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1.
Ear Hear ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the psychosocial, adaptive behavior, and language outcomes of young children who are hard of hearing (HH) without additional disabilities or neurocognitive impairments. Relations between early developmental outcomes and child and parent demographic variables, and parenting stress and self-efficacy were also explored. DESIGN: Participants were 39 children with early identified, permanent mild to severe hearing loss, between the ages of 2 and 3 years, and a comparison group of 47 children with normal hearing (NH). Developmental outcomes were measured using clinician-administered standardized tests and parent-completed behavior rating instruments specific to language, psychosocial functioning, and adaptive behavior. Mothers completed self-report measures that assess parenting stress and maternal self-efficacy. RESULTS: The children who are HH were similar to the children with NH in terms of their psychosocial functioning and adaptive behavior, with the exception of their socialization skills. As a group, the children who are HH performed significantly worse than their peers with NH on all measures of language ability. Among the children who are HH, maternal self-efficacy showed a strong positive correlation with adaptive behavior outcomes; however, it failed to contribute unique variance above that explained by language ability and gender. Maternal self-efficacy was also significantly correlated with better psychosocial outcomes, but only parenting stress proved to be a significant predictor of child behavioral problems once other variables considered were in the model. CONCLUSIONS: Early-identified young children who are HH can demonstrate age-appropriate development in multiple domains, including language, psychosocial, and adaptive behavior. However, mild to severe hearing loss places young children with no additional disabilities or neurocognitive impairments at risk for language delays. Although the children who are HH demonstrated no more emotional or behavioral problems than their same-age peers with NH, results suggest that language delays increase their vulnerability for delays in various aspects of social competence.

2.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 68(10): 2249-2256, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33267558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity are sometimes described as conditions that accelerate aging. Multidomain lifestyle interventions have shown promise to slow the accumulation of age-related diseases, a hallmark of aging. However, they have not been assessed among at-risk individuals with these two conditions. We examined the relative impact of 8 years of a multidomain lifestyle intervention on an index of multimorbidity. DESIGN: Randomized controlled clinical trial comparing an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) that targeted weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity with a control condition of diabetes support and education (DSE). SETTING: Sixteen U.S. academic centers. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5,145 volunteers, aged 45 to 76, with established type 2 diabetes mellitus and overweight or obesity who met eligibility criteria for a randomized controlled clinical trial. MEASUREMENTS: A multimorbidity index that included nine age-related chronic diseases and death was tracked over 8 years of intervention delivery. RESULTS: Among individuals assigned to DSE, the multimorbidity index scores increased by an average of .98 (95% confidence interval [CI] = .94-1.02) over 8 years, compared with .89 (95% CI = .85-.93) among those in the multidomain ILI, which was a 9% difference (P = .003). Relative intervention effects were similar among individuals grouped by baseline body mass index, age, and sex, and they were greater for those with lower levels of multimorbidity index scores at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in multimorbidity over time among adults with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus may be slowed by multidomain ILI. J Am Geriatr Soc 68:2249-2256, 2020.

3.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 275: 22-26, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227733

