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2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(7): e2223033, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862045

RESUMO

Importance: Opioid overdose is a leading public health problem in the United States; however, national data on overdose deaths are delayed by several months or more. Objectives: To build and validate a statistical model for estimating national opioid overdose deaths in near real time. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, signals from 5 overdose-related, proxy data sources encompassing health, law enforcement, and online data from 2014 to 2019 in the US were combined using a LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression model, and weekly predictions of opioid overdose deaths were made for 2018 and 2019 to validate model performance. Results were also compared with those from a baseline SARIMA (seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average) model, one of the most used approaches to forecasting injury mortality. Exposures: Time series data from 2014 to 2019 on emergency department visits for opioid overdose from the National Syndromic Surveillance Program, data on the volume of heroin and synthetic opioids circulating in illicit markets via the National Forensic Laboratory Information System, data on the search volume for heroin and synthetic opioids on Google, and data on post volume on heroin and synthetic opioids on Twitter and Reddit were used to train and validate prediction models of opioid overdose deaths. Main Outcomes and Measures: Model-based predictions of weekly opioid overdose deaths in the United States were made for 2018 and 2019 and compared with actual observed opioid overdose deaths from the National Vital Statistics System. Results: Statistical models using the 5 real-time proxy data sources estimated the national opioid overdose death rate for 2018 and 2019 with an error of 1.01% and -1.05%, respectively. When considering the accuracy of weekly predictions, the machine learning-based approach possessed a mean error in its weekly estimates (root mean squared error) of 60.3 overdose deaths for 2018 (compared with 310.2 overdose deaths for the SARIMA model) and 67.2 overdose deaths for 2019 (compared with 83.3 overdose deaths for the SARIMA model). Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this serial cross-sectional study suggest that proxy administrative data sources can be used to estimate national opioid overdose mortality trends to provide a more timely understanding of this public health problem.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Overdose de Opiáceos , Analgésicos Opioides , Estudos Transversais , Heroína , Humanos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação , Overdose de Opiáceos/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(29): 940-947, 2022 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35862289

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Drug overdose deaths increased approximately 30% from 2019 to 2020 in the United States. Examining rates by demographic and social determinants of health characteristics can identify disproportionately affected populations and inform strategies to reduce drug overdose deaths. METHODS: Data from the State Unintentional Drug Overdose Reporting System (SUDORS) were used to analyze overdose death rates from 2019 to 2020 in 25 states and the District of Columbia. Rates were examined by race and ethnicity and county-level social determinants of health (e.g., income inequality and treatment provider availability). RESULTS: From 2019 to 2020, drug overdose death rates increased by 44% and 39% among non-Hispanic Black (Black) and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons, respectively. Significant disparities were found across sex, age, and racial and ethnic subgroups. In particular, the rate in 2020 among Black males aged ≥65 years (52.6 per 100,000) was nearly seven times that of non-Hispanic White males aged ≥65 years (7.7). A history of substance use was frequently reported. Evidence of previous substance use treatment was lowest for Black persons (8.3%). Disparities in overdose deaths, particularly among Black persons, were larger in counties with greater income inequality. Opioid overdose rates in 2020 were higher in areas with more opioid treatment program availability compared with areas with lower opioid treatment availability, particularly among Black (34.3 versus 16.6) and AI/AN (33.4 versus 16.2) persons. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: Health disparities in overdose rates continue to worsen, particularly among Black and AI/AN persons; social determinants of health, such as income inequality, exacerbate these inequities. Implementation of available, evidence-based, culturally responsive overdose prevention and response efforts that address health disparities impacting disproportionately affected populations are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Analgésicos Opioides , District of Columbia , Humanos , Masculino , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sinais Vitais
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(7): e1010622, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35793345

