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1.
F1000Res ; 10: 60, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33732436

RESUMO

Background: Lineage 1 (L1) and 3 (L3) are two lineages of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) causing tuberculosis (TB) in humans. L1 and L3 are prevalent around the rim of the Indian Ocean, the region that accounts for most of the world's new TB cases. Despite their relevance for this region, L1 and L3 remain understudied. Methods: We analyzed 2,938 L1 and 2,030 L3 whole genome sequences originating from 69 countries. We reconstructed the evolutionary history of these two lineages and identified genes under positive selection. Results: We found a strongly asymmetric pattern of migration from South Asia toward neighboring regions, highlighting the historical role of South Asia in the dispersion of L1 and L3. Moreover, we found that several genes were under positive selection, including genes involved in virulence and resistance to antibiotics . For L1 we identified signatures of local adaptation at the esxH locus, a gene coding for a secreted effector that targets the human endosomal sorting complex, and is included in several vaccine candidates. Conclusions: Our study highlights the importance of genetic diversity in the MTBC, and sheds new light on two of the most important MTBC lineages affecting humans.

2.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 24, 2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741997

RESUMO

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a significant public health burden globally. The role of viral co-infection in the rate of progression of HIV infection has been suggested but not empirically tested, particularly among children. We extracted and classified 42 viral species from whole-exome sequencing (WES) data of 813 HIV-infected children in Botswana and Uganda categorised as either long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) or rapid progressors (RPs). The Ugandan participants had a higher viral community diversity index compared to Batswana (p = 4.6 × 10-13), and viral sequences were more frequently detected among LTNPs than RPs (24% vs 16%; p = 0.008; OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.6-2.3), with Anelloviridae showing strong association with LTNP status (p = 3 × 10-4; q = 0.004, OR, 3.99; 95% CI, 1.74-10.25). This trend was still evident when stratified by country, sex, and sequencing platform, and after a logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, sex, country, and the sequencing platform (p = 0.02; q = 0.03; OR, 7.3; 95% CI, 1.6-40.5). Torque teno virus (TTV), which made up 95% of the Anelloviridae reads, has been associated with reduced immune activation. We identify an association between viral co-infection and prolonged AIDs-free survival status that may have utility as a biomarker of LTNP and could provide mechanistic insights to HIV progression in children, demonstrating the added value of interrogating off-target WES reads in cohort studies.

3.
J Med Microbiol ; 70(3)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625351

RESUMO

Introduction. Drug resistant tuberculosis remains a worldwide problem that requires prompt diagnosis.Hypothesis/Gap statement. The WHO recommended direct, rapid Xpert MTB/RIF is prohibitively costly, therefore, there is a need to validate a rapid, affordable DST for use in low- and middle-income settings.Aim. The technical performance and time to results of a simple, direct microscopy-based slide DST (SDST) assay for diagnosis of rifampicin-resistant TB was evaluated in Uganda.Methodology. Sputum samples from 122 smear-positive re-treatment TB patients presenting to the TB treatment centre at Uganda's National Referral Hospital, Mulago, Kampala, Uganda were examined. The sputum samples were tested by the direct SDST which was compared to the indirect Lowenstein Jensen Proportion Method (LJDST) method as the gold standard. The time to results was defined as the time from DST setting to results interpretation. The results were further analysed for sensitivity and specificity as well as agreement between LJDST and SDST for rifampicin resistance determination.Results. A total of 117 smear positive sputum samples with valid results for both tests were compared. The median time to results for SDST was 14 days with an interquartile range (IQR) of 10-14 days compared to 60 days with IQR of 60-75 days for LJDST. The number for rifampicin resistance by the gold standard LJDST was 26. The SDST had a sensitivity of 96 % (95 %; CI 81-99 %) and a specificity of 97.8 % (95 %; CI 93-100 %). The Positive Predictive and Negative Predictive values for SDST were 92.3 % (95 %; CI 76.8-99 %) and 98.9 % (95 %; CI 94-100 %), respectively. The kappa agreement between SDST and LJDST was 92.3 %.Conclusion. The SDST was found to be a rapid and accurate direct test for the detection of rifampicin resistance among retreatment TB cases in low-income settings.