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic is broadly undercutting global health and economies, while disproportionally impacting socially disadvantaged populations. An impactful pandemic surveillance solution must draw from multi-dimensional integration of social determinants of health (SDoH) to contextually inform traditional epidemiological factors. In this article, we describe an Urban Public Health Observatory (UPHO) model which we have put into action in a mid-sized U.S. metropolitan region to provide near real-time analysis and dashboarding of ongoing COVID-19 conditions. Our goal is to illuminate associations between SDoH factors and downstream pandemic health outcomes to inform specific policy decisions and public health planning.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Saúde Pública
4.
Circ Heart Fail ; : CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007508, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2018 US Physical Activity Guidelines recommend reducing sedentary behavior (SB) for cardiovascular health. SB's role in heart failure (HF) is unclear. METHODS: We studied 80 982 women in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, aged 50 to 79 years, who were without known HF and reported ability to walk ≥1 block unassisted at baseline. Mean follow-up was 9 years for physician-adjudicated incident HF hospitalization (1402 cases). SB was assessed repeatedly by questionnaire. Time-varying total SB was categorized according to awake time spent sitting or lying down (≤6.5, 6.6-9.5, >9.5 h/d); sitting time (≤4.5, 4.6-8.5, >8.5 h/d) was also evaluated. Hazard ratios and 95% CI were estimated using Cox regression. RESULTS: Controlling for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, smoking, alcohol, menopausal hormone therapy, and hysterectomy status, higher HF risk was observed across incremental tertiles of time-varying total SB (hazard ratios [95% CI], 1.00 [referent], 1.15 [1.01-1.31], 1.42 [1.25-1.61], trend P<0.001) and sitting time (1.00 [referent], 1.14 [1.01-1.28], 1.54 [1.34-1.78], trend P<0.001). The inverse trends remained significant after further controlling for comorbidities including time-varying myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization (hazard ratios: SB, 1.00, 1.11, 1.27; sitting, 1.00, 1.09, 1.37, trend P<0.001 each) and for baseline physical activity (hazard ratios: SB 1.00, 1.10, 1.24; sitting 1.00, 1.08, 1.33, trend P<0.001 each). Associations with SB exposures were not different according to categories of baseline age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, physical activity, physical functioning, diabetes, hypertension, or coronary heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: SB was associated with increased risk of incident HF hospitalization in postmenopausal women. Targeted efforts to reduce SB could enhance HF prevention in later life.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168654

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the cost-effectiveness (CE) of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) compared with standard diabetes support and education (DSE) in adults with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes, as implemented in the Action for Health in Diabetes study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were from 4,827 participants during their first 9 years of the study participation from 2001 to 2012. Information on Health Utilities Index Mark 2 (HUI-2) and HUI-3, Short-Form 6D (SF-6D), and Feeling Thermometer (FT), cost of delivering the interventions, and health expenditures was collected during the study. CE was measured by incremental CE ratios (ICERs) in costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Future costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% annually. Costs were in 2012 U.S. dollars. RESULTS: Over the 9 years studied, the mean cumulative intervention costs and mean cumulative health care expenditures were $11,275 and $64,453 per person for ILI and $887 and $68,174 for DSE. Thus, ILI cost $6,666 more per person than DSE. Additional QALYs gained by ILI were not statistically significant measured by the HUIs and were 0.07 and 0.15, respectively, measured by SF-6D and FT. The ICERs ranged from no health benefit with a higher cost based on HUIs to $96,458/QALY and $43,169/QALY, respectively, based on SF-6D and FT. CONCLUSIONS: Whether ILI was cost-effective over the 9-year period is unclear because different health utility measures led to different conclusions.

7.
J Aging Res ; 2020: 7543702, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178459

RESUMO

Objective: Little is known about the impact of loneliness on physical health among elderly individuals with diabetes. Here, we examined the relationship of loneliness with disability, objective physical function, and other health outcomes in older individuals with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity. Method: Data are drawn from the Look AHEAD study, a diverse cohort of individuals (ages 61-92) with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes measured 5-6 years after a 10-year weight loss randomized, controlled trial. Results: Loneliness scores were significantly associated with greater disability symptoms and slower 4-meter gait speed (ps < 0.01). Loneliness did not differ across treatment arms. Discussion. Overall, these results extend prior findings relating loneliness to disability and decreased mobility to older individuals with type 2 diabetes and overweight or obesity.

8.
JBMR Plus ; 4(10): e10393, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33103025

RESUMO

This study was conducted to evaluate the extent to which disease-modifying antirheumatic medications (DMARDs) used as part of a triple therapy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) including methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and hydroxychloroquine are associated with fractures in postmenopausal women with RA. Incident fractures following use of methotrexate, sulfasalazine, and/or hydroxychloroquine in postmenopausal women with RA in the Women's Health Initiative were estimated by Cox proportional hazards using hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs after consideration of potential confounders. There were 1201 women with RA enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative included in these analyses, of which 74% were white, 17% were black, and 9% were of other or unknown race/ethnicity. Of the women with RA, 421 (35%) had not used methotrexate, sulfasalazine, or hydroxychloroquine, whereas 519 (43%) women had used methotrexate, 83 (7%) sulfasalazine, and 363 (30%) hydroxychloroquine alone or in combination at some time during study follow-up. Over a median length of 6.46 years of follow-up, in multivariable adjusted models, no statistically significant association was found between methotrexate (HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.6), sulfasalazine (HR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.2-1.5), or hydroxychloroquine (HR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.5) use and incident fractures or between combination therapy with methotrexate and sulfasalazine or methotrexate and hydroxychloroquine use (HR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.5-1.6) and incident fractures. In conclusion, postmenopausal women with RA receiving any component of triple therapy should not be expected to have any substantial reduction in fracture risk from use of these DMARDs. © 2020 The Authors. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