RESUMO

Malaria hotspots have been the focus of public health managers for several years due to the potential elimination gains that can be obtained from targeting them. The identification of hotspots must be accompanied by the description of the overall network of stable and unstable hotspots of malaria, especially in medium and low transmission settings where malaria elimination is targeted. Targeting hotspots with malaria control interventions has, so far, not produced expected benefits. In this work we have employed a mechanistic-stochastic algorithm to identify clusters of super-spreader houses and their related stable hotspots by accounting for mosquito flight capabilities and the spatial configuration of malaria infections at the house level. Our results show that the number of super-spreading houses and hotspots is dependent on the spatial configuration of the villages. In addition, super-spreaders are also associated to house characteristics such as livestock and family composition. We found that most of the transmission is associated with winds between 6pm and 10pm although later hours are also important. Mixed mosquito flight (downwind and upwind both with random components) were the most likely movements causing the spread of malaria in two out of the three study areas. Finally, our algorithm (named MALSWOTS) provided an estimate of the speed of malaria infection progression from house to house which was around 200-400 meters per day, a figure coherent with mark-release-recapture studies of Anopheles dispersion. Cross validation using an out-of-sample procedure showed accurate identification of hotspots. Our findings provide a significant contribution towards the identification and development of optimal tools for efficient and effective spatio-temporal targeted malaria interventions over potential hotspot areas.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Malária , Parasitos , Animais , Humanos , Gado , Malária/parasitologia , Controle de Mosquitos
5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35791261

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Public health data signal increases in the number of people who inject drugs (PWID) in the United States during the past decade. An updated PWID population size estimate is critical for informing interventions and policies aiming to reduce injection-associated infections and overdose, as well as to provide a baseline for assessments of pandemic-related changes in injection drug use. METHODS: We used a modified multiplier approach to estimate the number of adults who injected drugs in the United States in 2018. We deduced the estimated number of non-fatal overdose events among PWID from two of our previously published estimates: the number of injection-involved overdose deaths and the meta-analyzed ratio of non-fatal to fatal overdose. The number of non-fatal overdose events was divided by prevalence of non-fatal overdose among current PWID for a population size estimate. RESULTS: There were an estimated 3,694,500 (95% CI: 1,872,700-7,273,300) PWID in the U.S. in 2018, representing 1.46% (95% CI: 0.74% - 2.87%) of the adult population. The estimated prevalence of injection drug use was highest among male persons (2.1%; 95% CI: 1.1-4.2%), non-Hispanic White persons (1.8%; 95% CI: 0.9-3.6%), and adults aged 18-39 years (1.8%; 0.9-3.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Using transparent, replicable methods and largely publicly available data, we provide the first update to the number of people who inject drugs in the U.S. in nearly ten years. Findings suggest the population size of PWID has substantially grown in the past decade and that prevention services for PWID should be proportionally increased.

7.
J Appalach Health ; 4(1): 51-60, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35769511

RESUMO

Background: People who use drugs are at increased risk for hepatitis A virus infection. Since 1996, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices has recommended hepatitis A vaccination for people who use drugs. Since 2016, the U.S. has experienced widespread hepatitis A outbreaks associated with person-to-person transmission. Purpose: To describe the prevalence of drug use, route of use, and drugs used among hepatitis A outbreak-associated patients. Methods: State outbreak and medical records were reviewed to describe the prevalence, type, and route of drug use among a random sample of 812 adult outbreak-associated hepatitis A patients from Kentucky, Michigan, and West Virginia during 2016-2019. Differences in drug-use status were analyzed by demographic and risk-factor characteristics using the X 2 test. Results: Among all patients, residents of Kentucky (55.6%), Michigan (51.1%), and West Virginia (60.1%) reported any drug use, respectively. Among patients that reported any drug use, methamphetamine was the most frequently reported drug used in Kentucky (42.3%) and West Virginia (42.1%); however, opioids were the most frequently reported drug used in Michigan (46.8%). Hepatitis A patients with documented drug use were more likely (p<0.05) to be experiencing homelessness/unstable housing, have been currently or recently incarcerated, and be aged 18-39 years compared to those patients without documented drug use. Implications: Drug use was prevalent among person-to-person hepatitis A outbreak-associated patients, and more likely among younger patients and patients experiencing homelessness or incarceration. Increased hepatitis A vaccination coverage is critical to prevent similar outbreaks in the future.

