 (n = 1,978). Participants were randomized to diabetes support and education or intensive lifestyle intervention. Measures included accelerometry-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), self-reported physical activity, and composite (morbidity and mortality) CVD outcomes. RESULTS: In pooled analyses of all participants, using Cox proportional hazards models, each 100 MET-min/week increase in accelerometry-measured MVPA from baseline to 4 years was associated with decreased risk of the subsequent primary composite outcome of CVD. Results were consistent for changes in total MVPA (hazard ratio 0.97 [95% CI 0.95, 0.99]) and MVPA accumulated in ≥10-min bouts (hazard ratio 0.95 [95% CI 0.91, 0.98]), with a similar pattern for secondary CVD outcomes. Change in accelerometry-measured MVPA at 1 year and self-reported change in physical activity at 1 and 4 years were not associated with CVD outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Increased accelerometry-measured MVPA from baseline to year 4 is associated with decreased risk of CVD outcomes. This suggests the need for long-term engagement in MVPA to reduce the risk of CVD in adults with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Acelerometria , Adulto , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Autorrelato
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(6): 1061-1070, 2022 05 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35094071

RESUMO

We recently evaluated associations of biomarker-calibrated protein intake, protein density, carbohydrate intake, and carbohydrate density with the incidence of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative (1993-present, 40 US clinical centers). The biomarkers relied on serum and urine metabolomics profiles, and biomarker calibration used regression of biomarkers on food frequency questionnaires. Here we develop corresponding calibration equations using food records and dietary recalls. In addition, we use calibrated intakes based on food records in disease association estimation in a cohort subset (n = 29,294) having food records. In this analysis, more biomarker variation was explained by food records than by FFQs for absolute macronutrient intake, with 24-hour recalls being intermediate. However, the percentage of biomarker variation explained was similar for each assessment approach for macronutrient densities. Invasive breast cancer risk was related inversely to carbohydrate and protein densities using food records, in analyses that included (calibrated) total energy intake and body mass index. Corresponding analyses for absolute intakes did not differ from the null, nor did absolute or relative intakes associate significantly with colorectal cancer or coronary heart disease. These analyses do not suggest major advantages for food records or dietary recalls in comparison with less costly and logistically simpler food frequency questionnaires for these nutritional variables.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Energia , Pós-Menopausa , Biomarcadores , Calibragem , Carboidratos , Doença Crônica , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Nutrientes , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 77(8): 1691-1698, 2022 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Indices of multimorbidity and deficit accumulation (ie, frailty indices) have been proposed as markers of biological aging. If true, changes in these indices over time should predict downstream changes in cognition and physical function, and mortality. METHODS: We examined associations that 8-year changes in (i) a multimorbidity index comprised of 9 chronic diseases and (ii) a frailty index (FI) based on deficit accumulation in functional, behavioral, and clinical characteristics had with subsequent measures of cognitive and physical function over 10 years. We drew data from 3 842 participants in the Action for Health in Diabetes clinical trial. They were aged 45-76 years at baseline and at risk for accelerated biological aging due to overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: A total of 1 501 (39%) of the cohort had 8-year increases of 1 among the 9 diseases tracked in the multimorbidity index and 868 (23%) had increases of ≥2. Those with greatest increases in multimorbidity tended to be older individuals, males, and non-Hispanic Whites. Greater FI increases tended to occur among individuals who were older, non-Hispanic White, heavier, and who had more baseline morbidities. Changes in multimorbidity and FI were moderately correlated (r = 0.26; p < .001). Increases in both multimorbidity and FI were associated with subsequently poorer composite cognitive function and 400-m walk speed and increased risk for death (all p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated biological aging, as captured by multimorbidity and frailty indices, predicts subsequent reduced function and mortality. Whether intensive lifestyle interventions generally targeting multimorbidity and FI reduce risks for downstream outcomes remains to be seen. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00017953.