Assuntos
Antibióticos Antituberculose/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/isolamento & purificação , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/normas , Microscopia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Uganda
4.
BMC Med Genomics ; 14(1): 15, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Internalizing mental disorders (IMDs) (depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder) have been associated with accelerated telomere length (TL) attrition; however, this association has not been investigated in the context of genetic variation that has been found to influence TL. We have previously reported an association between IMDs and accelerated TL attrition among Ugandan HIV+ children and adolescents. This study investigated the moderating effects of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms in the telomerase reverse transcriptase gene (TERT) (rs2736100, rs7726159, rs10069690 and rs2853669) and the telomerase RNA component gene (TERC) (rs12696304, rs16847897 and rs10936599) on the association between IMDs and TL, among Ugandan HIV+ children (aged 5-11 years) and adolescents (aged 12-17 years). RESULTS: We found no significant interaction between IMDs as a group and any of the selected SNPs on TL at baseline. We observed significant interactions of IMDs with TERT rs2736100 (p = 0.007) and TERC rs16847897 (p = 0.012), respectively, on TL at 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: TERT rs2736100 and TERC rs16847897 moderate the association between IMDs and TL among Ugandan HIV+ children and adolescents at 12 months. Understanding the nature of this association may shed light on the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying advanced cellular aging in IMDs.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 63, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest X-ray (CXR) interpretation remains a central component of the current World Health Organization recommendations as an adjuvant test in diagnosis of smear-negative tuberculosis (TB). With its low specificity, high maintenance and operational costs, utility of CXR in diagnosis of smear-negative TB in high HIV/TB burden settings in the Xpert MTB/RIF era remains unpredictable. We evaluated accuracy and additive value of CXR to Xpert MTB/RIF in the diagnosis of TB among HIV-positive smear-negative presumptive TB patients. METHODS: HIV co-infected presumptive TB patients were recruited from the Infectious Diseases Institute outpatient clinic and in-patient medical wards of Mulago Hospital, Uganda. CXR films were reviewed by two independent radiologists using a standardized evaluation form. CXR interpretation with regard to TB was either positive (consistent with TB) or negative (normal or unlikely TB). Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of CXR and CXR combined with Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of smear-negative TB in HIV-positive patients were calculated using sputum and/or blood mycobacterial culture as reference standard. RESULTS: Three hundred sixty-six HIV co-infected smear-negative participants (female, 63.4%; hospitalized, 68.3%) had technically interpretable CXR. Median (IQR) age was 32 (28-39) years and CD4 count 112 (23-308) cells/mm3. Overall, 22% (81/366) were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) on culture; 187/366 (51.1%) had CXR interpreted as consistent with TB, of which 55 (29.4%) had culture-confirmed TB. Sensitivity and specificity of CXR interpretation in diagnosis of culture-positive TB were 67.9% (95%CI 56.6-77.8) and 53.7% (95%CI 47.7-59.6) respectively, while Xpert MTB/RIF sensitivity and specificity were 65.4% (95%CI 54.0-75.7) and 95.8% (95%CI 92.8-97.8) respectively. Addition of CXR to Xpert MTB/RIF had overall sensitivity and specificity of 87.7% (95%CI 78.5-93.9) and 51.6% (95%CI 45.6-57.5) respectively; 86.2% (95%CI 75.3-93.5) and 48.1% (95%CI 40.7-55.6) among inpatients and 93.8% (95%CI 69.8-99.8) and 58.0% (95%CI 47.7-67.8) among outpatients respectively. CONCLUSION: In this high prevalence TB/HIV setting, CXR interpretation added sensitivity to Xpert MTB/RIF test at the expense of specificity in the diagnosis of culture-positive TB in HIV-positive individuals presenting with TB symptoms and negative smear. CXR interpretation may not add diagnostic value in settings where Xpert MTB/RIF is available as a TB diagnostic tool.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/complicações , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Radiografia Pulmonar de Massa/métodos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/virologia , Adulto , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148779