8.
Arch Bone Jt Surg ; 10(5): 420-425, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35755785

RESUMO

Background: With the rise in distal radius fracture (DRF) incidence and treatment through open reduction internal fixation, there are increasing concerns in the current medical cost containment climate. To help reduce costs, manufacturers are introducing sterile packed kits. The purpose of this study is to compare the costs of the single use kit (SK) against conventional reprocessed DRF surgical sets (RS). Methods: A four-year retrospective review at three surgical centers was performed to determine a company's RS average sterilization and processing costs. RS instrumentation cost was estimated by straight-line depreciation from the original purchase price. RS implant costs were calculated from the list price. SK list cost was obtained from the same company. Incidence of surgical delays was estimated by a survey of 23 hand surgeons and cost of delays was obtained from surgical center reports. Sensitivity analysis on delay frequency was performed to assess a range of overall costs. Results: OR delays were estimated at one out of 100 cases, with an average cost of $11 per case. For RS, average instruments, implants, and sterilization costs per case was $47, $2882, and $39. The total RS cost of $2,978 and the SK was $1,667 with a difference of $1,313 per case. Conclusion: RS was found to cost $1,313 more per case than the SK in an ambulatory surgical setting and potentially more cost effective. Ultimately, pricing is highly variable at each center based on negotiated and contractual pricing.

9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(23): 749-756, 2022 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35679167

RESUMO

In 2019, 65.8 million U.S. adults reported past-month binge drinking and 35.8 million reported illicit drug use or prescription pain reliever misuse during the past month; 20.4 million met diagnostic criteria for a substance use disorder during the past year (1). Approximately 81,000 persons died of a drug overdose* during May 2019-May 2020; excessive alcohol use contributes to an estimated 95,000 deaths per year (2). Persons with a substance use disorder are at elevated risk for overdose and associated harms (3). To examine the prevalence of past 30-day substance use patterns and the severity of problems experienced across seven biopsychosocial domains (alcohol, drug, employment, family, legal, medical, and psychiatric), CDC used 2019 data from the National Addictions Vigilance Intervention and Prevention Program (NAVIPPRO) Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV) tool (4); these data are collected from adults aged ≥18 years who seek substance use treatment in the United States. Alcohol was the most commonly reported substance used during the past 30 days (35.8%), followed by cannabis (24.9%), prescription opioids (misuse) (18.5%), illicit stimulants (14.0%), heroin (10.2%), prescription sedatives or tranquilizers (misuse) (8.5%), cocaine (7.4%), illicit fentanyl (4.9%), and prescription stimulants (misuse) (1.8%).† Polysubstance use (use of two or more substances) during the past 30 days was reported by 32.6% of respondents. Among the biopsychosocial domains measured, 45.4% of assessments reported more severe problems with drugs; others reported psychiatric (35.2%), legal (28.8%), medical (27.4%), employment (25.0%), alcohol (24.2%), and family problems (22.8%). These findings highlight the complex nature of substance use in the United States, the interplay between substance use and mental illness, and the complex challenges that persons with substance use disorder face when seeking treatment. Actions to enhance comprehensive substance use programs that incorporate polysubstance use and co-occurring mental health problems into strategies for prevention, treatment, and response are needed, as is expanded linkage to services. CDC provides data and resources to equip and inform states, territories, and local jurisdictions to help improve opioid prescribing practices, improve linkage to care for the treatment of opioid use disorder, and prevent and reverse overdoses.§.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição , Adolescente , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/terapia , Fentanila , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Padrões de Prática Médica , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Anim Ecol ; 2022 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35678697

RESUMO

Invasive species pose a significant threat to biodiversity and agriculture world-wide. Natural enemies play an important part in controlling pest populations, yet we understand very little about the presence and prevalence of natural enemies during the early invasion stages. Microbial natural enemies of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda are known in its native region, however, they have not yet been identified in Africa where fall armyworm has been an invasive crop pest since 2016. Larval samples were screened from Malawi, Rwanda, Kenya, Zambia, Sudan and Ghana for the presence of four different microbial natural enemies; two nucleopolyhedroviruses, Spodoptera frugiperda NPV (SfMNPV) and Spodoptera exempta NPV (SpexNPV); the fungal pathogen Metarhizium rileyi; and the bacterium Wolbachia. This study aimed to identify which microbial pathogens are present in invasive fall armyworm, and determine the geographical, meteorological and temporal variables that influence prevalence. Within 3 years of arrival, fall armyworm was exposed to all four microbial natural enemies. SfMNPV probably arrived with fall armyworm from the Americas, but this is the first putative evidence of host spillover from Spodoptera exempta (African armyworm) to fall armyworm for the endemic pathogen SpexNPV and for Wolbachia. It is also the first confirmed incidence of M. rileyi infecting fall armyworm in Africa. Natural enemies were localised, with variation being observed both nationally and temporally. The prevalence of SfMNPV (the most common natural enemy) was predominantly explained by variables associated with the weather; declining with increasing rainfall and increasing with temperature. However, virus prevalence also increased as the growing season progressed. The infection of an invasive species with a natural enemy from its native range and novel pathogens specific to its new range has important consequences for understanding the population ecology of invasive species and insect-pathogen interactions. Additionally, while it is widely known that temporal and geographic factors affect insect populations, this study reveals that these are important in understanding the distribution of microbial natural enemies associated with invasive pests during the early stages of invasion, and provide baseline data for future studies.

11.
Harm Reduct J ; 19(1): 51, 2022 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35614501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite recent rises in fatal overdoses involving multiple substances, there is a paucity of knowledge about stimulant co-use patterns among people who use opioids (PWUO) or people being treated with medications for opioid use disorder (PTMOUD). A better understanding of the timing and patterns in stimulant co-use among PWUO based on mentions of these substances on social media can help inform prevention programs, policy, and future research directions. This study examines stimulant co-mention trends among PWUO/PTMOUD on social media over multiple years. METHODS: We collected publicly available data from 14 forums on Reddit (subreddits) that focused on prescription and illicit opioids, and medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). Collected data ranged from 2011 to 2020, and we also collected timelines comprising past posts from a sample of Reddit users (Redditors) on these forums. We applied natural language processing to generate lexical variants of all included prescription and illicit opioids and stimulants and detect mentions of them on the chosen subreddits. Finally, we analyzed and described trends and patterns in co-mentions. RESULTS: Posts collected for 13,812 Redditors showed that 12,306 (89.1%) mentioned at least 1 opioid, opioid-related medication, or stimulant. Analyses revealed that the number and proportion of Redditors mentioning both opioids and/or opioid-related medications and stimulants steadily increased over time. Relative rates of co-mentions by the same Redditor of heroin and methamphetamine, the substances most commonly co-mentioned, decreased in recent years, while co-mentions of both fentanyl and MOUD with methamphetamine increased. CONCLUSION: Our analyses reflect increasing mentions of stimulants, particularly methamphetamine, among PWUO/PTMOUD, which closely resembles the growth in overdose deaths involving both opioids and stimulants. These findings are consistent with recent reports suggesting increasing stimulant use among people receiving treatment for opioid use disorder. These data offer insights on emerging trends in the overdose epidemic and underscore the importance of scaling efforts to address co-occurring opioid and stimulant use including harm reduction and comprehensive healthcare access spanning mental-health services and substance use disorder treatment.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central , Overdose de Drogas , Metanfetamina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Overdose de Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Fentanila , Humanos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35578834

RESUMO

Subjectively prioritizing health over other life domains is an indicator of health motivation and is associated with higher levels of health behaviors and more effective health behavior self-regulation. However, little is known about when individuals prioritize health over other life domains and which factors predict prioritizing health. Here, we examine 3644 older adults in Germany (mean age 60.79) over a period of 6-9 years from DEAS, a population-representative survey. Latent growth curves were estimated to examine individual change in prioritizing health. Socio-structural (gender, educational attainment) and indicators of health status (baseline status and change in [a] number of illnesses, [b] functional health, and [c] self-rated health) were tested as predictors of changes in health prioritization. Participants prioritized health over other life domains, and this increased over time. Women and those with worse health status (lower functional and lower self-rated health) prioritized health more than men and those with better health status, respectively. Lower educational attainment was associated with higher increases in prioritizing health, and interactions between educational status and health indicators show that increases are larger in those with worse health and lower educational attainment. This indicates individual differences in the degree and the changes of prioritizing health.

13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(19): 656-663, 2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35550497

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The majority of homicides (79%) and suicides (53%) in the United States involved a firearm in 2020. High firearm homicide and suicide rates and corresponding inequities by race and ethnicity and poverty level represent important public health concerns. This study examined changes in firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates coinciding with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. METHODS: National vital statistics and population data were integrated with urbanization and poverty measures at the county level. Population-based firearm homicide and suicide rates were examined by age, sex, race and ethnicity, geographic area, level of urbanization, and level of poverty. RESULTS: From 2019 to 2020, the overall firearm homicide rate increased 34.6%, from 4.6 to 6.1 per 100,000 persons. The largest increases occurred among non-Hispanic Black or African American males aged 10-44 years and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) males aged 25-44 years. Rates of firearm homicide were lowest and increased least at the lowest poverty level and were higher and showed larger increases at higher poverty levels. The overall firearm suicide rate remained relatively unchanged from 2019 to 2020 (7.9 to 8.1); however, in some populations, including AI/AN males aged 10-44 years, rates did increase. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the firearm homicide rate in the United States reached its highest level since 1994, with substantial increases among several population subgroups. These increases have widened disparities in rates by race and ethnicity and poverty level. Several increases in firearm suicide rates were also observed. Implementation of comprehensive strategies employing proven approaches that address underlying economic, physical, and social conditions contributing to the risks for violence and suicide is urgently needed to reduce these rates and disparities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Armas de Fogo , Suicídio , Causas de Morte , Homicídio , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Vigilância da População , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sinais Vitais
15.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 83(3)2022 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35485928

RESUMO

Objective: Clinical interventions targeting co-occurring psychiatric disorders may represent a tangible target for improving retention in buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder. The aims of this study are to characterize receipt of antidepressants among patients receiving buprenorphine treatment and to examine the association between receiving antidepressants and retention in treatment.Methods: A retrospective cohort design was used. Using data from a large national commercially insured population, the cohort was selected as adults aged 18 to 64 years who initiated buprenorphine treatment in outpatient settings between January 1, 2016, and June 30, 2017. Receiving antidepressants was identified as prescription fills in the period between 6 months prior to buprenorphine initiation and during buprenorphine treatment. Buprenorphine discontinuation was defined as no buprenorphine prescription supply for at least 60 days following the end of the last buprenorphine prescription.Results: The cohort consisted of 11,619 individuals who initiated buprenorphine treatment and met our inclusion criteria. The cohort had a mean age of 36.3 years, 63% were male, and 55.7% received at least 1 antidepressant prescription at any time between 6 months prior to buprenorphine initiation and during treatment. Compared with those receiving no antidepressants at all, individuals starting antidepressants during buprenorphine treatment had an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for treatment discontinuation of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.67-0.77), while receiving antidepressants only prior to buprenorphine initiation was associated with an increased risk of treatment discontinuation (HR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.28-1.53).Conclusions: Findings suggest that receiving antidepressants during buprenorphine treatment is associated with improved retention. This highlights the critical importance of screening for and treating mental disorders concomitantly with treatment of opioid use disorder.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Adulto , Antidepressivos/efeitos adversos , Buprenorfina/efeitos adversos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tratamento de Substituição de Opiáceos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 234: 109428, 2022 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, drug overdose mortality has increased. Death records categorize overdose deaths by type of drug involved, but do not include information about the route of drug administration. METHODS: We utilized data from drug treatment admissions (Treatment Episodes Dataset, TEDS-A) and National Vital Statistics Systems to estimate the percentage of reported drug overdose deaths that were injection-involved from 2000 to 2018 in the U.S. Data on reported route of administration at admission were used to calculate the percent injecting each drug type, by demographic group (race/ethnicity, sex, age group) and year. Using the resulting probabilities, we estimated the number of overdose deaths that were injection-involved. Estimates were compared across drug types, demographic characteristics, and year. FINDINGS: The number of overdose deaths among adults increased more than 3-fold from 2000 (n = 17,196) to 2018 (n = 67,021). During that timeframe, the number of estimated injection-involved overdose deaths increased more than 8-fold from 2000 (n = 3467, 95% CI: 3449-3485) to 2018 (n = 28,257, 95% CI: 28,192-28,322). From 2000-2007, the percent of overdose deaths that were injection-involved remained stable around 20%. From 2007-2018, the percent of overdose deaths that were injection-involved increased from 18.4% (95% CI: 18.3-18.6%) to 42.2% (95% CI: 42.1-42.3%). In 2018, most estimated injection-involved overdose deaths were due to injecting heroin/synthetic opioids (n = 24,860, 95% CI: 24,800-24,919), which accounted for 88.0% of all injection-involved deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Much of the recent increase in overdose mortality is likely attributable to rising injection-involved overdose deaths.


Assuntos
Overdose de Drogas , Adulto , Analgésicos Opioides , Heroína , Humanos , Injeções , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3428, 2022 03 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236911

RESUMO

Irrigation schemes provide an ideal habitat for Anopheles mosquitoes particularly during the dry season. Reliable estimates of outdoor host-seeking behaviour are needed to assess the impact of vector control options and this is particularly the case for Anopheles arabiensis which displays a wide range of behaviours that circumvent traditional indoor-insecticide based control. In this study we compared the sampling efficiency of the host decoy trap (HDT) with the human landing catch (HLC) and Suna trap in a repeated Latin square design in two villages (Lengwe and Mwanza) on an irrigated sugar estate in southern Malawi. Over the course of 18 trapping nights, we caught 379 female Anopheles, the majority of which were identified as An. arabiensis. Across both villages, there was no detectable difference in Anopheles catch between the HDT compared with the HLC (RR = 0.85, P = 0.508). The overall sensitivity of the HLC was greater than the Suna trap regardless of mosquito density (Lengwe, α = 2.75, 95% credible interval: 2.03-3.73; Mwanza, α = 3.38, 95% credible interval: 1.50-9.30) whereas the sensitivity of the HDT was only greater than the Suna trap when mosquito numbers were high (Lengwe, α = 2.63, 95% credible interval: 2.00-3.85).We conclude that the HDT is an effective sampling device for outdoor host seeking An. arabiensis in southern Malawi. The presence of An. arabiensis in irrigated lands during the dry season poses a challenge for ongoing indoor vector control efforts.


Assuntos
Anopheles , Controle de Mosquitos , Animais , Entomologia , Feminino , Humanos , Malaui , Mosquitos Vetores
18.
MMWR Suppl ; 71(3): 8-15, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35358166

