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1.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222611, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The structure of a social network as well as peer behaviours are thought to affect personal substance use. Where substance use may create health risks, understanding the contribution of social networks to substance use may be valuable for the design and implementation of harm reduction or other interventions. We examined the social support network of people living in precarious housing in a socially marginalized neighborhood of Vancouver, and analysed associations between social network structure, personal substance use, and supporters' substance use. METHODS: An ongoing, longitudinal study recruited 246 participants from four single room occupancy hotels, with 201 providing social network information aligned with a 6-month observation period. Use of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, cocaine (crack and powder), methamphetamine, and heroin was recorded at monthly visits. Ego- and graph-level measures were calculated; the dispersion and prevalence of substances in the network was described. Logistic mixed effects models were used to estimate the association between ego substance use and peer substance use. Permutation analysis was done to test for randomness of substance use dispersion on the social network. RESULTS: The network topology corresponded to residence (Hotel) with two clusters differing in demographic characteristics (Cluster 1 -Hotel A: 94% of members, Cluster 2 -Hotel B: 95% of members). Dispersion of substance use across the network demonstrated differences according to network topology and specific substance. Methamphetamine use (overall 12%) was almost entirely limited to Cluster 1, and absent from Cluster 2. Different patterns were observed for other substances. Overall, ego substance use did not differ over the six-month period of observation. Ego heroin, cannabis, or crack cocaine use was associated with alter use of the same substances. Ego methamphetamine, powder cocaine, or alcohol use was not associated with alter use, with the exception for methamphetamine in a densely using part of the network. For alters using multiple substances, cannabis use was associated with lower ego heroin use, and lower ego crack cocaine use. Permutation analysis also provided evidence that dispersion of substance use, and the association between ego and alter use was not random for all substances. CONCLUSIONS: In a socially marginalized neighborhood, social network topology was strongly influenced by residence, and in turn was associated with type(s) of substance use. Associations between personal use and supporter's use of a substance differed across substances. These complex associations may merit consideration in the design of interventions to reduce risk and harms associated with substance use in people living in precarious housing.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0218201, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194834

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cognition is impaired in homeless and vulnerably housed persons. Within this heterogeneous and multimorbid group, distinct profiles of cognitive dysfunction are evident. However, little is known about the underlying neurobiological substrates. Imaging structural covariance networks provides a novel investigative strategy to characterizing relationships between brain structure and function within these different cognitive subgroups. METHOD: Participants were 208 homeless and vulnerably housed persons. Cluster analysis was used to group individuals on the basis of similarities in cognitive functioning in the areas of attention, memory, and executive functioning. The principles of graph theory were applied to construct two brain networks for each cognitive group, using measures of cortical thickness and gyrification. Global and regional network properties were compared across networks for each of the three cognitive clusters. RESULTS: Three cognitive groups were defined by: higher cognitive functioning across domains (Cluster 1); lower cognitive functioning with a decision-making strength (Cluster 3); and an intermediate group with a relative executive functioning weakness (Cluster 2). Between-group differences were observed for cortical thickness, but not gyrification networks. The lower functioning cognitive group exhibited higher segregation and reduced integration, higher centrality in select nodes, and less spatially compact modules compared with the two other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The cortical thickness network differences of Cluster 3 suggest that major disruptions in structural connectivity underlie cognitive dysfunction in a subgroup of people who have a high multimorbid illness burden and who are vulnerably housed or homeless. The origins, and possible plasticity of these structure-function relationships identified with network analysis warrant further study.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31230145