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited data exist on the epidemiology of acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure (AHRF) in low-income countries (LICs). We sought to determine the prevalence of AHRF in critically ill adult patients admitted to a Ugandan tertiary referral hospital; determine clinical and treatment characteristics as well as assess factors associated with mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study at the Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital in Uganda. Critically ill adults who were hospitalised at the emergency department and met the criteria for AHRF (acute shortness of breath for less than a week) were enrolled and followed up for 90 days. Multivariable analyses were conducted to determine the risk factors for death. RESULTS: A total of 7300 patients was screened. Of these, 327 (4.5%) presented with AHRF. The majority (60 %) was male and the median age was 38 years (IQR 27-52). The mean plethysmographic oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 77.6% (SD 12.7); mean SpO2/FiO2 ratio 194 (SD 32) and the mean Lung Injury Prediction Score (LIPS) 6.7 (SD 0.8). Pneumonia (80%) was the most common diagnosis. Only 6% of the patients received mechanical ventilatory support. In-hospital mortality was 77% with an average length of hospital stay of 9.2 days (SD 7). At 90 days after enrolment, the mortality increased to 85%. Factors associated with mortality were severity of hypoxaemia (risk ratio (RR) 1.29 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.54), p=0.01); a high LIPS (RR 1.79 (95% CI 1.79 1.14 to 2.83), p=0.01); thrombocytopenia (RR 1.23 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.38), p=0.01); anaemia (RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.31), p=0.03) ; HIV co-infection (RR 0.84 (95% CI 0.72 to 0.97), p=0.019) and male gender (RR 1.15 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.31) p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of AHRF among emergency department patients in a tertiary hospital in an LIC was low but was associated with very high mortality. Pneumonia was the most common cause of AHRF. Mortality was associated with higher severity of hypoxaemia, high LIPS, anaemia, HIV co-infection, thrombocytopenia and being male.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0236458, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer among men in Uganda, with over 2086 incident cases in 2018. This study's objective was to report the clinical characteristics and primary management of men diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019. METHODS: Records from all men diagnosed with Prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and primary treatment were recorded. Risk categorization was done using the European Society for Medical Oncology prostate cancer risk group classification. RESULTS: A total of 874 medical records for men diagnosed with prostate cancer was retrieved. The median age was 70 years (interquartile range 64-77). In this study, 501 (57.32%) patients had localized disease. Among patients with localized disease, 2 (0.23%) were classified as low-risk, 5 (0.53%) as intermediate-risk, and 494 (56.52%) as high-risk. Three hundred seventy-three (373) patients had metastatic disease at diagnosis. Among patients with distant metastases, the most common site of metastases was bone 143 (16.36%), followed by spinal cord 54 (6.18%), abdomen 22 (2.52%), and lungs 14 (1.60%). Regarding the primary treatment options majority of the patients were on chemotherapy 384(43.94%) followed by hormonal therapy 336 (38.44%) and radiotherapy 127 (14.53%). CONCLUSION: The majority of the patients diagnosed with prostate cancer at the Uganda Cancer Institute presented with advanced disease. The primary treatments were mostly chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and radiotherapy. There is a need to improve prostate cancer screening in regional health care facilities and the communities to enhance early detection and management of prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Calicreínas/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Uganda/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1561, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With many medical equipment in hospitals coming in direct contact with healthcare workers, patients, technicians, cleaners and sometimes care givers, it is important to pay close attention to their capacity in harboring potentially harmful pathogens. The goal of this study was to assess the role that medical equipment may potentially play in hospital acquired infections in four public health facilities in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2017 to January 2018 in four public health facilities in Uganda. Each piece of equipment from the neonatal department, imaging department or operating theatre were swabbed at three distinct points: a location in contact with the patient, a location in contact with the user, and a remote location unlikely to be contacted by either the patient or the user. The swabs were analyzed for bacterial growth using standard microbiological methods. Seventeen bacterial isolates were randomly selected and tested for susceptibility/resistance to common antibiotics. The data collected analyzed in STATA version 14. RESULTS: A total of 192 locations on 65 equipment were swabbed, with 60.4% of these locations testing positive (116/192). Nearly nine of ten equipment (57/65) tested positive for contamination in at least one location, and two out of three equipment (67.7%) tested positive in two or more locations. Of the 116 contaminated locations 52.6% were positive for Bacillus Species, 14.7% were positive for coagulase negative staphylococcus, 12.9% (15/116) were positive for E. coli, while all other bacterial species had a pooled prevalence of 19.8%. Interestingly, 55% of the remote locations were contaminated compared to 66% of the user contacted locations and 60% of the patient contacted locations. Further, 5/17 samples were resistant to at least three of the classes of antibiotics tested including penicillin, glycylcycline, tetracycline, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole and urinary anti-infectives. CONCLUSION: These results provides strong support for strengthening overall disinfection/sterilization practices around medical equipment use in public health facilities in Uganda. There's also need for further research to make a direct link to the bacterial isolates identified and cases of infections recorded among patients in similar settings.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Contaminação de Equipamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos e Provisões/microbiologia , Hospitais Públicos , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Uganda/epidemiologia
9.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 15: 53, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884579

