Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 24
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Mater Horiz ; 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590657

RESUMO

This study demonstrates enhancement of in-device electro-optic activity via a series of theory-inspired organic electro-optic (OEO) chromophores based on strong (diarylamino)phenyl electron donating moieties. These chromophores are tuned to minimize trade-offs between molecular hyperpolarizability and optical loss. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) measurements demonstrate that these chromophores, herein described as BAH, show >2-fold improvement in ß versus standard chromophores such as JRD1, and approach that of the recent BTP and BAY chromophore families. Electric field poled bulk devices of neat and binary BAH chromophores exhibited significantly enhanced EO coefficients (r33) and poling efficiencies (r33/Ep) compared with state-of-the-art chromophores such as JRD1. The neat BAH13 devices with charge blocking layers produced very large poling efficiencies of 11.6 ± 0.7 nm2 V-2 and maximum r33 value of 1100 ± 100 pm V-1 at 1310 nm on hafnium dioxide (HfO2). These results were comparable to that of our recently reported BAY1 but with much lower loss (extinction coefficient, k), and greatly exceeding that of other previously reported OEO compounds. 3 : 1 BAH-FD : BAH13 blends showed a poling efficiency of 6.7 ± 0.3 nm2 V-2 and an even greater reduction in k. 1 : 1 BAH-BB : BAH13 showed a higher poling efficiency of 8.4 ± 0.3 nm2 V-2, which is approximately a 2.5-fold enhancement in poling efficiency vs. JRD1. Neat BAH13 was evaluated in plasmonic-organic hybrid (POH) Mach-Zehnder modulators with a phase shifter length of 10 µm and slot widths of 80 and 105 nm. In-device BAH13 achieved a maximum r33 of 208 pm V-1 at 1550 nm, which is ∼1.7 times higher than JRD1 under equivalent conditions.

2.
Adv Mater ; 33(45): e2104174, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545643

RESUMO

High performance organic electro-optic (OEO) materials enable ultrahigh bandwidth, small footprint, and extremely low drive voltage in silicon-organic hybrid and plasmonic-organic hybrid photonic devices. However, practical OEO materials under device-relevant conditions are generally limited to performance of ≈300 pm V-1 (10× the EO response of lithium niobate). By means of theory-guided design, a new series of OEO chromophores is demonstrated, based on strong bis(4-dialkylaminophenyl)phenylamino electron donating groups, capable of EO coefficients (r33 ) in excess of 1000 pm V-1 . Density functional theory modeling and hyper-Rayleigh scattering measurements are performed and confirm the large improvement in hyperpolarizability due to the stronger donor. The EO performance of the exemplar chromophore in the series, BAY1, is evaluated neat and at various concentrations in polymer host and shows a nearly linear increase in r33 and poling efficiency (r33 /Ep , Ep is poling field) with increasing chromophore concentration. 25 wt% BAY1/polymer composite shows a higher poling efficiency (3.9 ± 0.1 nm2 V-2 ) than state-of-the-art neat chromophores. Using a high-ε charge blocking layer with BAY1, a record-high r33 (1100 ± 100 pm V-1 ) and poling efficiency (17.8 ± 0.8 nm2 V-2 ) at 1310 nm are achieved. This is the first reported OEO material with electro-optic response larger than thin-film barium titanate.

3.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(3): e1008719, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661889

