Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 65
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669336

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is becoming much more genetically complex than was initially considered. Thus, the role of HAE genetics is expanding beyond research laboratories, and the genotyping of subjects suffering from HAE has become diagnostically indispensable in clinical practice. The synthesis and interpretation of the clinical and biochemical analyses to facilitate appropriate genetic test selection has thus also become significantly more complex. With this in mind, an international multidisciplinary group of 14 experts in HAE genetics and disease management was convened in October 2018. The objective was to develop clear, actionable, evidence- and consensus-based statements aiming to facilitate the communication between physicians treating patients with HAE and clinical geneticists, and thus promote the effective use of genetics in the management of the disease. Eleven consensus statements were generated, encompassing considerations regarding the clinical indications for genotyping patients with angioedema, the methods of detection of HAE-causative variants, the variant pathogenicity curation, the genotyping of patients with HAE in the clinic, and genetic counseling. These statements are intended both to guide clinicians and to serve as a framework for future educational and further genetic testing developments as the field continues to evolve rapidly.

2.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 19(6): 553-562, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567398

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Clozapine has recently been described as a novel cause of secondary antibody deficiency (SAD), associated with long-term therapy. Here we critically review the evidence linking clozapine use to an increased infection risk, describe immunological alterations, and discuss potential mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Individuals with schizophrenia are at two to five times more likely to develop pneumonia than the general population, in particular, when receiving clozapine. Delayed-onset distinguishes clozapine-associated hypogammaglobulinaemia from agranulocytosis or neutropenia that occur at lesser frequency. Biomarker searches in treatment-resistant schizophrenia highlight an immune signature associated with long-term clozapine use. This includes reduction in class-switched memory B cells, echoing common variable immunodeficiency. Recent identification of a role for dopamine in T follicular helper-B cell interactions may inform future clinical studies. SUMMARY: The detrimental impact of the increased infection risk associated with clozapine necessitates a re-evaluation of the current monitoring strategies as well as further studies to better understand the underlying mechanisms of SAD in this setting. On the basis of available evidence, we suggest simple modifications to clozapine monitoring including integration of routine vaccination, smoking cessation, and assessment of humoral immunity. Further studies are required to understand the role of clozapine in neuroinflammation as well as other potentially autoantibody-mediated diseases.

3.
Immunotherapy ; 11(12): 1057-1065, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268374

RESUMO

Aim: This pooled analysis evaluated the safety and tolerability of the subcutaneous immunoglobulin 20% product, Ig20Gly, in primary immunodeficiency diseases using data from two Phase II/III studies conducted in North America and Europe. Patients & materials/methods: Patients received Ig20Gly (volumes, ≤60 ml/site; rates, ≤60 ml/h/site). Adverse events (AEs), tolerability and infusion parameters were assessed. Results: Patients (2-83 years; N = 122) received 6676 Ig20Gly infusions. No causally related serious or severe AEs were reported. Thirty-five patients (28.7%) reported 232 causally related local AEs. Twenty-seven patients (22.1%) reported 165 causally related systemic AEs. There was no association between the infusion volume or rate and causally related local AEs. Conclusion: Ig20Gly was well tolerated in a broad population of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases.

4.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 71: 404-410, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30952104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin (IG) replacement therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) can be administered daily to every 2 weeks subcutaneously (SCIG) or every 3 or 4 weeks intravenously (IVIG). OBJECTIVES: Develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model simulating IG exposure with Ig20Gly, a 20% SCIG; determine the dose adjustment factor for Ig20Gly relative to IVIG. METHODS: Data from patients with PID treated with Ig20Gly and IVIG 10% were used to characterize IG population PK by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling and validated using data splitting and a visual predictive check. IG profiles were simulated for 1000 patients/interval treated with Ig20Gly (daily, every 2 days, every 3 days, twice weekly, weekly, every 2 weeks). An Ig20Gly adjustment factor of 130% was used to simulate Ig20Gly to IVIG AUC ratios for weekly or every 2 weeks Ig20Gly dosing intervals and a monthly IVIG dosing interval. RESULTS: A 1-compartment model, using weight as a covariate on clearance, derived from an index modeling dataset (n = 81) demonstrated predictability for a validation dataset (n = 21). The model estimate of bioavailability was 73.9%. Simulations for 6 dosing intervals showed similar mean profiles with overlapping prediction intervals. Mean AUC ratios of Ig20Gly to IVIG with a dose adjustment factor of 1.30:1 were 98.7% for weekly and 97.7% for twice-weekly administration demonstrating comparable exposure. CONCLUSION: Ig20Gly exposures from daily to up to every 2 weeks appeared equivalent. A 1.30 conversion factor provided coverage comparable to IVIG when Ig20Gly is administered daily to every 2 weeks.