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Schizophrenia and stimulant-induced psychosis (SIP) represent two different forms of psychotic disorder, with different etiologies. While many of the symptoms of psychosis are common to both disorders, there have been few direct comparisons between these conditions, especially when controlling for stimulant use in individuals with schizophrenia. OBJECTIVES: We directly compared both psychotic disorders with a comprehensive battery of clinical, neurocognitive and neuroanatomical measures. This included one group with SIP (and concurrent stimulant dependence) and two groups with schizophrenia (either with or without concurrent stimulant dependence). METHODS: Ninety-six participants were recruited from a marginalized urban population, which included 39 with SIP (and concurrent stimulant dependence), 18 with schizophrenia (without stimulant dependence), and 39 with schizophrenia (with concurrent stimulant dependence). All subjects had extensive clinical and neurocognitive evaluations, complemented with structural MRI including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequences to determine regional brain volumes and white matter connectivity. RESULTS: Both positive and negative symptoms were greater in the SZ-dependent group than the other two. Neurocognitive function was broadly similar. The structural brain imaging revealed lateralized changes to the left parietal/temporal lobe, in which regional volumes were smaller in the SZ-dependent than the SZ-non-dependent group. DTI analysis indicated extensive decreases in fractional anisotropy, with parallel increases in radial diffusivity, in the SIP group compared to the SZ-dependent group. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal both similarities and differences between SIP and schizophrenia. Furthermore, schizophrenia with concurrent stimulant dependence may be associated with a different clinical and neuroanatomical profile as compared to schizophrenia alone.

4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(13): e011412, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242796

RESUMO

Background Homeless and vulnerably housed individuals are at increased risk for multimorbidity compared with the general population. We assessed prevalence of brain infarcts on neuroimaging and associations with vascular risk factors and cognitive performance in a prospective study of residents living in marginal housing. Methods and Results Two hundred twenty-eight participants underwent structured clinical interviews, targeted clinical, laboratory, and neuropsychological assessments, and magnetic resonance imaging with T1, T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and susceptibility-weighted images. Subjects underwent cognitive testing to assess premorbid IQ , verbal learning and memory, inhibition, sustained attention, mental flexibility, and decision making. In this sample (mean age 44.0 years [ SD 9.4], 77% male), prevalence of conventional vascular risk factors was lower than in the general population apart from tobacco use (94%). Ten-year Framingham risk for any cardiovascular event was 11.4%±9.2%. Brain infarcts were present in 25/228 (11%). All were ischemic (40% cortical, 56% lacunar, 4% both). Participants with infarcts were older than those without (48.9±9.4 versus 43.4±9.2, P=0.006). In a multivariable regression analysis, only age remained a significant predictor of brain infarcts (odds ratio 1.08, 95% CI 1.02-1.14, P=0.004). After controlling for age and education, the presence of infarct was a significant predictor of impaired decision making on the Iowa Gambling Task of decision making (ß -28.2, 95% CI -42.7 to -14.1, P<0.001). Conclusions Prevalence of infarcts on neuroimaging in this disadvantaged, community-dwelling cohort was much higher than expected for age and was associated with impaired decision making. Further research is needed to identify individuals at highest risk who may benefit from targeted preventative strategies.

5.
Acad Med ; 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31094729

RESUMO

PROBLEM: Approximately 25% of trainees participate in a global health elective during their undergraduate or graduate medical education. Increasingly, educators in the US and international partners are calling for improved pre-departure preparation training for global health experiences. Yet, freely available, easily modifiable curricula are rare. APPROACH: Educators who created the Simulation Use for Global Away Rotation (SUGAR) curriculum formed a workgroup in September 2017 to develop the SUGAR Pre-Departure Activities Curricular Kit (S-PACK). Utilizing Kern's six-step approach to curriculum development, they identified 10 essential domains for global health preparation; developed learning objectives; created interactive activities pertinent to those domains using different education strategies; piloted and refined the curriculum; packaged it for online facilitator training; and disseminated it in March 2018. OUTCOMES: The S-PACK curriculum includes six interactive, modifiable modules that utilize a variety of educational strategies to enable educators to comprehensively prepare trainees for global health electives. Modules incorporate simulations, procedural training, small-group case-based discussions, and reflection exercises on topics ranging from providing treatment when resources are limited to mitigating culture shock to considering wellness while away. Each module includes a facilitator training packet, curricular resources, and introduction videos. All are freely available at sugarprep.org. NEXT STEPS: Since an initial in-person workshop at a national conference, the S-PACK curriculum has been available online. Further evaluation is underway, including developing assessments for educators to measure trainee readiness for global health electives. Piloting the feasibility of regional S-PACK preparation bootcamps to support training programs with limited global health resources is planned.

6.
Int J Drug Policy ; 2019 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765118

RESUMO

Canada and the United States (U.S.) face an opioid use disorder (OUD) and opioid overdose epidemic. The most effective OUD treatment is opioid agonist therapy (OAT)-buprenorphine (with and without naloxone) and methadone. Although federal approval for OAT occurred decades ago, in both countries, access to and use of OAT is low. Restrictive policies and complex regulations contribute to limited OAT access. Through a non-systematic literature scan and a review of publicly available policy documents, we examined and compared OAT policies and practice at the federal (Canada vs. U.S.) and local levels (British Columbia [B.C.] vs. Oregon). Differences and similarities were noted between federal and local OAT policies, and subsequently OAT access. In Canada, OAT policy control has shifted from federal to provincial authorities. Conversely, in the U.S., federal authorities maintain primary control of OAT regulations. Local OAT health insurance coverage policies were substantively different between B.C. and Oregon. In B.C., five OAT options were available, while in Oregon, only two OAT options were available with administrative limitations. The differences in local OAT access and coverage policies between B.C. and Oregon, may be explained, in part, to the differences in Canadian and U.S. federal OAT policies, specifically, the relaxation of special federal OAT regulatory controls in Canada. The analysis also highlights the complicating contributions, and likely policy solutions, that exist within other drug policy sub-domains (e.g., the prescription regime, and drug control regime) and broader policy domains (e.g., constitutional rights). U.S. policymakers and health officials could consider adopting Canada's regulatory policy approach to expand OAT access to mitigate the harms of the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic.

7.
Brain Behav ; 9(3): e01233, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724486

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated white matter differences associated with distinct neurocognitive profiles derived from a large cohort of marginally housed persons with comorbid physical and mental illnesses. Our prior work identified three profile cluster groups: a high functioning group (Cluster 1), a low functioning group with relative strength in decision-making (Cluster 3), and an intermediary group with a relative decision-making weakness (Cluster 2). This study extends previous findings of cortical gray matter differences between these groups with evidence for putative neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the low cognitive functioning group (i.e., Cluster 3). We hypothesized that altered white matter diffusion would be associated with the lowest functioning neurocognitive profile and would be associated with previously observed gray matter differences. METHOD: Participants from a socially impoverished neighborhood in Vancouver, Canada underwent neurocognitive evaluation and neuroimaging. We performed Tract-Based Spatial Statistics using diffusion tensor imaging data from 184 participants to examine whole-brain differences in white matter microstructure between cluster analytically derived neurocognitive profiles, as well as unitary neurocognitive measures. Correlations between frontal gray and white matter were also examined. RESULTS: Cluster 3 showed increased diffusion in predominately bilateral frontal and interhemisphere tracts (vs. Clusters 1 and 2), with relatively greater diffusion in the left hemisphere (vs. Cluster 1). Differences in radial diffusivity were more prominent compared with axial diffusivity. A weak association between regional frontal fractional anisotropy and previously defined abnormalities in gyrification was observed. CONCLUSIONS: In a socially marginalized sample, we established several patterns in the covariation of white matter diffusion and neurocognitive functioning. These patterns elucidate the neurobiological substrates and vulnerabilities that are apt to underlie functional impairments inherent to this complex and heterogeneous population.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407496

RESUMO

Objective: Persons who are homeless or marginally housed exhibit significant cognitive dysfunction, with memory being the most impaired domain. Hippocampal subfield volumes have been found to differentially relate to component processes of memory. The neural correlates of memory have not been previously examined in marginalized persons who are understudied and underserved. We examined whether hippocampal subfields and entorhinal cortex volumes are uniquely related to indices of verbal episodic memory using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test - Revised. Method: Data was used from a large sample of community dwelling homeless and marginally housed adults (N = 227). Regression analyses were conducted to examine hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA3, CA4, dentate gyrus, subiculum) and entorhinal cortex, and their associations with measures of verbal immediate recall, learning slope, and verbal delayed recall. Results: Greater CA3 subfield volume was associated with better performance on an index of encoding (immediate recall), but only in older individuals. Greater CA1 and subiculum volumes were associated with better performance on immediate and delayed recall (measures that tap into retrieval processes), but not with learning slope (a more pure index of encoding). Entorhinal cortex volume was related to all components of memory beyond total hippocampal volume. Conclusions: Our results suggest common neuroanatomical correlates of memory dysfunction in large sample of marginalized persons, and these are uniquely related to different components of memory. These findings have clinical relevance for marginalized populations and theoretical relevance to the growing literature on functional specialization of the hippocampal subfields.

9.
Acad Med ; 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30256250

RESUMO

For over 60 years, MD-PhD programs have provided integrated clinical and research training in order to produce graduates primed for physician-scientist careers. Yet the nature of this integrated training is poorly characterized, with no program theory of integrated MD-PhD training to guide program development or evaluation. The authors address this gap by proposing a program theory of integrated MD-PhD training applying constructs from cognitive psychology and medical education. The authors argue that integrated training early in becoming a physician-scientist requires development of at least three elements in trainees: cognitive synergy, sense of self, and professional capacity. First, integrated programs need to foster the cognitive ability to synergize and transfer knowledge between the clinical and research realms. Second, integrated programs need to facilitate development of a unique and emergent identity as a physician-scientist that is more than the sum of the individual roles of physician and scientist. Third, integrated programs should develop core competencies unique to physician-scientists in addition to those required of each independently. The authors describe how programs can promote development of these elements in trainees, summarized in a logic model. Activities and process measures are provided to assist institutions in enhancing integration. Specifically, programs can enact the proposed theory by providing tailored MD-PhD curricula, personal development planning, and a supportive community of practice. It is high time to establish a theory behind integrated MD-PhD training as the basis for designing interventions and evaluations to develop the foundations of physician-scientist expertise.

10.
West J Nurs Res ; : 193945918800333, 2018 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226112

RESUMO

The purpose of this exploratory subanalysis was to compare the effects of two depression quality improvement approaches on clinical outcomes and service utilization for individuals with comorbid depression/anxiety. This study used data from Community Partners in Care (CPIC), a cluster-randomized comparative effectiveness trial ( N = 1,018; depression = 360; comorbid depression/anxiety = 658). Each intervention arm received the same quality improvement materials, plus either technical support (Resources for Services, RS) or support for collaborative implementation planning (Community Engagement and Planning, CEP). For the comorbid depression/anxiety subgroup, the collaborative planning arm was superior at improving mental health-related quality of life and mental wellness, as well as decreasing behavioral hospitalizations and homelessness risk at 6 months. The effects were not significant at 12 months. A collaborative planning process versus technical support for depression quality improvement can have short-term effects on mental wellness and social determinants of health among those with comorbid depression/anxiety.

11.
Ethn Dis ; 28(Suppl 2): 311-316, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202183

RESUMO

Community partners and stakeholders currently engaged in community partnered participatory research (CPPR) can provide personal and professional insight into the processes and outcomes surrounding the CPPR model. This insight may indicate alternative solutions or methods of care delivery that can improve the model and existing interventions. We conducted in-person and phone interviews with five community partners who are currently involved in CPPR. The interviews were audio- and video-recorded, transcribed, and major themes identified. Interviewees recounted their experiences with CPPR and reported various levels of personal (ie, behavioral) and professional growth as a result of their involvement. Interviewees also indicated that CPPR can highlight various aspects of existing interventions (eg, leadership structure, stakeholder representation, methods of provider-to-patient communication, and provision of resources) that may benefit from re-evaluation. Engagement in CPPR may offer various personal and professional benefits for individuals (ie, community partners) involved in stages of development, implementation, and dissemination. The benefits affect these individuals in several ways, from personal growth (eg, emotional maturity, behavioral progress, increased familial resiliency) to professional growth (eg, progression of one's career/role/responsibilities, organizational growth, learned skills). These maturations have secondary effects (eg, increased community resilience, strengthened relationships, community-based mentorships) impacting the communities in which these community partners serve.

12.
Ethn Dis ; 28(Suppl 2): 357-364, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202188

RESUMO

Objective: With internal validity being a central goal of designed experiments, we seek to elucidate how community partnered participatory research (CPPR) impacts the internal validity of public health comparative-effectiveness research. Methods: Community Partners in Care (CPIC), a study comparing a community-coalition intervention to direct technical assistance for disseminating depression care to vulnerable populations, is used to illustrate design choices developed with attention to core CPPR principles. The study-design process is reviewed retrospectively and evaluated based on the resulting covariate balance across intervention arms and on broader peer-review assessments. Contributions of the CPIC Council and the study's design committee are highlighted. Results: CPPR principles contributed to building consensus around the use of randomization, creating a sampling frame, specifying geographic boundaries delimiting the scope of the investigation, grouping similar programs into pairs or other small blocks of units, collaboratively choosing random-number-generator seeds to determine randomized intervention assignments, and addressing logistical constraints in field operations. Study protocols yielded samples that were well-balanced on background characteristics across intervention arms. CPIC has been recognized for scientific merit, has drawn attention from policymakers, and has fueled ongoing research collaborations. Conclusions: Creative and collaborative fulfillment of CPPR principles reinforced the internal validity of CPIC, strengthening the study's scientific rigor by engaging complementary areas of knowledge and expertise among members of the investigative team.

13.
Ethn Dis ; 28(Suppl 2): 493-502, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202203

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the feasibility of a novel, partnered technology development process to co-create mobile health applications (apps) addressing community health priorities, using psychoeducation of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) principles for enhancing resilience as an example. Design: Stakeholder engagement, workgroups, pilot feasibility study using mixed methods during October 2013 through January 2016 over three phases: 1) defining the vision of the project and increasing technical capacity, 2) co-development and pilot testing of the app, and 3) planning for sustainability. Setting: An academic-community partnership in South Los Angeles, California. Participants: Eight stakeholders; 30 pilot participants from the community. Main Outcome Measures: Qualitative analysis of audio-recordings of the app development process and stakeholder interviews, surveys of stakeholders' perception of the development process, app use data, and feedback from pilot participants. Results: The participatory technology development process resulted in creation and pilot-testing of a resiliency-focused text messaging app. Of the 1,107 messages sent, 23 out of 30 (77%) app users responded to explore interactive content. Stakeholders reported increased perceived competency in creating mobile apps and that the process fostered a culture of co-leadership. There was also sustained engagement in mobile app development by stakeholders beyond the initial project period. Conclusions: This is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate the feasibility of participatory technology development, an approach involving direct participation in the development, tailoring and maintenance of a mobile app by a broad set of stakeholders with high representation from racial/ethnic minorities from an under-resourced community. Participatory technology development is a promising approach for creating sustainable, relevant and engaging health technologies across different technological, clinical and community settings.

14.
Ethn Dis ; 28(Suppl 2): 503-510, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202204

RESUMO

Background: Patient and community engagement in under-resourced communities is a key issue for precision medicine research. We report proceedings from a community-academic partnered conference in Los Angeles to promote community understanding of precision medicine and generate engagement recommendations. Methods: Planning group review of planning, presentations, and audience discussions from facilitator notes and participant survey data from a one-day conference. Findings: Community-academic planning broadened community participation and presentations. More than 80% of survey participants indicated they would participate in the national precision medicine initiative, and most were willing to share diverse sources of data. Discussions identified trust concerns related to historical research abuses, data privacy, potential effects of findings on health care, personal safety, research procedures, the time-frame for benefit, and confusion about different initiatives. Concerns were balanced by belief in science to improve health. Recommendations included a community partnered participatory approach with support for local community and academic teams to engage stakeholders with written/online resources and partnered workgroups addressing key concerns. Conclusion: Conference participants expressed high willingness to participate in precision medicine studies, but discussions highlighted trust and transparency issues and suggested community partnered research with local capacity building.

15.
Home Healthc Now ; 36(5): 319-323, 2018 Sep/Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30192277

RESUMO

Driving safety for older adults with dementia presents a continuing complex challenge in the community. More than 5 million people in the United States suffer from dementia, and their numbers are expected to grow. Evidence-based resources to identify and manage driving risks in older adults with dementia do exist, but the challenges of limited time in primary care and outpatient settings can make application difficult. This innovative project, funded by a Hartford Foundation Change Agents Action grant award, focused on interprofessional work to address the educational need for primary care professionals and family caregivers to manage driving safety for their loved ones with dementia. An interactive theater performance with development of an educational DVD was tested in a sample of professional and family caregivers. This project also forged new sustainable interprofessional community partnerships among educators/researchers and healthcare providers caring for this vulnerable community population.

16.
Can J Public Health ; 109(2): 204-214, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Young adults living in single room occupancy (SRO) hotels, a form of low-income housing, are known to have complex health and substance problems compared to their peers in the general population. The objective of this study is to comprehensively describe the mental, physical, and social health profile of young adults living in SROs. METHODS: This study reports baseline data from young adults aged 18-29 years, as part of a prospective cohort study of adults living in SROs in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Baseline and follow-up data were collected from 101 young adults (median follow-up period 1.9 years [IQR 1.0-3.1]). The comprehensive assessment included laboratory tests, neuroimaging, and clinician- and patient-reported measures of mental, physical, and social health and functioning. RESULTS: Three youth died during the preliminary follow-up period, translating into a higher than average mortality rate (18.6, 95% CI 6.0, 57.2) compared to age- and sex-matched Canadians. High prevalence of interactions with the health, social, and justice systems was reported. Participants were living with median two co-occurring illnesses, including mental, neurological, and infectious diseases. Greater number of multimorbid illnesses was associated with poorer real-world functioning (ρ = - 0.373, p < 0.001). All participants reported lifetime alcohol and cannabis use, with pervasive use of stimulants and opioids. CONCLUSION: This study reports high mortality rates, multimorbid illnesses, poor functioning, poverty, and ongoing unmet mental health needs among young adults living in SROs. Frequent interactions with the health, social, and justice systems suggest important points of intervention to improve health and functional trajectories of this vulnerable population.

17.
Can J Public Health ; 109(1): 79-88, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29981058

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Policy and legislation that prohibits workplace harassment and discrimination, including that which is disability related, has been in place in Canada for many years. The study objective was to examine associations between disability and workplace harassment and discrimination in the current Canadian context, as well as the intersection of disability with age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from the 2014 Canadian Public Service Employee Survey was analyzed (n = 175,742) using logistic regression to investigate the relationship between self-reported disability and workplace harassment and discrimination in the last 2 years. Age, gender, and ethnicity were included as potential confounders and effect modifiers. Additive and multiplicative effect modifications were examined using linear binomial and logistic regression, respectively. RESULTS: Overall, 18 and 8% of the sample of Canadian public service employees reported workplace harassment and discrimination, respectively. The prevalence was higher for workers with disability (37 and 26%). Disability was significantly associated with an increased odds of harassment (odds ratio (OR) = 2.80; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.68-2.92) and discrimination (OR = 4.97; 95% CI, 4.72-5.23) in models adjusted for confounders. Significant positive additive effect modification was observed for (1) age in the harassment and discrimination models and (2) ethnicity in the discrimination model. CONCLUSION: Findings from a 2014 census of the Canadian federal public service suggest that additional efforts are needed to address workplace harassment and discrimination beyond those already in place. Consideration should be given to workers with disability, as well as the intersectional impacts for older workers, visible minorities, and Aboriginal peoples.

18.
Neurobiol Dis ; 114: 31-44, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29496544

RESUMO

The molecular underpinnings associated with cognitive reserve remain poorly understood. Because animal models fail to fully recapitulate the complexity of human brain aging, postmortem studies from well-designed cohorts are crucial to unmask mechanisms conferring cognitive resistance against cumulative neuropathologies. We tested the hypothesis that functionality of the SNARE protein interactome might be an important resilience factor preserving cognitive abilities in old age. Cognition was assessed annually in participants from the Rush "Memory and Aging Project" (MAP), a community-dwelling cohort representative of the overall aging population. Associations between cognition and postmortem neurochemical data were evaluated in functional assays quantifying various species of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) machinery in samples from the inferior temporal (IT, n = 154) and middle-frontal (MF, n = 174) gyri. Using blue-native gel electrophoresis, we isolated and quantified several types of complexes containing the three SNARE proteins (syntaxin-1, SNAP25, VAMP), as well as the GABAergic/glutamatergic selectively expressed complexins-I/II (CPLX1/2), in brain tissue homogenates and reconstitution assays with recombinant proteins. Multivariate analyses revealed significant associations between IT and MF neurochemical data (SNARE proteins and/or complexes), and multiple age-related neuropathologies, as well as with multiple cognitive domains of MAP participants. Controlling for demographic variables, neuropathologic indices and total synapse density, we found that temporal 150-kDa SNARE species (representative of pan-synaptic functionality) and frontal CPLX1/CPLX2 ratio of 500-kDa heteromeric species (representative of inhibitory/excitatory input functionality) were, among all the immunocharacterized complexes, the strongest predictors of cognitive function nearest death. Interestingly, these two neurochemical variables were associated with different cognitive domains. In addition, linear mixed effect models of global cognitive decline estimated that both 150-kDa SNARE levels and CPLX1/CPLX2 ratio were associated with better cognition and less decline over time. The results are consistent with previous studies reporting that synapse dysfunction (i.e. dysplasticity) may be initiated early, and relatively independent of neuropathology-driven synapse loss. Frontotemporal dysregulation of the GABAergic/glutamatergic stimuli might be a target for future drug development.

20.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 43(17): E998-E1004, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29470277

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between the duration of pain at baseline and the clinical outcomes of patients with low back pain (LBP) enrolled on the North East of England Regional Back Pain and Radicular Pain Pathway (NERBPP). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The NERBPP is a clinical pathway based upon National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines (2009) for LBP of <1-year duration. Recent changes to NICE guidelines (2016) advocate the same management for all LBP patients regardless of pain duration. METHODS: Patients with LBP referred onto the NERBPP by their General Practitioner between May 2015 and January 2017 were included. Data from 667 patients, who provided pre- and post data for pain (Numerical rating scale), function (Oswestry Disability Index), quality-of-life (EuroQol five-dimension, five-level questionnaire), anxiety (the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener), and depression (the Patient Health Questionnaire), were analyzed using a series of covariate-adjusted models. Patients were categorized into four groups based upon baseline pain duration: <3 months, ≥3 to <6 months, ≥6 months to <12 months, ≥12 months. RESULTS: Each group showed improved outcomes greater than the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) for each measure as defined in NICE guidelines (2016). There was a trend toward better outcomes for those with shorter pain durations. The magnitude of the differences between the groups, in most instances, was below the MCID. For example, mean improvement in function for those with baseline pain duration <3 months was 20 points and 12 points for those of pain duration ≥12 months, both above the MCID of ≥10. CONCLUSION: Patients with different durations of LBP at baseline improved on the NERBPP, supporting the recent modification to NICE guidelines. However, those with shorter durations of pain may have superior outcomes in the short term, suggesting added benefit in getting patients onto the pathway in the early stages of LBP. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

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