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with established risk factors for adolescent substance use, including social isolation, boredom, grief, trauma, and stress. However, little is known about adolescent substance use patterns during the pandemic. CDC analyzed data from the Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey, an online survey of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of public- and private-school students in grades 9-12 (N = 7,705), to examine the prevalence of current use of tobacco products, alcohol, and other substances among U.S. high school students. Prevalence was examined by demographic characteristics and instructional models of the students' schools (in-person, virtual, or hybrid). During January-June 2021, 31.6% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, alcohol, or marijuana or current misuse of prescription opioids. Current alcohol use (19.5%), electronic vapor product (EVP) use (15.4%), and marijuana use (12.8%) were more prevalent than prescription opioid misuse (4.3%), current cigarette smoking (3.3%), cigar smoking (2.3%), and smokeless tobacco use (1.9%). Approximately one third of students who used EVPs did so daily, and 22.4% of students who drank alcohol did so ≥6 times per month. Approximately one in three students who ever used alcohol or other drugs reported using these substances more during the pandemic. The prevalence of substance use was typically higher among non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native students, older students, and gay, lesbian, or bisexual students than among students of other racial or ethnic groups, younger students, and heterosexual students. The prevalence of alcohol use also was higher among non-Hispanic White students than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Students only attending school virtually had a lower prevalence of using most of the substances examined than did students attending schools with in-person or hybrid models. These findings characterizing youth substance use during the pandemic can help inform public health interventions and messaging to address these health risks during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , COVID-19 , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudantes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 17(1): 16, 2022 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35248103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely data from official sources regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people who use prescription and illegal opioids is lacking. We conducted a large-scale, natural language processing (NLP) analysis of conversations on opioid-related drug forums to better understand concerns among people who use opioids. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed posts from 14 opioid-related forums on the social network Reddit. We applied NLP to identify frequently mentioned substances and phrases, and grouped the phrases manually based on their contents into three broad key themes: (i) prescription and/or illegal opioid use; (ii) substance use disorder treatment access and care; and (iii) withdrawal. Phrases that were unmappable to any particular theme were discarded. We computed the frequencies of substance and theme mentions, and quantified their volumes over time. We compared changes in post volumes by key themes and substances between pre-COVID-19 (1/1/2019-2/29/2020) and COVID-19 (3/1/2020-11/30/2020) periods. RESULTS: Seventy-seven thousand six hundred fifty-two and 119,168 posts were collected for the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods, respectively. By theme, posts about treatment and access to care increased by 300%, from 0.631 to 2.526 per 1000 posts between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Conversations about withdrawal increased by 812% between the same periods (0.026 to 0.235 per 1,000 posts). Posts about drug use did not increase (0.219 to 0.218 per 1,000 posts). By substance, among medications for opioid use disorder, methadone had the largest increase in conversations (20.751 to 56.313 per 1,000 posts; 171.4% increase). Among other medications, posts about diphenhydramine exhibited the largest increase (0.341 to 0.927 per 1,000 posts; 171.8% increase). CONCLUSIONS: Conversations on opioid-related forums among people who use opioids revealed increased concerns about treatment and access to care along with withdrawal following the emergence of COVID-19. Greater attention to social media data may help inform timely responses to the needs of people who use opioids during COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Mídias Sociais , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Arch Bone Jt Surg ; 10(1): 92-97, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35291241

RESUMO

Background: Distal pole scaphoid resection (DPSR) is an effective way to manage chronic scaphoid non-union with limited degenerative arthritis. Studies have reported positive results in terms of pain relief, wrist range of motion and grip strength, and patient satisfaction. However, the biomechanical consequences of DPSR remain unclear. This study evaluates the effects of DPSR on carpal mechanics by assessing changes in radiographic parameters with varying quantities of scaphoid removal. Methods: Six fresh frozen cadaveric upper extremities were used. Resections of 25%, 50%, and 75% of the length of each scaphoid were performed under fluoroscopic image guidance. For the intact scaphoid and each resection level, the following radiographic parameters were assessed: radiolunate and capitolunate angles; carpal height and first metacarpal subsidence ratios, and ulnar carpal translation. Measurements were then repeated for grip and pinch as well as radial and ulnar wrist deviation positions. Radial styloid to trapezium distance in wrist radial deviation was also measured to assess for impingement. Results: There was a statistically significant increase in the mean radiolunate angle with increasing scaphoid resection quantities. No statistically significant correlations were found between radial styloid clearance and increasing scaphoid resection percentages. Changes in the remaining variables did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: Increasing levels of scaphoid resection is associated with progressive signs of carpal malalignment best depicted by increasing radiolunate angles. Diminishing radial styloid clearance was clinically evident as more scaphoid was resected. For this, prophylactic radial styloidectomy may be considered to avoid bony impingement.

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