9.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(11): 899-907, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33098800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that intensive control of systolic blood pressure significantly reduced the occurrence of mild cognitive impairment, but not probable dementia. We investigated the effects of intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure on specific cognitive functions in a preplanned substudy of participants from SPRINT. METHODS: SPRINT was an open-label, multicentre, randomised controlled trial undertaken at 102 sites, including academic medical centres, Veterans Affairs medical centres, hospitals, and independent clinics, in the USA and Puerto Rico. Participants were adults aged 50 years or older with systolic blood pressure higher than 130 mm Hg, but without diabetes, history of stroke, or dementia. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to a systolic blood pressure goal of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) versus less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). All major classes of antihypertensive agents were included. A subgroup of randomly assigned participants including, but not limited to, participants enrolled in an MRI substudy was then selected for a concurrent substudy of cognitive function (target 2800 participants). Each individual was assessed with a screening cognitive test battery and an extended cognitive test battery at baseline and biennially during the planned 4-year follow-up. The primary outcomes for this substudy were standardised composite scores for memory (Logical Memory I and II, Modified Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure [immediate recall], and Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised [delayed recall]) and processing speed (Trail Making Test and Digit Symbol Coding). SPRINT was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01206062. FINDINGS: From Nov 23, 2010, to Dec 28, 2012, 2921 participants (mean age 68·4 years [SD 8·6], 1080 [37%] women) who had been randomly assigned in SPRINT were enrolled in the substudy (1448 received intensive treatment and 1473 received standard treatment). SPRINT was terminated early due to benefit observed in the primary outcome (composite of cardiovascular events). After a median follow-up of 4·1 years (IQR 3·7-5·8), there was no between-group difference in memory, with an annual decline in mean standardised domain score of -0·005 (95% CI -0·010 to 0·001) in the intensive treatment group and -0·001 (-0·006 to 0·005) in the standard treatment group (between-group difference -0·004, 95% CI -0·012 to 0·004; p=0·33). Mean standardised processing speed domain scores declined more in the intensive treatment group (between-group difference -0·010, 95% CI -0·017 to -0·002; p=0·02), with an annual decline of -0·025 (-0·030 to -0·019) for the intensive treatment group and -0·015 (-0·021 to 0·009) for the standard treatment group. INTERPRETATION: Intensive treatment to lower systolic blood pressure did not result in a clinically relevant difference compared with standard treatment in memory or processing speed in a subgroup of participants from SPRINT. The effect of blood pressure lowering might not be evident in specific domains of cognitive function, but instead distributed across multiple domains. FUNDING: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute on Aging, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and the Alzheimer's Association.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/tendências , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/prevenção & controle , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertensão/psicologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/tendências
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025002