RESUMO

The enzyme nitrogenase reduces dinitrogen to ammonia utilizing electrons, protons, and energy obtained from the hydrolysis of ATP. Mo-dependent nitrogenase is a symmetric dimer, with each half comprising an ATP-dependent reductase, termed the Fe Protein, and a catalytic protein, known as the MoFe protein, which hosts the electron transfer P-cluster and the active-site metal cofactor (FeMo-co). A series of synchronized events for the electron transfer have been characterized experimentally, in which electron delivery is coupled to nucleotide hydrolysis and regulated by an intricate allosteric network. We report a graph theory analysis of the mechanical coupling in the nitrogenase complex as a key step to understanding the dynamics of allosteric regulation of nitrogen reduction. This analysis shows that regions near the active sites undergo large-scale, large-amplitude correlated motions that enable communications within each half and between the two halves of the complex. Computational predictions of mechanically regions were validated against an analysis of the solution phase dynamics of the nitrogenase complex via hydrogen-deuterium exchange. These regions include the P-loops and the switch regions in the Fe proteins, the loop containing the residue ß-188Ser adjacent to the P-cluster in the MoFe protein, and the residues near the protein-protein interface. In particular, it is found that: (i) within each Fe protein, the switch regions I and II are coupled to the [4Fe-4S] cluster; (ii) within each half of the complex, the switch regions I and II are coupled to the loop containing ß-188Ser; (iii) between the two halves of the complex, the regions near the nucleotide binding pockets of the two Fe proteins (in particular the P-loops, located over 130 Å apart) are also mechanically coupled. Notably, we found that residues next to the P-cluster (in particular the loop containing ß-188Ser) are important for communication between the two halves.


Assuntos
Molibdoferredoxina/química , Molibdoferredoxina/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/química , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Azotobacter vinelandii/enzimologia , Sítios de Ligação , Medição da Troca de Deutério , Transporte de Elétrons , Modelos Moleculares , Ligação Proteica
4.
ACS Omega ; 5(1): 537-546, 2020 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31956800

RESUMO

A simple and convergent way to synthesize 2-amino-6-bromonaphthalenes involves condensation of free secondary amines with the corresponding 2-naphthol under Bucherer conditions. The amination protocol relies on common Teflon-capped pressure flasks and has been used to modify the tertiary aminonaphthalene core of DANPY, a biocompatible chromophore shown to be safe and effective for staining a variety of cellular targets. Following a Suzuki reaction with pyridine 4-boronic acid, additional diversity is introduced upon N-alkylation to install the pyridinium cation. New DANPY derivatives and intermediates reported herein reflect the modularity of the dye nucleus, including the addition of groups useful for applications in membrane staining and DNA-based biophotonics.

5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(23): 21058-21068, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117459

RESUMO

To boost electro-optic (EO) performance, a series of multichromophore dendrimers have been developed based on higher hyperpolarizability (CLD-type) chromophore cores that have been used previously (FTC-type dendrimers). The multichromophore dendrimers were molecularly engineered to have either three arms, two arms, or one arm; long or short linkers; and a fluorinated dendron (FD) or tert-butyldiphenylsilyl (TBDPS) shell. The EO performance obtained by FDSD (poling efficiency = 1.60 nm2 V-2), based on succinic diester linkers, was higher than the analogue with longer adipic diester linkers and higher than the analogs with fewer chromophore moieties. Due to the shorter succinic diester linker and improved site isolation, the dendrimer chromophore with TBDPS groups exhibited enhanced glass-transition temperature ( Tg = 108 °C) and comparable poling efficiency (1.62 nm2 V-2) to the FD-containing version. These neat EO dendrimers have a higher index of refraction ( n = 1.75-1.84 at 1310 nm) than guest-host polymeric EO materials ( n ≈ 1.6, 1310 nm) and FTC-type EO dendrimers ( n = 1.73, 1310 nm), which is important, because a key metric for Mach-Zehnder modulators is proportional to n3. In addition, binary chromophore organic glasses (BCOGs) were prepared by doping a secondary EO chromophore at 25 wt % into neat dendrimers. Enhancements of EO performance were found in all BCOG materials compared with neat dendrimers due to the effect of blending. As a result of increased chromophore density, the n values of the BCOGs improved to 1.81-1.92. One BOCG, in particular, displayed the highest poling efficiency (2.35 nm2 V-2) and largest EO coefficient ( r33) value of 275 pm V-1 at 1310 nm, which represents a high n3 r33 figure-of-merit of 1946 pm V-1. The high poling efficiencies and n3 r33 figure-of-merit combined with excellent film forming confirm these neat dendrimers and BCOGs based on them as promising candidates for incorporation into photonic devices.