5.
BMJ ; 364: l483, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718272
6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800120

RESUMO

Antibody deficiency or hypogammaglobulinemia can have primary or secondary etiologies. Primary antibody deficiency (PAD) is the result of intrinsic genetic defects, whereas secondary antibody deficiency may arise as a consequence of underlying conditions or medication use. On a global level, malnutrition, HIV, and malaria are major causes of secondary immunodeficiency. In this review we consider secondary antibody deficiency, for which common causes include hematological malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia or multiple myeloma, and their treatment, protein-losing states, and side effects of a number of immunosuppressive agents and procedures involved in solid organ transplantation. Secondary antibody deficiency is not only much more common than PAD, but is also being increasingly recognized with the wider and more prolonged use of a growing list of agents targeting B cells. SAD may thus present to a broad range of specialties and is associated with an increased risk of infection. Early diagnosis and intervention is key to avoiding morbidity and mortality. Optimizing treatment requires careful clinical and laboratory assessment and may involve close monitoring of risk parameters, vaccination, antibiotic strategies, and in some patients, immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT). This review discusses the rapidly evolving list of underlying causes of secondary antibody deficiency, specifically focusing on therapies targeting B cells, alongside recent advances in screening, biomarkers of risk for the development of secondary antibody deficiency, diagnosis, monitoring, and management.

7.
Pract Neurol ; 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498056

RESUMO

Rituximab is a widely used B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody. It is unlicensed for use in neurological disorders and there are no treatment guidelines. However, as a rapidly acting, targeted therapy with growing evidence of efficacy and tolerability in several neuroinflammatory disorders, it is an attractive alternative to conventional immunomodulatory medications. This practical review aims to explain the basic principles of B-cell depletion with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. We present the evidence for using rituximab in neurological diseases, and describe the practical aspects of prescribing, including dosing, monitoring, safety, treatment failure and its use in special circumstances such as coexisting viral hepatitis, pregnancy and lactation. We provide an administration guide, checklist and patient information leaflet, which can be adapted for local use. Finally, we review the safety data of rituximab and ocrelizumab (a newer and recently licensed B-cell-depleting therapy for multiple sclerosis) and suggest monitoring and risk reduction strategies.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30465179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDDs) are a heterogenous group of disorders characterized by intrinsic impairment in the immune system. Most patients with PIDD require life-long immunoglobulin G replacement therapy, which has been shown to reduce the rate of infections and, related hospitalizations and reduce health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Here, treatment satisfaction and HRQOL in patients with PIDD was evaluated upon switching from intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulins (SCIGs) to 20% SCIG (Hizentra®), and during long-term steady-state Hizentra® treatment. METHODS: Analyses were based on two pivotal (switch) and four extension/follow-up (maintenance) Phase III studies of Hizentra® conducted in Europe (EU), Japan (JP), and the United States (US). Two validated questionnaires were used: Life Quality Index (LQI) for assessment of IgG-specific perceptions of HRQOL and Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2). RESULTS: In the EU and JP switch studies, there was significant and meaningful improvement from Screening in LQI domain scores at all time points, largely driven by patients switching from IVIG to SCIG. In the EU switch study, there were also significant increases in mean SF-36v2 domain scores for Physical Function and General Health from Screening to Week 12. These improvements were observed also at Week 24. Overall, LQI and SF-36v2 domain scores were generally sustained in the maintenance studies. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that switching patients from IVIG to SCIG improves patient self-reported health status and IgG-specific HRQOL perception. The maintenance studies generally showed no deterioration of this improved health status over a long follow-up period.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 2018 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415311