RESUMO

The health benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy among women aged 50-59 years are examined in the Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled trials using long-term follow-up data and a parsimonious statistical model that leverages data from older participants to increase precision. These trials enrolled 27,347 healthy post-menopausal women aged 50-79 at 40 U.S. clinical centers during 1993-1998, including 10,739 post-hysterectomy participants in a trial of conjugated equine estrogens, and 16,608 participants with uterus in the trial of these estrogens plus medroxyprogesterone acetate. Over an 18-year (median) follow-up period (1993-2016) risk for a global index, defined as the earliest of coronary heart disease, invasive breast cancer, stroke, pulmonary embolism, colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, hip fracture, and all-cause mortality, is reduced with conjugated equine estrogens with hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.82 (0.71, 0.95), and with nominally significant reductions for coronary heart disease, breast cancer, hip fracture and all-cause mortality. Corresponding global index hazard ratio estimates of 1.06 (0.95, 1.19) were non-significant for combined estrogens plus progestin, but increased breast cancer risk and reduced endometrial cancer risk were observed. These results, among women 50-59, substantially agree with the worldwide observational literature, with the exception of breast cancer for estrogens alone.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 43(11): 2840-2846, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between dietary intake of choline and betaine and the risk of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Among 13,440 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study participants, the prospective longitudinal association between dietary choline and betaine intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes was assessed using interval-censored Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models adjusted for baseline potential confounding variables. RESULTS: Among 13,440 participants (55% women, mean age 54 [SD 7.4] years), 1,396 developed incident type 2 diabetes during median follow-up of 9 years from 1987 to 1998. There was no statistically significant association between every 1-SD increase in dietary choline and risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01 [95% CI 0.87, 1.16]) nor between dietary betaine intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes (HR 1.01 [0.94, 1.10]). Those in the highest quartile of dietary choline intake did not have a statistically significant higher risk of type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest choline quartile (HR 1.09 [0.84, 1.42]); similarly, dietary betaine intake was not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes comparing the highest quartile to the lowest (HR 1.06 [0.87, 1.29]). Among women, there was a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, comparing the highest to lowest dietary choline quartile (HR 1.54 [1.06, 2.25]), while in men, the association was null (HR 0.82 [0.57, 1.17]). Nevertheless, there was a nonsignificant interaction between high choline intake and sex on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P = 0.07). The results from logistic regression were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Overall and among male participants, dietary choline or betaine intakes were not associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Among female participants, there was a trend for a modestly higher risk of type 2 diabetes among those with the highest as compared with the lowest quartile of dietary choline intake. Our study should inform clinical trials on dietary choline and betaine supplementation in relationship with the risk of type 2 diabetes.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(10): 1902-1911, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) trial was a randomized trial comparing effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) and diabetes support and education (DSE) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes. A secondary analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between change in weight and waist circumference (WC) and CVD outcomes. METHODS: Participants (N = 5,490) were classified into four categories based on change in weight and WC between baseline and year 1 (both increased, both decreased, etc.). Separate Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit for ILI and DSE (using group that reduced weight/WC as reference), and time to first occurrence of primary and secondary CVD outcomes from year 1 through a median of almost 10 years were compared. Second, time to first event among all four ILI groups relative to DSE was evaluated. RESULTS: Within DSE, CVD outcomes did not differ. ILI participants with increased WC had increased risk of primary outcomes, regardless of weight loss (hazard ratio: 1.55 [95% CI: 1.11-2.17]) or weight gain (hazard ratio: 1.76 [95% CI: 1.07-2.89]), and had increased risk of secondary outcomes (overall P < 0.01) relative to ILI participants who reduced both weight and WC and relative to DSE participants. CONCLUSIONS: In this secondary analysis, increased WC during the first year of ILI, independent of weight change, was associated with higher risk for subsequent cardiovascular outcomes.

13.
Curr Dev Nutr ; 4(8): nzaa126, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832844

RESUMO

Background: Over 23 million Americans have type 2 diabetes (T2D). Eating habits such as breakfast consumption, time-restricted eating, and limiting daily eating occasions have been explored as behaviors for reducing T2D risk, but prior evidence is inconclusive. Objectives: Our objectives were to examine associations between number of daily eating occasions and T2D risk in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial (WHI-DM) and whether associations vary by BMI, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods: Participants were postmenopausal women in the WHI-DM who comprised a 4.6% subsample completing 24-h dietary recalls (24HRs) at years 3 and 6 as part of trial adherence activities (n = 2159). Numbers of eating occasions per day were obtained from the year 3 24HRs, and participants were grouped into approximate tertiles as 1-3 (n = 795), 4 (n = 713), and ≥5 (n = 651) daily eating occasions as the exposure. Incident diabetes was self-reported on semiannual questionnaires as the outcome. Results: Approximately 15% (15.4%, n = 332) of the WHI-DM 24HR cohort reported incident diabetes at follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression tested associations of eating occasions with T2D adjusted for neighborhood socioeconomic status, BMI, waist circumference, race/ethnicity, family history of T2D, recreational physical activity, Healthy Eating Index-2005, 24HR energy intake, and WHI-DM arm. Compared with women reporting 1-3 meals/d, those consuming 4 meals/d had a T2D HR = 1.38 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.84) without further increases in risk for ≥5 meals/d. In stratified analyses, associations for 4 meals/d compared with 1-3 meals/d were stronger in women with BMI <30.0 kg/m2 (HR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.39) and women aged ≥60 (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.33). Conclusions: Four meals per day compared with 1-3 meals/d was associated with increased risk of T2D in postmenopausal women, but no dose-response effect was observed for additional eating occasions. Further studies are needed to understand eating occasions in relation to T2D risk.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 105(12)2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845968