18.
Diabetes Care ; 45(1): 74-82, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34753805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms, loneliness, and insomnia among older adults with type 2 diabetes from 2016 to 2020 and to assess risk factors for these conditions including demographics, multimorbidity, BMI, treatment group, and pre-coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) measure scores. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study of participants from the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) cohort study. Data were from two assessments before COVID-19 (visit 1: April 2016-June 2018 and visit 2: February 2018-February 2020) and one assessment during COVID-19 (visit 3: July-December 2020). Surveys were administered to assess depressive symptoms, loneliness, and insomnia. RESULTS: The study included 2829 adults (63.2% female, 60.6% White, mean [SD] age 75.6 [6.0] years). The prevalence of mild or greater depressive symptoms did not change significantly between the two pre-pandemic visits (P = 0.88) but increased significantly from pre- to during COVID-19 (19.3% at V2 to 30.4% at V3; P < 0.001). Higher odds of mild or greater depressive symptoms at V3 were associated with being female (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.7]), identifying as non-Hispanic White (OR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.7]), having obesity (OR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.5]), and reporting mild or greater depressive symptoms at V1 (OR 4.0 [95% CI 2.9-5.4]), V2 (OR 4.4 [95% CI 3.2-5.9]), or both visits (OR 13.4 [95% CI 9.7-18.4]). The prevalence of loneliness increased from 12.3% at V1 to 22.1% at V3 (P < 0.001), while the prevalence of insomnia remained stable across visits at 31.5-33.3%. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mild or greater depressive symptoms in older adults with diabetes was more than 1.6 times higher during COVID-19 than before the pandemic.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Depressão/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia
19.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(12): e008322, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34823375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial), intensive BP treatment reduced acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) events. Here, we report the effect on HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) and their subsequent outcomes. METHODS: Incident ADHF was defined as hospitalization or emergency department visit, confirmed, and formally adjudicated by a blinded events committee using standardized protocols. HFpEF was defined as EF ≥45%, and HFrEF was EF <45%. RESULTS: Among the 133 participants with incident ADHF who had EF assessment, 69 (52%) had HFpEF and 64 (48%) had HFrEF (P value: 0.73). During average 3.3 years follow-up in those who developed incident ADHF, rates of subsequent all-cause and HF hospital readmission and mortality were high, but there were no significant differences between those who developed HFpEF versus HFrEF. Randomization to the intensive arm had no effect on subsequent mortality or readmissions after the initial ADHF event, irrespective of EF subtype. During follow-up among participants who developed HFpEF, although relatively modest number of events limited statistical power, age was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality, and Black race independently predicted all-cause and HF hospital readmission. CONCLUSIONS: In SPRINT, intensive BP reduction decreased both acute decompensated HFpEF and HFrEF events. After initial incident ADHF, rates of subsequent hospital admission and mortality were high and were similar for those who developed HFpEF or HFrEF. Randomization to the intensive arm did not alter the risks for subsequent all-cause, or HF events in either HFpEF or HFrEF. Among those who developed HFpEF, age and Black race were independent predictors of clinical outcomes. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01206062.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/cirurgia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
20.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34737090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some preliminary studies indicate that components in coffee may have anticarcinogenic effects. However, the association between coffee-drinking habits and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between coffee intake and NHL incidence in a large prospective study of postmenopausal US women. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS/SETTING: The participants included 74,935 women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study who were recruited from 1993 through 1998. Information about coffee-drinking habits was collected at baseline via self-administered questionnaires. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Newly diagnosed NHL was validated by medical records and pathology records. Separate analyses were performed for the following three subtypes of NHL: diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (n = 244), follicular lymphoma (n = 166), and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (n = 64). STATISTICAL ANALYSES PERFORMED: Age-adjusted and multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine associations of coffee intake (specifically, the total amount of coffee consumed daily, coffee types, and coffee preparation methods) with risk of NHL. RESULTS: A total of 851 women developed NHL during a median 18.34 years of follow-up (range = 0.01 to 24.30 years; ± 6.63 years). Overall, no associations were observed between coffee intake and risk of NHL regardless of the total amount of daily coffee intake (P value for trend = 0.90), caffeinated (P = 0.55) or decaffeinated coffee intake (P = 0.78), and filtered or unfiltered coffee intake (P = 0.91) after controlling for sociodemographic factors, lifestyle risk factors, and clinical risk factors/current medical conditions. No significant associations were observed between coffee intake with specific subtypes of NHL. A statistically significant interaction was found between alcohol intake, coffee intake, and incident NHL (P value for interaction = 0.02) based on the adjusted analysis. Specifically, among women who frequently consumed alcohol (> 7 drinks/week), those who had moderate coffee intake (2 to 3 c coffee/day) had a significantly reduced risk of developing NHL (hazard ratio 0.61, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.98), compared with those who did not drink coffee. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study do not support an association between coffee consumption and NHL risk, irrespective of the total amount of daily coffee intake, coffee types, or coffee preparation methods.

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