6.
J Am Chem Soc ; 141(20): 8315-8326, 2019 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042028

RESUMO

The catalytic reduction of O2 to H2O is important for energy transduction in both synthetic and natural systems. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermochemical study of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyzed by iron tetraphenylporphyrin (Fe(TPP)) in N, N'-dimethylformamide using decamethylferrocene as a soluble reductant and para-toluenesulfonic acid ( pTsOH) as the proton source. This work identifies and characterizes catalytic intermediates and their thermochemistry, providing a detailed mechanistic understanding of the system. Specifically, reduction of the ferric porphyrin, [FeIII(TPP)]+, forms the ferrous porphyrin, FeII(TPP), which binds O2 reversibly to form the ferric-superoxide porphyrin complex, FeIII(TPP)(O2•-). The temperature dependence of both the electron transfer and O2 binding equilibrium constants has been determined. Kinetic studies over a range of concentrations and temperatures show that the catalyst resting state changes during the course of each catalytic run, necessitating the use of global kinetic modeling to extract rate constants and kinetic barriers. The rate-determining step in oxygen reduction is the protonation of FeIII(TPP)(O2•-) by pTsOH, which proceeds with a substantial kinetic barrier. Computational studies indicate that this barrier for proton transfer arises from an unfavorable preassociation of the proton donor with the superoxide adduct and a transition state that requires significant desolvation of the proton donor. Together, these results are the first example of oxygen reduction by iron tetraphenylporphyrin where the pre-equilibria among ferric, ferrous, and ferric-superoxide intermediates have been quantified under catalytic conditions. This work gives a generalizable model for the mechanism of iron porphyrin-catalyzed ORR and provides an unusually complete mechanistic study of an ORR reaction. More broadly, this study also highlights the kinetic challenges for proton transfer to catalytic intermediates in organic media.


Assuntos
Metaloporfirinas/química , Oxigênio/química , Catálise , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Cinética , Modelos Químicos , Oxirredução , Termodinâmica
7.
Biophys J ; 116(9): 1598-1608, 2019 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010662

RESUMO

Although the critical role of allostery in controlling enzymatic processes is well appreciated, there is a current dearth in our understanding of its underlying mechanisms, including communication between binding sites. One potential key aspect of intersite communication is the mechanical coupling between residues in a protein. Here, we introduce a graph-based computational approach to investigate the mechanical coupling between distant parts of a protein, highlighting effective pathways via which protein motion can transfer energy between sites. In this method, each residue is treated as a node on a weighted, undirected graph, in which the edges are defined by locally correlated motions of those residues and weighted by the strength of the correlation. The method was validated against experimental data on allosteric regulation in the human liver pyruvate kinase as obtained from full-protein alanine-scanning mutagenesis (systematic mutation) studies, as well as computational data on two G-protein-coupled receptors. The method provides semiquantitative information on the regulatory importance of specific structural elements. It is shown that these elements are key for the mechanical coupling between distant parts of the protein by providing effective pathways for energy transfer. It is also shown that, although there are a multitude of energy transfer pathways between distant parts of a protein, these pathways share a few common nodes that represent effective "chokepoints" for the communication.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Mecânicos , Piruvato Quinase/química , Piruvato Quinase/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Fígado/enzimologia , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação Proteica
8.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(15): 3765-3780, 2019 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30887974

RESUMO

Dyes with nonlinear optical (NLO) properties enable new imaging techniques and photonic systems. We have developed a dye (DANPY-1) for photonics applications in biological substrates such as nucleic acids; however, the design specification also enables it to be used for visualizing biomolecules. It is a prototype dye demonstrating a water-soluble, NLO-active fluorophore with high photostability, a large Stokes shift, and a favorable toxicity profile. A practical and scalable synthetic route to DANPY salts has been optimized featuring: (1) convergent Pd-catalyzed Suzuki coupling with pyridine 4-boronic acid, (2) site-selective pyridyl N-methylation, and (3) direct recovery of crystalline intermediates without chromatography. We characterize the optical properties, biocompatibility, and biological staining behavior of DANPY-1. In addition to stability and solubility across a range of polar media, the DANPY-1 chromophore shows a first hyperpolarizability similar to common NLO dyes such as Disperse Red 1 and DAST, a large two-photon absorption cross section for its size, substantial affinity to nucleic acids in vitro, an ability to stain a variety of cellular components, and strong sensitivity of its fluorescence properties to its dielectric environment.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Naftalenos/química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/química , Piridinas/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/síntese química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacologia , Células HeLa , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Naftalenos/síntese química , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/síntese química , Fármacos Fotossensibilizantes/farmacologia , Piridinas/síntese química , Piridinas/farmacologia
9.
J Biol Chem ; 293(25): 9629-9635, 2018 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720402

RESUMO

Nitrogenase is the enzyme that reduces atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3) in biological systems. It catalyzes a series of single-electron transfers from the donor iron protein (Fe protein) to the molybdenum-iron protein (MoFe protein) that contains the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) sites where N2 is reduced to NH3 The P-cluster in the MoFe protein functions in nitrogenase catalysis as an intermediate electron carrier between the external electron donor, the Fe protein, and the FeMo-co sites of the MoFe protein. Previous work has revealed that the P-cluster undergoes redox-dependent structural changes and that the transition from the all-ferrous resting (PN) state to the two-electron oxidized P2+ state is accompanied by protein serine hydroxyl and backbone amide ligation to iron. In this work, the MoFe protein was poised at defined potentials with redox mediators in an electrochemical cell, and the three distinct structural states of the P-cluster (P2+, P1+, and PN) were characterized by X-ray crystallography and confirmed by computational analysis. These analyses revealed that the three oxidation states differ in coordination, implicating that the P1+ state retains the serine hydroxyl coordination but lacks the backbone amide coordination observed in the P2+ states. These results provide a complete picture of the redox-dependent ligand rearrangements of the three P-cluster redox states.


Assuntos
Azotobacter vinelandii/enzimologia , Molibdoferredoxina/química , Nitrogenase/química , Conformação Proteica , Prótons , Catálise , Cristalografia por Raios X , Transporte de Elétrons , Molibdoferredoxina/metabolismo , Nitrogenase/metabolismo , Oxirredução
10.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 113(36): 10007-12, 2016 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27559083

RESUMO

Properties of glasses are typically controlled by judicious selection of the glass-forming and glass-modifying constituents. Through an experimental and computational study of the crystalline, molten, and amorphous [Ca12Al14O32](2+) ⋅ (e(-))2, we demonstrate that electron anions in this system behave as glass modifiers that strongly affect solidification dynamics, the glass transition temperature, and spectroscopic properties of the resultant amorphous material. The concentration of such electron anions is a consequential control parameter: It invokes materials evolution pathways and properties not available in conventional glasses, which opens a unique avenue in rational materials design.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 55(17): 8241-3, 2016 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494264

RESUMO

The efficient removal of pertechnetate (TcO4(-)) anions from liquid waste or melter off-gas solution for an alternative treatment is one of the promising options to manage (99)Tc in legacy nuclear waste. Safe immobilization of (99)Tc is of major importance because of its long half-life (t1/2 = 2.13 × 10(5) yrs) and environmental mobility. Different types of inorganic and solid-state ion-exchange materials have been shown to absorb TcO4(-) anions from water. However, both high capacity and selectivity have yet to be achieved in a single material. Herein, we show that a protonated version of an ultrastable zirconium-based metal-organic framework can adsorb perrhenate (ReO4(-)) anions, a nonradioactive surrogate for TcO4(-), from water even in the presence of other common anions. Synchrotron-based powder X-ray diffraction and molecular simulations were used to identify the position of the adsorbed ReO4(-) (surrogate for TcO4(-)) molecule within the framework.