RESUMO

Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) require immunoglobulin G (IgG) replacement therapy, delivered as intravenous IgG (IVIG) or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG). We aim to identify trends in efficacy and safety that would not be evident in individual studies of small patient numbers. Seven open-label, Phase 3, prospective, multicenter studies of the efficacy and safety of Hizentra® (a SCIG), conducted in Japan, Europe, and the US were summarized. Overall, 125 unique patients received 15,013 weekly infusions during a total observation period of 250.9 patient-years. Mean weekly doses of Hizentra® were 83.22-221.3 mg/kg body weight; infusion rates per patient (total body rate) were 25.2-49.3 mL/h across studies. The rates of infections and serious bacterial infections were 3.10 and 0.03 events per patient/year, respectively. Annualized rates of days hospitalized due to infection, out of work/school, and prophylactic antibiotic use were 0.95, 5.14, and 36.78 per patient, respectively. For the equivalent monthly dose, weekly Hizentra® SCIG administration resulted in expectedly-increased serum IgG trough levels in patients switching from IVIG, and maintained levels in patients switching from previous SCIG. Adverse events (AEs) totaled 5039 (events/infusion 0.094-0.773), almost all of which were mild/moderate. Three thousand one hundred ninety-seven were considered treatment-related, the most common of which were injection site reactions (2919 events; 0.001-0.592 AEs per infusion). Systemic AEs were very uncommon. The results from these seven studies indicate that Hizentra® therapy was both efficacious and well tolerated during long-term treatment. This is particularly important in patients with PID, who may require lifelong IgG replacement therapy.

12.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 18(6): 481-488, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299398

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Induction of lymphocyte depletion is increasingly used as a therapeutic strategy for central and peripheral neuroinflammatory disease. However, there is also a growing recognition of the treatment-related complication of secondary antibody deficiency (SAD). Although the occurrence of hypogammaglobulinaemia is a recognized phenomenon during immunomodulation, robust data on the coexistence of impaired responses to immunization, and significant and/or atypical infections is scarce. Here we review the literature on SAD in anti-CD20 therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Several factors that may increase the incidence of SAD have now been identified, including low levels of immunoglobulins prior to the commencement of B-cell ablation therapy, duration of maintenance therapy, and concurrent or prior use of other immunosuppressing agents such as cyclophosphamide and steroids. Measurement of disease-specific antibodies and vaccine response are likely to be helpful adjuncts to measurement of serum immunoglobulin levels during B-cell depleting therapy. Supportive treatment may include amending the treatment schedule to limit cumulative dose. SUMMARY: B-cell depleting agents offer considerable therapeutic benefit in neurology. We propose modifications in current practice that include risk stratification and early identification of SAD, with the aim of minimising morbidity and mortality related to this underappreciated condition.

13.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-7, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30259827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia affects 1% of the population. Clozapine is the only medication licensed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is intensively monitored to prevent harm from neutropenia. Clozapine is also associated with increased risk of pneumonia although the mechanism is poorly understood.AimsTo investigate the potential association between clozapine and antibody deficiency. METHODS: Patients taking clozapine and patients who were clozapine-naive and receiving alternative antipsychotics were recruited and completed a lifestyle, medication and infection-burden questionnaire. Serum total immunoglobulins (immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM) and specific IgG antibodies to haemophilus influenzae type B, tetanus and IgG, IgA and IgM to pneumococcus were measured. RESULTS: Immunoglobulins were all significantly reduced in the clozapine-treated group (n = 123) compared with the clozapine-naive group (n = 111). Odds ratios (ORs) for a reduction in clozapine:control immunoglobulin values below the fifth percentile were IgG, OR = 6.00 (95% CI 1.31-27.44); IgA, OR = 16.75 (95% CI 2.18-128.60); and IgM, OR = 3.26 (95% CI 1.75-6.08). These findings remained significant despite exclusion of other potential causes of hypogammaglobulinaemia. In addition, duration on clozapine was associated with decline in IgG. A higher proportion of the clozapine-treated group reported taking more than five courses of antibiotics in the preceding year (5.3% (n = 5) versus 1% (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine use was associated with significantly reduced immunoglobulin levels and an increased proportion of patients using more than five antibiotic courses in a year. Antibody testing is not included in existing clozapine monitoring programmes but may represent a mechanistic explanation and modifiable risk factor for the increased rates of pneumonia and sepsis-related mortality previously reported in this vulnerable cohort.Declaration of interestS.J. has received support from CSL Behring, Shire, LFB, Biotest, Binding Site, Sanofi, GSK, UCB Pharma, Grifols, BPL SOBI, Weatherden, Zarodex and Octapharma for projects, advisory boards, meetings, studies, speaker and clinical trials.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30091407

