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1.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 118: 98-104, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351800

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the maternal glycemic response to betamethasone in subjects without diabetes compared to subjects with diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Blood glucose levels in 22 gravidae without diabetes and 11 gravidae with diabetes were recorded for 48h following betamethasone administration for threatened preterm delivery. Maximum blood glucose value and time to maximum value were compared. Area under the curve calculations were used to express the duration and degree of significant hyperglycemia for individual subjects. These summary measures were then correlated to subject characteristics and laboratory values to determine a risk profile of those subjects without diabetes at risk for significant hyperglycemia. RESULTS: All subjects with diabetes and the majority of those without diabetes had significant hyperglycemia during the study period. Mean maximum blood glucose was higher for those with diabetes (205mg/dL vs. 173mg/dL, p⩽0.01). Mean time to reach the maximum glucose level was similar for both groups. Result of a glucose tolerance test given immediately prior to betamethasone correlated strongly with amount of time spent with hyperglycemia for subjects without diabetes (rho=0.59, p⩽0.01). Morbidly obese subjects spent less time with hyperglycemia than those with lower body mass indices (p=0.03). CONCLUSION: Both subjects with and without diabetes demonstrate significant hyperglycemia after receipt of antenatal betamethasone.


Assuntos
Betametasona/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Gestacional/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Betametasona/farmacologia , Glicemia , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
2.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 103(4): 260-8, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25820190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With refinement in ultrasound technology, detection of fetal structural abnormalities has improved and there have been detailed reports of the natural history and expected outcomes for many anomalies. The ability to either reassure a high-risk woman with normal intrauterine images or offer comprehensive counseling and offer options in cases of strongly suspected lethal or major malformations has shifted prenatal diagnoses to the earliest possible gestational age. METHODS: When indicated, scans in early gestation are valuable in accurate gestational dating. Stricter sonographic criteria for early nonviability guard against unnecessary intervention. Most birth defects are without known risk factors, and detection of certain malformations is possible in the late first trimester. RESULTS: The best time for a standard complete fetal and placental scan is 18 to 20 weeks. In addition, certain soft anatomic markers provide clues to chromosomal aneuploidy risk. Maternal obesity and multifetal pregnancies are now more common and further limit early gestation visibility. CONCLUSION: Other advanced imaging techniques during early gestation in select cases of suspected malformations include fetal echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Anormalidades Congênitas/diagnóstico , Viabilidade Fetal/fisiologia , Ultrassonografia/métodos , Ultrassonografia/tendências , Fatores Etários , Ecocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Viabilidade Fetal/genética , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Gravidez
3.
Ultrasound Q ; 31(1): 34-6, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25706362

RESUMO

We present the sonographic features of a second-trimester fetus diagnosed with a bradyarrhythmia at 19 weeks' gestation. The mother carried a diagnosis of Sjögren syndrome, including the presence of SSA and SSB antibodies. Ultrasound M-mode and fetal echocardiogram revealed the etiology of the bradycardia to be a complete fetal congenital heart block, likely due to transplacental passage of autoimmune anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antibodies. Consequential to the congenital heart block, the fetus developed hydrops fetalis at 21 weeks' gestational age. We discuss the 2 major etiologies of congenital heart block and the implications in subsequent pregnancies.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antinucleares/imunologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/congênito , Complicações na Gravidez/imunologia , Síndrome de Sjogren/diagnóstico por imagem , Síndrome de Sjogren/imunologia , Adulto , Feminino , Doenças Fetais/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Fetais/imunologia , Bloqueio Cardíaco/diagnóstico por imagem , Bloqueio Cardíaco/imunologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal/métodos
4.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 28(1): 71-6, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24670202

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of an obstetric hemorrhage risk assessment on pretransfusion testing and hemorrhage outcomes at a tertiary care, academic medical center. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed among women delivering neonates≥24 weeks from 2009 to 2011. Demographics, pretransfusion testing rates and hemorrhage outcomes were compared between those delivering before and after implementation of the risk assessment. Multivariable analyses were used to determine predictors of postpartum hemorrhage and transfusion. RESULTS: There were 1388 women delivering before and 2121 women delivering after implementation of the risk assessment. More pretransfusion testing occurred after the assessment was initiated (22.8% versus 15.0%). Those who were considered high-risk were more likely to experience hemorrhage outcomes. In multivariable analyses, physician ordering practice in the pre-risk assessment period was a better prognosticator of both postpartum hemorrhage (aOR 9.98, 95% CI 5.02-19.82) and transfusion (aOR 31.14, 95% CI 14.97-64.82) than completion of a cross-match after implementation of the risk assessment (postpartum hemorrhage: aOR 2.10, 95% CI 1.20-3.66, transfusion: aOR 6.31, 95% CI 3.34-11.94). CONCLUSIONS: Pre-risk assessment practice may be better at identifying those in need of blood transfusion, strictly due to the necessity for pretransfusion orders for transfusion to occur. In contrast, the obstetric hemorrhage risk assessment accurately predicted those who were more likely to experience hemorrhage outcomes. Optimal utilization of the risk assessment has yet to be determined.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Pós-Parto , Adulto , Transfusão de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 27(8): 821-4, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23962130