12.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 12(9): 4362-74, 2016 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27434770

RESUMO

We have developed an approach to coarse-grained (CG) modeling of the van der Waals (vdW) type of interactions among molecules by representing groups of atoms within those molecules in terms of ellipsoids (rather than spheres). Our approach systematically translates an arbitrary underlying all-atom (AA) representation of a molecular system to a multisite ellipsoidal potential within the family of Gay-Berne type potentials. As the method enables arbitrary levels of coarse-graining, or even multiple levels of coarse-graining within a single simulation, we describe the method as a Level of Detail (LoD) model. The LoD model, as integrated into our group's Metropolis Monte Carlo computational package, is also capable of reducing the complexity of the molecular electrostatics by means of a multipole expansion of charges obtained from an AA force field (or directly from electronic structure calculations) of the charges within each ellipsoid. Electronic polarizability may additionally be included. The present CG representation does not include transformation of bonded interactions; ellipsoids are connected at the fully atomistic bond sites by freely rotating links that are constrained to maintain a constant distance. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated for three distinct types of self-assembling or self-organizing molecular systems: (1) the interaction between benzene and perfluorobenzene (dispersion interactions), (2) linear hydrocarbon chains (a system with large conformational flexibility), and (3) the self-organization of ethylene carbonate (a highly polar liquid). Lastly, the method is applied to the interaction of large (∼100 atom) molecules, which are typical of organic nonlinear optical chromophores, to demonstrate the effect of different CG models on molecular assembly.

13.
Langmuir ; 32(7): 1771-81, 2016 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26783873

RESUMO

Aluminum has attracted great attention recently as it has been suggested by several studies to be associated with increased risks for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The toxicity of the trivalent ion is assumed to derive from structural changes induced in lipid bilayers upon binding, though the mechanism of this process is still not well understood. In the present study we elucidate the effect of Al(3+) on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) using fluorescence microscopy, the quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) technique, dual-polarization interferometry (DPI), and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Results from these techniques show that binding of Al(3+) to SLBs containing negatively charged and neutral phospholipids induces irreversible changes such as domain formation. The measured variations in SLB thickness, birefringence, and density indicate a phase transition from a disordered to a densely packed ordered phase.


Assuntos
Alumínio/farmacologia , Glicerofosfatos/química , Bicamadas Lipídicas/química , Fosforilcolina/química , Difusão , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
14.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(16): 5240-50, 2015 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25821921

RESUMO

The Stockmayer fluid, composed of dipolar spheres, has a well-known isotropic-ferroelectric phase transition at high dipole densities. However, there has been little investigation of the ferroelectric transition in nearly spherical fluids at dipole densities corresponding to those found in many polar solvents and in guest-host organic electro-optic materials. In this work, we examine the transition to ordered phases of low-aspect-ratio spheroids under both unperturbed and poled conditions, characterizing both the static dielectric response and thermodynamic properties of spheroidal systems. Spontaneous ferroelectric ordering was confined to a small region of aspect ratios about unity, indicating that subtle changes in sterics can have substantial influence on the behavior of coarse-grained liquid models. Our results demonstrate the importance of molecular shape in obtaining even qualitatively correct dielectric responses and provide an explanation for the success of the Onsager model as a phenomenological representation for the dielectric behavior of polar organic liquids.

15.
J Phys Chem B ; 119(7): 3205-12, 2015 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25634125

RESUMO

Orientational order parameters are useful metrics for characterizing the probability distribution for vector-valued quantities such as the dipole moment or optical axis of molecules in materials such as liquid crystals and organic glasses. These parameters are the moments of the underlying orientational probability distribution. Many molecular systems can be characterized using a single centrosymmetric (even) moment. For dipolar systems, an applied electric or magnetic field can break the symmetry of the system, leading to nonzero acentric (odd) moments. For complex systems, it is difficult to characterize the nature of the bulk structures and to quantitatively understand the relationship between acentric and centrosymmetric moments. We have found that it is useful to relate the moments of the distribution in terms of an apparent dimensionality of the ordering process. Here we show that the idea of noninteger dimensionality, originally introduced by Stillinger, provides a useful method to characterize the relation between centrosymmetric and acentric orientational order parameters. Applying dimensional constraints is equivalent to removing rotational degrees of freedom or constraining rotation within a restricted volume. Simulations based on simple examples­using restoring potentials on arrays of independent dipoles­and on complex many-body Monte Carlo simulations of dipolar spheroids are described. An analysis of the results illustrates the utility of fractional dimensionality to describe ordering in materials.

16.
Acc Chem Res ; 47(11): 3258-65, 2014 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24967617

RESUMO

CONSPECTUS: Organic glasses containing chromophores with large first hyperpolarizabilities (ß) are promising for compact, high-bandwidth, and energy-efficient electro-optic devices. Systematic optimization of device performance requires development of materials with high acentric order and enhanced hyperpolarizability at operating wavelengths. One essential component of the design process is the accurate calculation of optical transition frequencies and hyperpolarizability. These properties can be computed with a wide range of electronic structure methods implemented within commercial and open-source software packages. A wide variety of methods, especially hybrid density-functional theory (DFT) variants have been used for this purpose. However, in order to provide predictions useful to chromophore designers, a method must be able to consistently predict the relative ordering of standard and novel materials. Moreover, it is important to distinguish between the resonant and nonresonant contribution to the hyperpolarizabiliy and be able to estimate the trade-off between improved ß and unwanted absorbance (optical loss) at the target device's operating wavelength. Therefore, we have surveyed a large variety of common methods for computing the properties of modern high-performance chromophores and compared these results with prior experimental hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) and absorbance data. We focused on hybrid DFT methods, supplemented by more computationally intensive Møller-Plesset (MP2) calculations, to determine the relative accuracy of these methods. Our work compares computed hyperpolarizabilities in chloroform relative to standard chromophore EZ-FTC against HRS data versus the same reference. We categorized DFT methods used by the amount of Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange energy incorporated into each functional. Our results suggest that the relationship between percentage of long-range HF exchange and both ßHRS and λmax is nearly linear, decreasing as the fraction of long-range HF exchange increases. Mild hybrid DFT methods are satisfactory for prediction of λmax. However, mild hybrid methods provided qualitatively incorrect predictions of the relative hyperpolarizabilities of three high-performance chromophores. DFT methods with approximately 50% HF exchange, and especially the Truhlar M062X functional, provide superior predictions of relative ßHRS values but poorer predictions of λmax. The observed trends for these functionals, as well as range-separated hybrids, are similar to MP2, though predicting smaller absolute magnitudes for ßHRS. Frequency dependence for ßHRS can be calculated using time-dependent DFT and HF methods. However, calculation quality is sensitive not only to a method's ability to predict static hyperpolarizability but also to its prediction of optical resonances. Due to the apparent trade-off in accuracy of prediction of these two properties and the need to use static finite-field methods for MP2 and higher-level hyperpolarizability calculations in most codes, we suggest that composite methods could greatly improve the accuracy of calculations of ß and λmax.

17.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(12): 9093-9, 2014 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24848580

RESUMO

Understanding the kinetics of dye adsorption and desorption on semiconductors is crucial for optimizing the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) measures adsorbed mass in real time, allowing determination of binding kinetics. In this work, we characterize adsorption of the common RuBipy dye N3 to the native oxide layer of a planar, sputter-coated titanium surface, simulating the TiO2 substrate of a DSSC. We report adsorption equilibrium constants consistent with prior optical measurements of N3 adsorption. Dye binding and surface integrity were also verified by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We further study desorption of the dye from the native oxide layer on the QCM sensors using tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAOH), a commonly used industrial desorbant. We find that using TBAOH as a desorbant does not fully regenerate the surface, though little ruthenium or nitrogen is observed by XPS after desorption, suggesting that carboxyl moieties of N3 remain bound. We demonstrate the native oxide layer of a titanium sensor as a valid and readily available planar TiO2 morphology to study dye adsorption and desorption and begin to investigate the mechanism of dye desorption in DSSCs, a system that requires further study.

18.
J Chem Theory Comput ; 10(9): 3821-31, 2014 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26588527

RESUMO

Organic electro-optic (OEO) materials integrated into silicon-organic hybrid devices afford significant improvements in size, weight, power, and bandwidth performance of integrated electronic/photonic systems critical for current and next generation telecommunication, computer, sensor, transportation, and defense technologies. Improvement in molecular first hyperpolarizability (ß), and in turn electro-optic activity, is crucial to optimizing device performance. Common hybrid density functional theory (DFT) methods, while attractive due to their computational scaling, often perform poorly for optical properties in systems with substantial intramolecular charge-transfer character, such as OEO chromophores. This study evaluates the utility of the long-range corrected (LC) DFT methods for computation of the molecular second-order nonlinear optical response. We compare calculated results for a 14-molecule benchmark set of OEO chromophores with the corresponding experimentally measured ß and one-photon absorption energy, λmax. We analyze the distance dependence of the fraction of exact exchange in LC-DFT methods for accurately computing these properties for OEO chromophores. We also examine systematic tuning of the range-separation parameter to enforce Koopmans'/ionization potential theorem. This tuning method improves prediction of excitation energies but is not reliable for predicting the hyperpolarizabilities of larger chromophores since the tuning parameter value can be too small, leading to instabilities in the computation of ßHRS. Additionally, we find that the size dependence of the optimal tuning parameter for the ionization potential has the opposite size dependence of optimal tuning parameter for best agreement with the experimental λmax, suggesting the tuning for the ionization potential is unreliable for extended conjugated systems.

19.
Adv Mater ; 24(24): 3263-8, 2012 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22605547

RESUMO

A high performing electro-optic (EO) chromophore with covalently attached coumarin-based pendant groups exhibits intermolecular correlation of coumarin units through molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Unique, orthogonal molecular orientations of the chromophore and coumarin units are also evident when investigated optically. Such molecular orientation translates to reduced lattice dimensionality of the bulk C1 soft matter material system, leading to increased acentric order and EO activity. Results are corroborated by nanorheological experimental methods.


Assuntos
Engenharia/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fenômenos Ópticos
20.
J Comput Chem ; 33(4): 416-24, 2012 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22121015

RESUMO

The geometrical and electronic structures of Al(BO(2))(n) and Al(BO(2))(n)(-) (n = 1-4) clusters are computed at different levels of theory including density functional theory (DFT), hybrid DFT, double-hybrid DFT, and second-order perturbation theory. All aluminum borates are found to be quite stable toward the BO(2) and BO(2)(-) loss in the neutral and anion series, respectively. Al(BO(2))(4) belongs to the class of hyperhalogens composed of smaller superhalogens, and should possess a large adiabatic electron affinity (EA(ad)) larger than that of its superhalogen building block BO(2). Indeed, the aluminum tetraborate possesses the EA(ad) of 5.6 eV, which, however, is smaller than the EA(ad) of 7.8 eV of the AlF(4) supehalogen despite BO(2) is more electronegative than F. The EA(ad) decrease in Al(BO(2))(4) is due to the higher thermodynamic stability of Al(BO(2))(4) compared to that of AlF(4). Because of its high EA and thermodynamic stability, Al(BO(2))(4) should be capable of forming salts with electropositive counter ions. We optimized KAl(BO(2))(4) as corresponding to a unit cell of a hypothetical KAl(BO(2))(4) salt and found that specific energy and energy density of such a salt are competitive with those of trinitrotoluol (TNT).

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...