RESUMO

Morbidity and mortality of primary and secondary antibody deficiencies (AD) are frequently associated with diagnostic delays. These could be avoided by a combination of factors including a widespread and effective development in screening tests. Calculated globulin (CG), derived from the difference between serum total protein and albumin levels, reflects immunoglobulin serum levels and has shown to have a predictive value in the early diagnosis of antibody deficiencies. This study investigated the possibility to use low levels of CG to detect antibody deficiency in an Italian University Hospital. First, we conducted an analysis of anonymized adult samples collected at our biochemistry laboratory with a range of calculated globulin levels from 15 to 22 g/l. A CG cut-off of 19 g/l detected subjects with IgG lower than 600 mg/dl with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 75%. To further verify the clinical usefulness of CG, we retrospectively evaluated the relationship between CG values and serum IgG levels in 38 patients diagnosed with CVID at our Institution. Using a CG cut-off of 19 g/l we detected antibody deficiency in 97.3% (37/38) of the subjects present in our cohort. Finally, we chose a CG value of 19 g/l as cut-off for a prospective AD screening program. The results of this study show that a screening CG test can be used as a tool to reduce diagnostic delays, improve long-term prognosis and reduce the healthcare costs of antibody deficiency.

15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 1837, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147696

RESUMO

Immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IGRT) has contributed critically to the management of primary antibody deficiencies (PAD) and the decrease in pneumonia rate. However, despite adequate IGRT and improved prognosis, patients with PAD continue to experience recurrent respiratory tract infections, leading to bronchiectasis and continuing decline in lung function with a severe impact on their quality of life. Moreover, non-infectious inflammatory and interstitial lung complications, such as granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, contribute substantially to the overall morbidity of PAD. These conditions develop much more often than appreciated and represent a major therapeutic challenge. Therefore, a regular assessment of the structural and functional condition of the lung and the upper airways with appropriate treatment is required to minimize the deterioration of lung function. This work summarizes the knowledge on lung complications in PAD and discusses the currently available diagnostic tools and treatment options.

16.
Allergy ; 73(11): 2122-2136, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30043993

RESUMO

The 2017 International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) classification recognizes 3 hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES), including the prototypic Job's syndrome (autosomal dominant STAT3-loss of function) and autosomal recessive PGM3 and SPINK5 syndromes. Early diagnosis of PID can direct life-saving or transformational interventions; however, it remains challenging owing to the rarity of these conditions. This can result in diagnostic delay and worsen prognosis. Within increasing access to "clinical-exome" testing, clinicians need to be aware of the implication and rationale for genetic testing, including the benefits and limitations of current therapies. Extreme elevation of serum IgE has been associated with a growing number of PID syndromes including the novel CARD11 and ZNF341 deficiencies. Variable elevations in IgE are associated with defects in innate, humoral, cellular and combined immunodeficiency syndromes. Barrier compromise can closely phenocopy these conditions. The aim of this article was to update readers on recent developments at this important interface between allergy and immunodeficiency, highlighting key clinical scenarios which should draw attention to possible immunodeficiency associated with extreme elevation of IgE, and outline initial laboratory assessment and management.