RESUMO

There is growing evidence of the microbiome's role in human health and disease since the human microbiome project. The microbiome plays a vital role in influencing cancer risk and pathogenesis. Several studies indicate microbial pathogens to account for over 15-20% of all cancers. Furthermore, the interaction of the microbiota, especially the gut microbiota in influencing response to chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy remains an area of active research. Certain microbial species have been linked to the improved clinical outcome when on different cancer therapies. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome has enabled the study to understand its connection to genitourinary malignancies, especially prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in males worldwide. Therefore research into understanding the factors and mechanisms associated with prostate cancer etiology, pathogenesis, and disease progression is of utmost importance. In this review, we explore the current literature concerning the link between the gut and urinary microbiome and prostate cancer risk and pathogenesis.

10.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900781

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Detailed data on the characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 in sub-Saharan Africa are limited. OBJECTIVE: We determined the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Uganda. MEASUREMENTS: As of the 16 May 2020, a total of 203 cases had been confirmed. We report on the first 56 patients; 29 received hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and 27 did not. Endpoints included admission to intensive care, mechanical ventilation or death during hospitalisation. MAIN RESULTS: The median age was 34.2 years; 67.9% were male; and 14.6% were <18 years. Up 57.1% of the patients were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fever (21.4%), cough (19.6%), rhinorrhea (16.1%), headache (12.5%), muscle ache (7.1%) and fatigue (7.1%). Rates of comorbidities were 10.7% (pre-existing hypertension), 10.7% (diabetes) and 7.1% (HIV), Body Mass Index (BMI) of ≥30 36.6%. 37.0% had a blood pressure (BP) of >130/90 mm Hg, and 27.8% had BP of >140/90 mm Hg. Laboratory derangements were leucopenia (10.6%), lymphopenia (11.1%) and thrombocytopenia (26.3%). Abnormal chest X-ray was observed in 14.3%. No patients reached the primary endpoint. Time to clinical recovery was shorter among patients who received HCQ, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Most of the patients with COVID-19 presented with mild disease and exhibited a clinical trajectory not similar to other countries. Outcomes did not differ by HCQ treatment status in line with other concluded studies on the benefit of using HCQ in the treatment of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 706, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32727507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the second leading type of female cancer in Ethiopia. Screening for cervical cancer is primarily conducted using visual inspection with 5% acetic acid (VIA). Liquid-based cytology (LBC) is not yet widely used in Ethiopia. METHOD: Women aged 21-65 years were tested using LBC and VIA to detect cervical dysplasia. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors. Cohen's Kappa test was conducted to test agreement between LBC and VIA. RESULTS: Forty-two percent (n = 188) of 448 participants were 31 to 40 years of age and only two participants were above 60. Of the 448 participants, 419 (93.5%) were tested with LBC, 294 (65.6%) VIA and 272 (60.7%) with both LBC and VIA. Among women screened using LBC, 305 (72.8%) were negative for intraepithelial lesion or malignancy (NILM), 97 (23.2%) had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL) and 17 (4.1%) had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Presence of cervical lesions was generally lower in younger and older women. Majority, 39 (40%) of women with LSIL and 10 (59%) with HSIL were 41-50 years of age. Women aged 51-60 were more likely to have abnormal intraepithelial lesions compared to women aged 21-30 (AOR = 20.9, 95% CI = [7.2-60.9], p = 0.00). Out of 47 (10.8%) HIV-positive women, 14 (32.56%) had intraepithelial lesions of which 10 (23.3%) and 4 (9.3%) had LSIL and HSIL, respectively. Among women screened with VIA, 18 (6.1%) were positive; among the 272 (60.7%) women screened using both LBC and VIA, 6 (2.2%) were positive on both LBC and VIA tests. The level of agreement between the two tests was weak at a statistically significant level (kappa value = 0.155, p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: LBC demonstrated high rates of cervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions in our study. VIA was a less reliable predictor of cervical squamous intra-epithelial lesions than LBC. Evaluating diagnostic accuracy of both LBC and VIA against a histological endpoint should be completed before adopting either or both screening modalities.

12.
Crit Care Med ; 48(9): e734-e743, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the relationship between endothelial activation, malaria complications, and long-term cognitive outcomes in severe malaria survivors. DESIGN: Prospectively cohort study of children with cerebral malaria, severe malarial anemia, or community children. SETTING: Mulago National Referral Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. SUBJECTS: Children 18 months to 12 years old with severe malaria (cerebral malaria, n = 253 or severe malarial anemia, n = 211) or community children (n = 206) were followed for 24 months. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Children underwent neurocognitive evaluation at enrollment (community children) or a week following hospital discharge (severe malaria) and 6, 12, and 24 months follow-up. Endothelial activation was assessed at admission on plasma samples (von Willebrand factor, angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble E-Selectin, and P-Selectin). False discovery rate was used to adjust for multiple comparisons. Severe malaria was associated with widespread endothelial activation compared with community children (p < 0.0001 for all markers). Acute kidney injury was independently associated with changes in von Willebrand factor, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1, soluble E-Selectin, P-Selectin, and angiopoietin-2 (p < 0.0001 for all). A log10 increase in angiopoietin-2 was associated with lower cognitive z scores across age groups (children < 5, ß -0.42, 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.15, p = 0.002; children ≥ 5, ß -0.39, 95% CI, -0.67 to -0.11, p = 0.007) independent of disease severity (coma, number of seizures, acute kidney injury) and sociodemographic factors. Angiopoietin-2 was associated with hemolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin) and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-10). In children with cerebral malaria who had a lumbar puncture performed, angiopoietin-2 was associated with blood-brain barrier dysfunction, and markers of neuroinflammation and injury in the cerebrospinal fluid (tumor necrosis factor-α, kynurenic acid, tau). CONCLUSIONS: These data support angiopoietin-2 as a measure of disease severity and a risk factor for long-term cognitive injury in children with severe malaria.

13.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(9)2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32493780

RESUMO

Childhood tuberculosis (TB) presents significant diagnostic challenges associated with paucibacillary disease and requires a more sensitive test. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Ultra) compared to other microbiological tests using respiratory samples from Ugandan children in the SHINE trial. SHINE is a randomized trial evaluating shorter treatment in 1,204 children with minimal TB disease in Africa and India. Among 352 samples and one cervical lymph node fine needle aspirate, one sample was randomly selected per patient and tested with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) and with Lowenstein-Jensen medium (LJ) and liquid mycobacterial growth indicator tube (MGIT) cultures. We selected only uncontaminated stored sample pellets for Ultra testing. We estimated the sensitivity of Xpert and Ultra against culture and a composite microbiological reference standard (any positive result). Of 398 children, 353 (89%) had culture, Xpert, and Ultra results. The median age was 2.8 years (interquartile range [IQR], 1.3 to 5.3); 8.5% (30/353) were HIV infected, and 54.4% (192/353) were male. Of the 353, 31 (9%) were positive by LJ and/or MGIT culture, 36 (10%) by Ultra, and 16 (5%) by Xpert. Sensitivities (95% confidence intervals [CI]) were 58% (39 to 65% [18/31]) for Ultra and 45% (27 to 64% [14/31]) for Xpert against any culture-positive result, with false positives of <1% and 5.5% for Xpert and Ultra. Against a composite microbiological reference, sensitivities were 72% (58 to 84% [36/50]) for Ultra and 32% (20 to 47% [16/50]) for Xpert. However, there were 17 samples that were positive only with Ultra (majority trace). Among children screened for minimal TB in Uganda, Ultra has higher sensitivity than Xpert. This represents an important advance for a condition which has posed a diagnostic challenge for decades.

14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(4): e1008728, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352966

RESUMO

Genetic studies of both the human host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) demonstrate independent association with tuberculosis (TB) risk. However, neither explains a large portion of disease risk or severity. Based on studies in other infectious diseases and animal models of TB, we hypothesized that the genomes of the two interact to modulate risk of developing active TB or increasing the severity of disease, when present. We examined this hypothesis in our TB household contact study in Kampala, Uganda, in which there were 3 MTB lineages of which L4-Ugandan (L4.6) is the most recent. TB severity, measured using the Bandim TBscore, was modeled as a function of host SNP genotype, MTB lineage, and their interaction, within two independent cohorts of TB cases, N = 113 and 121. No association was found between lineage and severity, but association between multiple polymorphisms in IL12B and TBscore was replicated in two independent cohorts (most significant rs3212227, combined p = 0.0006), supporting previous associations of IL12B with TB susceptibility. We also observed significant interaction between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in SLC11A1 and the L4-Ugandan lineage in both cohorts (rs17235409, meta p = 0.0002). Interestingly, the presence of the L4-Uganda lineage in the presence of the ancestral human allele associated with more severe disease. These findings demonstrate that IL12B is associated with severity of TB in addition to susceptibility, and that the association between TB severity and human genetics can be due to an interaction between genes in the two species, consistent with host-pathogen coevolution in TB.


Assuntos
Coevolução Biológica , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tuberculose/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Genoma Bacteriano , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
15.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 162, 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many high burden countries are scaling-up GeneXpert® MTB/RIF (Xpert) testing for tuberculosis (TB) using a hub-and-spoke model. However, the effect of scale up on reducing TB has been limited. We sought to characterize variation in implementation of referral-based Xpert TB testing across Uganda, and to identify health system factors that may enhance or prevent high-quality implementation of Xpert testing services. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study triangulating quantitative and qualitative data sources at 23 community health centers linked to one of 15 Xpert testing sites between November 2016 and May 2017 to assess health systems infrastructure for hub-and-spoke Xpert testing. Data sources included a standardized site assessment survey, routine TB notification data, and field notes from site visits. RESULTS: Challenges with Xpert implementation occurred at every step of the diagnostic evaluation process, leading to low overall uptake of testing. Of 2192 patients eligible for TB testing, only 574 (26%) who initiated testing were referred for Xpert testing. Of those, 54 (9.4%) were Xpert confirmed positive just under half initiated treatment within 14 days (n = 25, 46%). Gaps in required infrastructure at 23 community health centers to support the hub-and-spoke system included lack of refrigeration (n = 14, 61%) for sputum testing and lack of telephone/mobile communication (n = 21, 91%). Motorcycle riders responsible for transporting sputum to Xpert sites operated variable with trips once, twice, or three times a week at 10 (43%), nine (39%) and four (17%) health centers, respectively. Staff recorded Xpert results in the TB laboratory register at only one health center and called patients with positive results at only two health centers. Of the 15 Xpert testing sites, five (33%) had at least one non-functioning module. The median number of tests per day was 3.57 (IQR 2.06-4.54), and 10 (67%) sites had error/invalid rates > 5%. CONCLUSIONS: Although Xpert devices are now widely distributed throughout Uganda, health system factors across the continuum from test referral to results reporting and treatment initiation preclude effective implementation of Xpert testing for patients presenting to peripheral health centers. Support for scale up of innovative technologies should include support for communication, coordination and health systems integration.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Testes Genéticos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Uganda
16.
Br J Haematol ; 189(3): 489-499, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072624

RESUMO

Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is an aggressive childhood B-cell lymphoma associated with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections. Variation in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) system is suspected to play a role, but assessments using less accurate serology-based HLA typing techniques in small studies yielded conflicting results. We studied 200 eBL cases and 400 controls aged 0-15 years enrolled in northern Uganda and typed by accurate high-resolution HLA sequencing methods. HLA results were analyzed at one- or two-field resolution. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (aOR, 95% CI) for eBL risk associated with common HLA alleles versus alleles that were rare (<1%) or differed by <2% between the cases and controls as the reference category, were estimated using multiple logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, microgeography, region, malaria positivity and treatment history, and genetic variants associated with eBL. Compared to the controls, eBL cases had a lower frequency of HLA-A*02 (aOR = 0·59, 95% CI 0·38-0·91), HLA-B*41 (aOR = 0·36, 95% CI 0·13-1·00), and HLA-B*58 alleles (aOR = 0·59, 95% CI 0·36-0·97). eBL cases had a lower frequency of HLA-DPB1 homozygosity (aOR = 0·57, 95% CI 0·40-0·82) but a higher frequency of HLA-DQA1 homozygosity (aOR = 2·19, 95% CI 1·42-3·37). Our results suggest that variation in HLA may be associated with eBL risk.

17.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054641

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The relationship between clinical and biomarker characteristics of asthma and its severity in Africa is not well known. METHODS: Using the Expert Panel Report 3, we assessed for asthma severity and its relationship with key phenotypic characteristics in Uganda, Kenya and Ethiopia. The characteristics included adult onset asthma, family history of asthma, exposures (smoking and biomass), comorbidities (HIV, hypertension, obesity, tuberculosis (TB), rhinosinusitis, gastro-oesophageal disease (GERD) and biomarkers (fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), skin prick test (SPT) and blood eosinophils). We compared these characteristics on the basis of severity and fitted a multivariable logistic regression model to assess the independent association of these characteristics with asthma severity. RESULTS: A total of 1671 patients were enrolled, 70.7% women, with median age of 40 years. The prevalence of intermittent, mild persistent, moderate persistent and severe persistent asthma was 2.9%, 19.9%, 42.6% and 34.6%, respectively. Only 14% were on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Patients with severe persistent asthma had a higher rate of adult onset asthma, smoking, HIV, history of TB, FeNO and absolute eosinophil count but lower rates of GERD, rhinosinusitis and SPT positivity. In the multivariate model, Ethiopian site and a history of GERD remained associated with asthma severity. DISCUSSION: The majority of patients in this cohort presented with moderate to severe persistent asthma and the use of ICS was very low. Improving access to ICS and other inhaled therapies could greatly reduce asthma morbidity in Africa.

18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(5): 1161-1167, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) control is hindered by absence of rapid tests to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and detect isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) resistance. We evaluated the accuracy of the BD MAX multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB assay (BD MAX) in South Africa, Uganda, India, and Peru. METHODS: Outpatient adults with signs/symptoms of pulmonary TB were prospectively enrolled. Sputum smear microscopy and BD MAX were performed on a single raw sputum, which was then processed for culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), BD MAX, and Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). RESULTS: 1053 participants with presumptive TB were enrolled (47% female; 32% with human immunodeficiency virus). In patients with confirmed TB, BD MAX sensitivity was 93% (262/282 [95% CI, 89-95%]); specificity was 97% (593/610 [96-98%]) among participants with negative cultures on raw sputa. BD MAX sensitivity was 100% (175/175 [98-100%]) for smear-positive samples (fluorescence microscopy), and 81% (87/107 [73-88%]) in smear-negative samples. Among participants with both BD MAX and Xpert, sensitivity was 91% (249/274 [87-94%]) for BD MAX and 90% (246/274 [86-93%]) for Xpert on processed sputa. Sensitivity and specificity for RIF resistance compared with phenotypic DST were 90% (9/10 [60-98%]) and 95% (211/222 [91-97%]), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of INH resistance were 82% (22/27 [63-92%]) and 100% (205/205 [98-100%]), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The BD MAX MDR-TB assay had high sensitivity and specificity for detection of MTB and RIF and INH drug resistance and may be an important tool for rapid detection of TB and MDR-TB globally.

19.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 18: 100136, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879703

RESUMO

Nucleic acid amplification tests such as Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) have the potential to revolutionize tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics and improve case finding in resource-poor settings. However, since its introduction over a decade ago in Uganda, there remain significant gaps along the cascade of care for patients undergoing TB diagnostic evaluation at peripheral health centers. We utilized a systematic, implementation science-based approach to identify key reasons at multiple levels for attrition along the TB diagnostic evaluation cascade of care. Provider- and health system-level barriers fit into four key thematic areas: human resources, material resources, service implementation, and service coordination. Patient-level barriers included the considerable costs and time required to complete health center visits. We developed a theory-informed strategy using the PRECEDE framework to target key barriers by streamlining TB diagnostic evaluation and facilitating continuous quality improvement. The resulting SIMPLE TB strategy involve four key components: 1) Single-sample LED fluorescence microscopy; 2) Daily sputum transport to Xpert testing sites; 3) Text message communication of Xpert results to health centers and patients; and 4) Performance feedback to health centers using a quality improvement framework. This combination of interventions was feasible to implement and significantly improved the provision of high-quality care for patients undergoing TB diagnostic evaluation. We conclude that achieving high coverage of Xpert testing services is not enough. Xpert scale-up should be accompanied by health system co-interventions to facilitate effective implementation and ensure that high quality care is delivered to patients.

20.
J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis ; 15: 100099, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720425

RESUMO

Rationale: Many high-burden countries are scaling-up Xpert MTB/RIF using a hub-and-spoke model. We evaluated the quality of care for patients undergoing TB evaluation at microscopy centers (spokes) linked to Xpert testing sites (hubs) in Uganda. Objectives: To characterize the extent to which patients were receiving care in accordance with international and national guidelines. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all adults with presumptive pulmonary TB at 24 health centers linked to Xpert testing sites. Health center staff photographed TB registers, and uploaded photos to a secure server bi-weekly. We assessed the proportion of patients (1) initiating testing; (2) completing testing; and (3) treated for confirmed TB within 14 days. Measurements and Main Results: Between January to December 2017, 6744 patients underwent evaluation for pulmonary TB. Only 1316 patients had sputum referred for Xpert testing, including 1075/3229 (33.3%) people living with HIV and 241/3515 (6.9%) without HIV. Of 119 patients confirmed to have TB by Xpert testing, 44 (36%) did not initiate treatment. There were significant losses along the entire diagnostic cascade of care, with only 5330/6744 (79.0%) patients having samples referred for sputum-based testing, 2978/5330 (55.9%) patients completing recommended testing if referred, and 313/418 (74.9%) patients initiating treatment within 14 days if confirmed to have TB. Conclusions: Although coverage of Xpert testing services across Uganda is high, the quality of care delivered to patients undergoing TB evaluation remains poor. Further research is needed to identify health system interventions to facilitate uptake of Xpert testing and high-quality care.

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