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The effects of physiological improvements on cognitive function among persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether improvements in physiological markers (body weight, blood sugar control, and physical activity) during intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) are associated with enhancements in cognitive function in older adults with T2DM. DESIGN: Multisite randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Academic research centers. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Participants were aged 45-76 years, with T2DM. INTERVENTION: The Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD) study, a randomized, controlled clinical trial of ILI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Two to 3 cognitive assessments were collected from 1089 participants, the first and last occurring a mean (standard deviation) of 8.6 (1.0) and 11.5 (0.7) years after enrollment. RESULTS: Greater improvement in blood sugar control was associated with better cognitive scores (fasting glucose and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [AVLT]: P = 0.0148; fasting glucose and Digit Symbol Coding (DSC): P = 0.0360; HbA1C and DSC: P = 0.0477); but weight loss had mixed associations with cognitive scores (greater body mass index [BMI] reduction and worse AVLT overall: P = 0.0053; and greater BMI reduction and better DSC scores among those overweight but not obese at baseline: P = 0.010). Associations were strongest among those who were overweight (not obese) at baseline, and among those with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in glycemic control, but not necessarily weight status, during ILI may be associated with better subsequent cognitive performance. These associations may differ by adiposity and CVD history.

15.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(9): 1678-1686, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to determine whether intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) aimed at weight loss lowers cancer incidence and mortality. METHODS: Data from the Look AHEAD trial were examined to investigate whether participants randomized to ILI designed for weight loss would have reduced overall cancer incidence, obesity-related cancer incidence, and cancer mortality, as compared with the diabetes support and education (DSE) comparison group. This analysis included 4,859 participants without a cancer diagnosis at baseline except for nonmelanoma skin cancer. RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 11 years, 684 participants (332 in ILI and 352 in DSE) were diagnosed with cancer. The incidence rates of obesity-related cancers were 6.1 and 7.3 per 1,000 person-years in ILI and DSE, respectively, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.68-1.04). There was no significant difference between the two groups in total cancer incidence (HR, 0.93; 95% CI: 0.80-1.08), incidence of nonobesity-related cancers (HR, 1.02; 95% CI: 0.83-1.27), or total cancer mortality (HR, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.68-1.25). CONCLUSIONS: An ILI aimed at weight loss lowered incidence of obesity-related cancers by 16% in adults with overweight or obesity and type 2 diabetes. The study sample size likely lacked power to determine effect sizes of this magnitude and smaller.

16.
Prev Med ; 139: 106234, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795644

RESUMO

Older adults have physical and social barriers to eating but whether this affects functional status is unknown. We examined associations between eating barriers and physical function in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). In 2012-14, a subset of alive and participating women (n = 5910) completed an in-home examination including the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) (grip strength, balance, timed walking speed, chair stand). WHI participants complete annual mailed questionnaires; the 2013-14 questionnaire included items on eating alone, eating < two meals/day, dentition problems affecting eating, physical difficulties with cooking/shopping and monetary resources for food. Linear regression tested associations of these eating barriers with SPPB, adjusting for BMI, age, race/ethnicity, and medical multimorbidities. Over half (56.8%) of participants were ≥ 75 years, 98.8% had a BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2 and 66% had multimorbidities. Eating barriers, excluding eating alone, were associated with significantly lower total (all p < .001) and component-specific, multivariate-adjusted SPPB scores (all p < .05). Compared to no barriers, eating < two meals/day (7.83 vs. 8.38, p < .0002), dentition problems (7.69 vs. 8.38, p < .0001), inability to shop/prepare meals (7.74 vs. 8.38, p < .0001) and insufficient resources (7.84 vs. 8.37 p < .001) were significantly associated with multivariate-adjusted mean SPPB score < 8. Models additionally adjusting for Healthy Eating Index-2010 had little influence on scores. As barriers increased, scores declined further for grip strength (16.10 kg for 4-5 barriers, p = .001), timed walk (0.58 m/s for 4-5 barriers, p = .001) and total SPPB (7.27 for 4-5 barriers, p < .0001). In conclusion, in this WHI subset, eating barriers were associated with poor SPPB scores.

17.
JAMA Intern Med ; 180(9): 1232-1240, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730575

RESUMO

Importance: Repeated bone mineral density (BMD) testing to screen for osteoporosis requires resources. For patient counseling and optimal resource use, it is important for clinicians to know whether repeated BMD measurement (compared with baseline BMD measurement alone) improves the ability to discriminate between postmenopausal women who will and will not experience a fracture. Objective: To assess whether a second BMD measurement approximately 3 years after the initial assessment is associated with improved ability to estimate fracture risk beyond the baseline BMD measurement alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Women's Health Initiative is a prospective observational study. Participants in the present cohort study included 7419 women with a mean (SD) follow-up of 12.1 (3.4) years between 1993 and 2010 at 3 US clinical centers. Data analysis was conducted between May 2019 and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident major osteoporotic fracture (ie, hip, clinical spine, forearm, or shoulder fracture), hip fracture, baseline BMD, and absolute change in BMD were assessed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AU-ROC) for baseline BMD, absolute change in BMD, and the combination of baseline BMD and change in BMD were calculated to assess incident fracture risk discrimination during follow-up. Results: Of 7419 participants, the mean (SD) age at baseline was 66.1 (7.2) years, the mean (SD) body mass index was 28.7 (6.0), and 1720 (23%) were nonwhite individuals. During the study follow-up (mean [SD] 9.0 [3.5] years after the second BMD measurement), 139 women (1.9%) experienced hip fractures, and 732 women (9.9%) experienced major osteoporotic fracture. In discriminating between women who experience hip fractures and those who do not, AU-ROC values were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.67-0.75) for baseline total hip BMD, 0.61 (95% CI, 0.56-0.65) for change in total hip BMD, and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.69-0.77) for the combination of baseline total hip BMD and change in total hip BMD. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD values had similar discrimination for hip fracture. For discrimination of major osteoporotic fracture, AU-ROC values were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.59-0.63) for baseline total hip BMD, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.51-0.55) for change in total hip BMD, and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.59-0.63) for the combination of baseline total hip BMD and change in total hip BMD. Femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD values had similar ability to discriminate between women who experienced major osteoporotic fracture and those who did not. Associations between change in bone density and fracture risk did not differ by subgroup, including diabetes, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, or baseline BMD T score. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that a second BMD assessment approximately 3 years after the initial measurement was not associated with improved discrimination between women who did and did not experience subsequent hip fracture or major osteoporotic fracture beyond the baseline BMD value alone and should not routinely be performed.

18.
JAMA ; 324(4): 369-380, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721007

RESUMO

Importance: The influence of menopausal hormone therapy on breast cancer remains unsettled with discordant findings from observational studies and randomized clinical trials. Objective: To assess the association of prior randomized use of estrogen plus progestin or prior randomized use of estrogen alone with breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Women's Health Initiative clinical trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: Long-term follow-up of 2 placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials that involved 27 347 postmenopausal women aged 50 through 79 years with no prior breast cancer and negative baseline screening mammogram. Women were enrolled at 40 US centers from 1993 to 1998 with follow-up through December 31, 2017. Interventions: In the trial involving 16 608 women with a uterus, 8506 were randomized to receive 0.625 mg/d of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) plus 2.5 mg/d of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 8102, placebo. In the trial involving 10 739 women with prior hysterectomy, 5310 were randomized to receive 0.625 mg/d of CEE alone and 5429, placebo. The CEE-plus-MPA trial was stopped in 2002 after 5.6 years' median intervention duration, and the CEE-only trial was stopped in 2004 after 7.2 years' median intervention duration. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was breast cancer incidence (protocol prespecified primary monitoring outcome for harm) and secondary outcomes were deaths from breast cancer and deaths after breast cancer. Results: Among 27 347 postmenopausal women who were randomized in both trials (baseline mean [SD] age, 63.4 years [7.2 years]), after more than 20 years of median cumulative follow-up, mortality information was available for more than 98%. CEE alone compared with placebo among 10 739 women with a prior hysterectomy was associated with statistically significantly lower breast cancer incidence with 238 cases (annualized rate, 0.30%) vs 296 cases (annualized rate, 0.37%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.78; 95% CI, 0.65-0.93; P = .005) and was associated with statistically significantly lower breast cancer mortality with 30 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.031%) vs 46 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.046%; HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.97; P = .04). In contrast, CEE plus MPA compared with placebo among 16 608 women with a uterus was associated with statistically significantly higher breast cancer incidence with 584 cases (annualized rate, 0.45%) vs 447 cases (annualized rate, 0.36%; HR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13-1.45; P < .001) and no significant difference in breast cancer mortality with 71 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.045%) vs 53 deaths (annualized mortality rate, 0.035%; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.94-1.95; P= .11). Conclusions and Relevance: In this long-term follow-up study of 2 randomized trials, prior randomized use of CEE alone, compared with placebo, among women who had a previous hysterectomy, was significantly associated with lower breast cancer incidence and lower breast cancer mortality, whereas prior randomized use of CEE plus MPA, compared with placebo, among women who had an intact uterus, was significantly associated with a higher breast cancer incidence but no significant difference in breast cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição Hormonal/efeitos adversos , Histerectomia , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Estrogênios Conjugados (USP)/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Histerectomia/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Risco
19.
Diabetes Care ; 43(8): 1759-1766, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499383

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We studied associations between social support, social network size, social strain, or stressful life events and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From the Women's Health Initiative, 5,262 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes at baseline were included. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for demographics, depressive symptoms, anthropometric variables, and lifestyle factors were used to examine associations between social factors and CHD. RESULTS: A total of 672 case subjects with CHD were observed during an average 12.79 (SD 6.29) years of follow-up. There was a significant linear trend toward higher risk of CHD as the number of stressful life events increased (P for trend = 0.01; hazard ratio [HR] [95% CI] for the third and fourth quartiles compared with first quartile: 1.27 [1.03-1.56] and 1.30 [1.04-1.64]). Being married or in an intimate relationship was related to decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.69-0.97]). CONCLUSIONS: Among postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes, higher levels of stressful life events were associated with higher risk of CHD. Experience of stressful life events might be considered as a risk factor for CHD among women with type 2 diabetes.

20.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; : 100598, 2020 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448758

RESUMO

In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association released its updated blood pressure guidelines, redefining hypertension to be any systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg. Among United States adults, these new parameters increased the prevalence of hypertension from 72.2 million (31.9%) to 103.3 million (45.6%) adults and decreased the rate of medication-controlled hypertension from 53.4% to 39% with the prevalence of resistant hypertension ranging from 12% to 18%. Results of the pivotal SPRINT trial showed that more intensive blood pressure control in diabetic patients decreased both cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. However, even with ideal goals in mind, compliance remains an issue due to multiple causes, and approximately half of study participants had stopped taking their antihypertensive drug within a year. Renal sympathetic denervation is a process in which catheter-based techniques are used to ablate specific portions of the renal artery nerves with the goal of decreasing sympathetic nerve activity and reducing blood pressure. Several studies using renal artery denervation have already shown benefit in patients with resistant hypertension, and now newer trials are beginning to focus on those with stage II hypertension as an additional potential treatment population. This review will seek to summarize the current evidence surrounding renal artery denervation and discuss some of its future trials, current issues, and potential roles both in hypertension and other comorbidities.

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