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of previous cervical surgery on preterm birth prior to 34 weeks in twins. METHODS: A retrospective review of twin pregnancies delivered between January 1998 and December 2005 at two institutions was performed. Women with a prior cold knife cone (CKC), loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), or ablative procedure were compared to a control group of women who had not undergone a previous treatment for cervical dysplasia. The primary outcome was delivery before 34 weeks of gestation. RESULTS: A total of 876 women met inclusion criteria. Of these, 110 (12.6%) had previous surgical procedures for cervical dysplasia, including CKC (n = 10), LEEP (n = 36), cryotherapy (n = 59) and CO2 laser treatment (n = 5). Delivery prior to 34 weeks was more common in women with a previous CKC compared to women with no prior treatment (40% versus 11.3%; odds ratio [OR], 3.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-8.0). Delivery prior to 34 weeks was not more common in women with a previous LEEP (8.3%; OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.3) or ablative procedure (9.4%; OR, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.4-1.9) in comparison to the untreated group. Adjusting for the potential confounders of age, tobacco use, infertility treatments and previous preterm birth did not change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Previous CKC is associated with delivery prior to 34 weeks while LEEP and ablative procedures are not. CKC should be carefully considered and avoided when possible in reproductive age women.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez de Gêmeos/estatística & dados numéricos , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Displasia do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Adulto , Criocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Criocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Eletrocirurgia/efeitos adversos , Eletrocirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Terapia a Laser/efeitos adversos , Terapia a Laser/estatística & dados numéricos , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Gêmeos , Displasia do Colo do Útero/complicações
6.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 25(12): 2494-8, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22725624

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of hospitalization for acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy and associated complications in 2006 in USA. METHODS: Cases were defined as those with ICD-9-CM codes corresponding to the infections of the genitourinary tract in pregnancy and pyelonephritis in the 2006 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). Additional analyses identified those cases also coupled with ICD-9-CM codes corresponding to obstetrical and medical complications. Calculations were weighted to produce national estimates and hospitalization rates were determined. RESULTS: Twenty-eight thousand nine hundred and twenty-three hospitalizations for pyelonephritis in pregnancy were identified. Women aged 8-19 had the highest hospitalization rate (175.06/10 000 cases) compared to other age groupings. Hispanic patients had the highest hospitalization rate of the recorded ethnicities (100.93/10 000 cases). Diabetes was a concomitant diagnosis in 3.7% of patients. Of the pregnant patients hospitalized with pyelonephritis, 3.77% had threatened preterm labor, 1.95% was diagnosed with sepsis, 0.77% had acute respiratory failure, and several deaths also occurred. The mean length of hospital stay was 2.8 days. The estimated annual cost of hospitalization for pyelonephritis in pregnancy was $263 million. CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalization for pyelonephritis in pregnancy is associated with recognizable characteristics including age and diabetes. Serious medical complications and even mortality can occur.


Assuntos
Hospitais/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Pielonefrite/epidemiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/economia , Classificação Internacional de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/economia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/economia , Complicações na Gravidez/etiologia , Pielonefrite/complicações , Pielonefrite/economia , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 25(6): 756-60, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21827352

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the management strategies for placenta accreta used by Maternal-Fetal Medicine practitioners. METHODS: We conducted a 36-question online survey of members of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine regarding management of placenta accreta, and tabulated the results. RESULTS: We had 508 respondents. Most respondents have been in practice for >20 years (30%), at a university-affiliated institution (58.1%). In the previous 2 years, 44.6% of respondents operated on 1-3 cases of placenta accreta, with 3% having operated on greater than 10 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used as a diagnostic adjunct when the suspicion for accreta is both low (43.1%) and high (68%). In asymptomatic patients with high suspicion for accreta, 15.4% of practitioners hospitalize patients antenatally, 34.5% administer corticosteroids, and 46.8% perform amniocentesis for fetal lung maturity prior to delivery, which they schedule most commonly at 36 weeks (48.4%). Equipment requested prior to delivery includes intravascular balloon catheters (35%) and ureteral stents or catheters (26.2%). With high suspicion for accreta intraoperatively, the majority proceed with hysterectomy, but 14.9% report conservative management. CONCLUSION: Survey respondents employ diverse approaches in the management of patients with placenta accreta. Further study may lead to consensus strategies to improve outcome in this high-risk obstetric condition.


Assuntos
Placenta Acreta/terapia , Prática Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Clínica , Coleta de Dados , Escolaridade , Feminino , Geografia , Ginecologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Maternidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Relações Materno-Fetais , Neonatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstetrícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Placenta Acreta/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Prática Profissional/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Recursos Humanos
8.
Drugs ; 70(13): 1643-55, 2010 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20731473

RESUMO

Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most common indications for antepartum hospitalization. When acute pyelonephritis is diagnosed, conventional treatment includes intravenous fluid and parenteral antibacterial administration. There are limited data by which to assess the superiority of one antibacterial regimen over the other in terms of efficacy, patient acceptance and safety for the developing fetus; however, it is important to consider antimicrobial resistance patterns in the local community when choosing an agent. Moreover, there are growing public health concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance to commonly prescribed medications for urinary tract infections in pregnancy. There is a small body of evidence to support the ambulatory treatment of pregnant women with pyelonephritis in the first and early second trimesters, but the majority of women will be managed as inpatients. This article provides a suggested algorithm for the treatment of pyelonephritis during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Complicações na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Pielonefrite/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Algoritmos , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Pielonefrite/complicações , Pielonefrite/fisiopatologia
9.
Obstet Gynecol ; 116 Suppl 2: 541-543, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20664448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Murine typhus is a flea-borne disease caused by Rickettsia typhi. Although uncommon in most of the United States, it is endemic in Southern California. Most cases are unrecognized given its nonspecific viral symptoms and rare complications. CASE: A pregnant patient presented with complaints of fever and chills. Physical examination was benign. Laboratory abnormalities included elevated transaminases, proteinuria, and thrombocytopenia. The patient gave a history of exposure to cats and opossums in an area endemic for murine typhus. After empiric treatment with azithromycin, her clinical symptoms and laboratory abnormalities promptly improved. Serologies confirmed acute infection with R. typhi. CONCLUSION: Although the signs and symptoms of murine typhus can mimic other pregnancy-related complications, a high index of suspicion in endemic areas can lead to the correct diagnosis and prompt treatment.


Assuntos
Doenças Endêmicas , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/diagnóstico , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/imunologia , Adulto , Animais , California/epidemiologia , Gatos , Feminino , Humanos , Gambás , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado da Gravidez , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/tratamento farmacológico , Tifo Endêmico Transmitido por Pulgas/epidemiologia
10.
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol ; 20(6): 528-33, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18989126

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An amplified risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes after excisional cervical surgery has been identified. Procedures such as cold-knife conization, laser conization, loop electrosurgical excision procedure, and trachelectomy increase the risk of preterm delivery and preterm premature rupture of membranes. Few studies have evaluated prenatal care considerations after these procedures. This review discusses pregnancy management after cervical surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Data showing an association between excisional and ablative procedures of the cervix and subsequent preterm delivery or preterm premature rupture of membranes are increasing and include more recent information from larger case series and meta-analyses. The need for appropriate and evidence-based management strategies during subsequent pregnancy has arisen. Screening for genital tract infection, sonographic cervical length surveillance, and progesterone administration for cervical shortening may lead to improved pregnancy outcomes in women at high risk for preterm delivery, including women who have undergone cervical surgery. Modifiable risk factors such as depth of conization and procedure-to-pregnancy time interval should be recognized and clinicians should avoid overtreatment for preinvasive cervical lesions. SUMMARY: A number of procedures performed for a variety of indications can be considered excisional cervical surgery. As a result, no standard recommendations for pregnancy management following cervical surgery exist. Given the increased risk of pregnancy complications, certain screening tests or interventions may be appropriate for these women.


Assuntos
Neoplasia Intraepitelial Cervical/cirurgia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Feminino , Ruptura Prematura de Membranas Fetais/etiologia , Humanos , Lasers , Trabalho de Parto Prematuro/etiologia , Obstetrícia/métodos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Progesterona/administração & dosagem , Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
Am J Perinatol ; 24(9): 531-9, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17899494

RESUMO

This article reviews the existing literature on pregnancy outcomes following radical trachelectomy for low-stage cervical carcinoma and describes the guidelines in our institution for obstetrical management after managing two pregnancies following radical trachelectomy. We performed a literature search in PUBMED, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for the keywords "radical trachelectomy," "pregnancy," or "fertility" from 1994 to the present. All observational studies were included, and duplicate cases were excluded from our review. In addition to our cases, 14 studies were reviewed and included. Selection criteria included case reports or series detailing pregnancy outcomes including gestational age at delivery. Data regarding pregnancy outcomes were tabulated from the reports with focus on additional procedures such as vaginal occlusion and delivery outcomes. Where data were unclear, the authors personally contacted the authors of previously published manuscripts for further data. Our results revealed that 40% of women conceived following radical trachelectomy. Of them they had a preterm delivery rate of 25%, and 42% culminated in delivery of a live born infant at term. The use of the vaginal occlusion procedure did not appear to prolong gestation when compared with those women who did not have the procedure, but the majority of successful pregnancy outcomes have occurred with a cerclage in place. In conclusion, successful pregnancy outcome is possible after radical trachelectomy for cervical cancer, with two thirds of pregnancies resulting in a live birth, including those of both cases reported. There is a higher frequency of adverse perinatal outcomes in these patients, however, and careful interdisciplinary planning and counseling prior to undertaking the trachelectomy is recommended.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos em Ginecologia/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez
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