17.
J Clin Lab Anal ; : e22627, 2018 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30058083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaired levels or function of C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) results in angioedema due to increased bradykinin. It is important to distinguish between angioedema related to C1-INH deficiency and that caused by other mechanisms, as treatment options are different. In hereditary (HAE) and acquired (AAE) angioedema, C1-INH concentration is measured to aid patient diagnosis. Here, we describe an automated turbidimetric assay to measure C1-INH concentration on the Optilite® analyzer. METHODS: Linearity, precision, and interference were established over a range of C1-INH concentrations. The 95th percentile reference interval was generated from 120 healthy adult donors. To compare the Optilite C1-INH assay with a predicate assay used in a clinical laboratory, samples sent for C1-INH investigation were used. The predicate results were provided to allow comparison. RESULTS: The Optilite C1-INH assay was linear across the measuring range at the standard sample dilution. Intra and interassay variability was <6%. The 95th percentile adult reference interval for the assay was 0.21-0.38 g/L. There was a strong correlation between the Optilite concentrations and those generated with the predicate assay (R2  = 0.94, P < 0.0001, slope y = 0.83x). All patients with Type I HAE (n = 24) and AAE (n = 3) tested had concentrations below the measuring range in both assays, while all patients with unspecified angioedema (UAE), not diagnosed with HAE or AAE had values within the reference range. CONCLUSION: The Optilite assay allows the automated and precise quantification of C1-INH concentrations in patient samples. It could therefore be used as a tool to aid the investigation of patients with angioedema.

18.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(4): 539, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713933

RESUMO

The article Assessment of Local Adverse Reactions to Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin (SCIG) in Clinical Trials, written by Mark Ballow, Richard L. Wasserman, Stephen Jolles, Helen Chapel, Mel Berger, Siraj A. Misbah, was originally published Online First without open access.

19.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 56(9): 1498-1506, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29729138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The measurement of complement components is clinically useful where a deficiency is suspected, or where excessive activation and consumption are present in disease. C2 deficiency carries an increased risk of developing systemic lupus erythematosus, recurrent infections and atherosclerosis. In this study, we have evaluated The Binding Site's Human Complement C2 SPAPLUS® assay. METHODS: Linearity was tested using 13 sample dilutions covering the standard measuring range. Within- and between-assay variabilities were calculated using five samples with different C2 concentrations. The correlation between C2 concentrations in EDTA-plasma and serum was assessed, as was the correlation between C2 measurements by the automated assay and radial immunodiffusion. C2 concentrations were compared with CH50 activity, and quantified in individuals with homozygous or heterozygous C2 deficiency, acquired angioedema and patients with chronic inflammatory conditions. RESULTS: The assay was linear across the measuring range (3.8-42.3 mg/L). Intra- and interassay variability were 2.3%-3.8% and 0%-3.3%, respectively. Comparison between C2 measurements in EDTA-plasma and serum provided a strong correlation (p<0.0001, R2=0.82, slope 0.92), as did the correlation between the automated and radial immunodiffusion methods (p<0.0001, R2=0.89, slope 1.07). A positive correlation between C2 concentration and CH50 activity was demonstrated (p<0.0001, R2=0.48). Significant differences were observed between the median C2 concentrations obtained in healthy controls and the patient clinical samples, with homozygous C2-deficient patients giving below detectable results. CONCLUSIONS: This C2 SPAPLUS® assay allows the automated, rapid and precice quantification of complement C2 protein and could therefore be considered as a replacement for older, more time-consuming methods.

20.
J Immunol Methods ; 459: 1-10, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800575

RESUMO

Response to polysaccharide vaccination can be an invaluable tool for assessing functionality of the adaptive immune system. Measurement of antibodies raised in response to Pneumovax®23 is the current gold standard test, but there are significant challenges and constraints in both the measurement and interpretation of the response. An alternative polysaccharide vaccine approach (Salmonella typhi Vi capsule (ViCPS)) has been suggested. In the present article, we review current evidence for the measurement of ViCPS antibodies in the diagnosis of primary and secondary antibody deficiencies. In particular, we review emerging data suggesting their interpretation in combination with the response to Pneumovax®23 and comment upon the utility of these vaccines to assess humoral immune responses while receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IGRT).

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA