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1.
Aging Clin Exp Res ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33590469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic joint disease, with increasing global burden of disability and healthcare utilisation. Recent meta-analyses have shown a range of effects of OA on mortality, reflecting different OA definitions and study methods. We seek to overcome limitations introduced when using aggregate results by gathering individual participant-level data (IPD) from international observational studies and standardising methods to determine the association of knee OA with mortality in the general population. METHODS: Seven community-based cohorts were identified containing knee OA-related pain, radiographs, and time-to-mortality, six of which were available for analysis. A two-stage IPD meta-analysis framework was applied: (1) Cox proportional hazard models assessed time-to-mortality of participants with radiographic OA (ROA), OA-related pain (POA), and a combination of pain and ROA (PROA) against pain and ROA-free participants; (2) hazard ratios (HR) were then pooled using the Hartung-Knapp modification for random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: 10,723 participants in six cohorts from four countries were included in the analyses. Multivariable models (adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes) showed a pooled HR, compared to pain and ROA-free participants, of 1.03 (0.83, 1.28) for ROA, 1.35 (1.12, 1.63) for POA, and 1.37 (1.22, 1.54) for PROA. DISCUSSION: Participants with POA or PROA had a 35-37% increased association with reduced time-to-mortality, independent of confounders. ROA showed no association with mortality, suggesting that OA-related knee pain may be driving the association with time-to-mortality. FUNDING: Versus Arthritis Centre for Sport, Exercise and Osteoarthritis and Osteoarthritis Research Society International.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452525

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of OA on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in the forms of health state utilities (HSUs) and health-dimension scores, and to compare the longitudinal changes in HRQoL for people with and without OA, using an Australian population-based longitudinal cohort. METHODS: Participants of the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort with data on OA diagnosis and HRQoL were included [interviewed at baseline (n = 1093), 2.5 years (n = 871), 5 years (n = 760) and 10 years (n = 562)]. HRQoL was assessed using the Assessment of Quality of Life four-dimensions and analysed using multivariable linear mixed regressions. RESULTS: Compared with participants without OA, HSUs for those with OA were 0.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.09, 0.05) units lower on average over 10 years. HSUs for participants with knee and/or hip OA were similar to those with other types of OA at the 2.5 year follow-up and then diverged, with HSUs of the former being up to 0.09 units lower than the latter. Those with OA had lower scores for psychological wellness, independent living and social relationships compared with those without OA. Independent living and social relationships were mainly impacted by knee and/or hip OA, with the effect on the former increasing over time. CONCLUSION: Interventions to improve HRQoL should be tailored to specific OA types, health dimensions, and times. Support for maintaining psychological wellness should be provided, irrespective of OA type and duration. However, support for maintaining independent living could be more relevant to knee and/or hip OA patients living with the disease for longer.

3.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 22(1): 40, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413273

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To describe demographic and clinical factors associated with the presence and incidence of depression and explore the temporal relationship between depression and joint symptoms in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Three hundred ninety-seven participants were selected from a randomized controlled trial in people with symptomatic knee OA and vitamin D deficiency (age 63.3 ± 7.1 year, 48.6% female). Depression severity and knee joint symptoms were assessed using the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), respectively, at baseline and 24 months. RESULTS: The presence and incidence of depression was 25.4 and 11.2%, respectively. At baseline, having younger age, a higher body mass index (BMI), greater scores of WOMAC pain (PR: 1.05, 95%CI:1.03, 1.07), dysfunction (PR: 1.02, 95%CI:1.01, 1.02) and stiffness (PR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09), lower education level, having more than one comorbidity and having two or more painful body sites were significantly associated with a higher presence of depression. Over 24 months, being female, having a higher WOMAC pain (RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.09) and dysfunction score (RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03) at baseline and having two or more painful sites were significantly associated with a higher incidence of depression. In contrast, baseline depression was not associated with changes in knee joint symptoms over 24 months. CONCLUSION: Knee OA risk factors and joint symptoms, along with co-existing multi-site pain are associated with the presence and development of depression. This suggests that managing common OA risk factors and joint symptoms may be important for prevention and treatment depression in patients with knee OA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01176344 . Anzctr.org.au identifier: ACTRN12610000495022 .

4.
Curr Rheumatol Rep ; 23(2): 11, 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33511486

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Finding appropriate pharmacological options to treat osteoarthritis (OA) remain challenging. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of all types of turmeric extracts for the management of knee OA. RECENT FINDINGS: Sixteen RCTs of up to 16 weeks duration including 1810 adults with knee OA were included. Eleven RCTs compared the efficacy of turmeric extracts with placebo and five with active comparators (NSAIDs). The overall risk bias of included RCTs was moderate. Turmeric extracts significantly reduced knee pain (SMD - 0.82, 95% CI - 1.17 to - 0.47, I2 = 86.23%) and improved physical function (SMD - 0.75, 95% CI - 1.18 to - 0.33, I2 = 90.05%) compared to placebo but had similar effects compared to NSAIDs. BMI was the major contributor to heterogeneity in the placebo-controlled studies (explained 37.68% and 67.24%, respectively, in the models) and modified the effects of the turmeric on pain and physical function with less improvement with higher BMI (SMD 0.26 95% CI 0.04 to 0.48; SMD 0.48 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). No significant between-group differences were reported for either biochemical markers or imaging outcomes. Turmeric extracts had 12% fewer adverse events than NSAIDs and similar rates to placebo. Turmeric extract is a safe and effective option for the symptomatic management of knee OA, compared to placebo or NSAIDs. However, current evidence from short-term studies is heterogeneous and has moderate risk of bias leading to some uncertainty about the true effect.

5.
Pain ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273416

RESUMO

Metabolic dysfunction has been suggested to be involved in musculoskeletal pain; however, few studies have identified metabolic markers associated with multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSMP). This study sought to identify metabolic marker(s) for MSMP by metabolomic analysis. The Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort Study (TASOAC) provided the discovery cohort with the Newfoundland Osteoarthritis Study (NFOAS) providing the replication cohort. MSMP was assessed by a self-reported pain questionnaire and defined as painful sites ≥4 in both TASOAC and NFOAS. Further, MSMP was also defined as painful sites ≥7, while non-MSMP was defined as either painful sites <7 or ≤1 in NFOAS. Serum samples of TASOAC received metabolic profiling using The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC) Prime Metabolomics Profiling Assay. The data on the identified metabolites were retrieved from NFOAS metabolomic database for the purpose of replication. A total of 409 participants were included in TASOAC, 38% of them had MSMP. Among the 143 metabolites assessed, 129 passed quality control and were included in the analysis. Sphingomyelin (SM) C18:1 was significantly associated with MSMP (OR per log µM increase=3.96, 95%CI, 1.95-8.22; p=0.0002). The significance remained in multivariable analysis (OR per log µM increase=2.70, 95%CI, 1.25-5.95). A total of 610 participants were included in NFOAS and the association with SM C18:1 was successfully replicated with three MSMP definitions (OR ranging from 1.89 to 2.82; all p<0.03). Our findings suggest that sphingomyelin metabolism is involved in the pathogenesis of MSMP and circulating level of SM C18:1 could serve as a potential marker in the management of MSMP.

6.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To describe the associations of baseline dietary pattern scores with falls risk, bone mineral density (BMD), and incident fractures measured over 10 years in older adults. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Femoral neck (FN), hip, and lumbar spine (LS) BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, falls risk z-score using the Physiological Profile Assessment, and incident fractures by self-report. Linear mixed-effects models and log-binomial regression were used to estimate associations between baseline dietary pattern z-scores and outcomes. RESULTS: Of 1098 participants at baseline, 567 were retained over 10 years. Four dietary patterns were derived: fruit and vegetable (FV), animal protein (AP), snack, and Western. FV pattern reduced falls risk at baseline by ß = 0.05-0.08/SD and the annual decreases of FN and hip BMD were less for higher Western or AP pattern scores in all populations and women. The annual increase in LS of the entire population was greater with higher scores of FV, AP, and Western patterns (all ß = 0.001 g/cm2/year/SD, p < 0.05). Higher scores of FV and snack were associated with a higher risk of LS BMD increasing over 10 years (p < 0.05 for all, except snack pattern in men) and incident fracture was not associated with any dietary pattern in the overall cohort and both men and women separately. CONCLUSIONS: An FV dietary pattern may be beneficial for reducing falls risk. The associations of dietary patterns and BMD are modest in magnitude and did not translate into an improved fracture risk. Associations between diet and LS BMD may reflect osteoarthritis rather than osteoporosis.

7.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To derive dietary patterns and examine their longitudinal associations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors in the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This is a corrected analysis of a retracted paper. We followed 1098 adults aged ≥50 years for 5 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Baseline dietary patterns were identified using exploratory factor analysis and scores at each time point calculated using the weighted sum score method. Associations of energy-adjusted dietary pattern scores with participant characteristics were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. RESULTS: The four dietary patterns identified were: fruit and vegetable (vegetables, potatoes, fruits); animal protein (poultry, red meats, fish); snack (snacks, sweets, nuts); western (meat pies, hamburgers, pizzas). Fruit and vegetable pattern scores were lower in men and current smokers at baseline. Animal protein scores were lower in older and retired people but higher in men and smokers at baseline. The sex difference in animal protein score increased over time (p = 0.012). At baseline, snack score was positively associated with age and physical activity, but lower in men and current smokers. The effect of age on snack score lessened over time (p = 0.035). Western scores were lower in older people but higher in men, current smokers and those living in disadvantaged areas at baseline. The effect of age on western score reduced over time (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The higher scores for healthy and/or lower scores for unhealthy patterns in men, smokers, retirees and those experiencing social disadvantage suggest these could be target groups for interventions to improve diet quality in older adults.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33253381

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the association between change in subchondral bone marrow lesions (BMLs) and change in tibiofemoral cartilage volume and knee symptoms in patients with symptomatic knee OA. METHODS: In total, 251 participants (mean 61.7 years, 51% female) were included. Tibiofemoral cartilage volume was measured at baseline and 24 months, and BML size at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Knee pain and function scores were evaluated at baseline, 6 and 24 months. Change in total and compartment-specific BML size was categorized according to the Least Significance Criterion. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the associations of change in BMLs over 6 and 24 months with change in cartilage volume over 24 months and knee symptoms over 6 and 24 months. RESULTS: Total BML size enlarged in 26% of participants, regressed in 31% and remained stable in 43% over 24 months. Compared with stable BMLs in the same compartment, enlarging BMLs over 24 months were associated with greater cartilage loss (difference: -53.0mm3, 95% CI: -100.0, -6.0), and regressing BMLs were not significantly associated with reduced cartilage loss (difference: 32.4mm3, 95% CI: -8.6, 73.3) over 24 months. Neither enlargement nor regression of total BML size over 6 and 24 months was associated with change in knee pain and function over the same time intervals. CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and BMLs, enlarging BMLs may lead to greater cartilage loss but regressing lesions are not associated with reduced cartilage loss while neither is associated with change in knee symptoms.

9.
Pain Ther ; 9(2): 751-763, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085011

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Sleep disturbance is often comorbid with chronic pain disorders, with emerging evidence suggesting a stronger effect of sleep disturbance on pain than vice versa; however, few studies have evaluated the long-term associations between sleep disturbance and pain. This study was to examine the associations of sleep disturbance with knee pain severity, number of painful sites (NPS) and persistent pain in a 10.7-year cohort study. METHODS: A total of 1099 community-dwelling older adults (age mean ± SD, 63 ± 7.5 years; 51% female) were recruited and followed up at 2.6, 5.1 and 10.7 years later. Data on demographics, body mass index, physical activity and comorbidities were collected. At each time point, sleep disturbance, knee pain severity and NPS were assessed by using questionnaires. Multisite pain (MSP) was defined as NPS ≥ 2. Persistent knee pain or MSP was defined as having knee pain or MSP at all time points, respectively. Multivariable mixed-effects models and log-binomial regression were applied. RESULTS: In multivariable analyses, sleep disturbance was associated with greater knee pain severity (ß 0.91/unit, 95% CI 0.70-1.11) and more NPS [(relative risk (RR) 1.10/unit, 95% CI 1.07-1.14] in a dose-response manner. Persistent sleep disturbance was associated with persistent knee pain (RR 1.90, 1.26-2.87) and MSP (RR 1.29, 1.07-1.56). Persistent knee pain and MSP were also associated with persistent sleep disturbance (knee pain: RR = 1.99; MSP: RR = 2.71, both P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sleep disturbance was independently associated with greater pain severity and NPS in a dose-response manner. A reciprocal relationship between persistent sleep disturbance and persistent pain suggests treating either problem could help the other.

10.
Australas J Ageing ; 2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969133

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine associations of education and occupation with handgrip strength (HGS), lower limb strength (LLS) and appendicular lean mass (ALM). METHODS: Measures of HGS, LLS and ALM (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were ascertained at baseline in 1090 adults (50-80 years, 51% women), ~3 and 5 years. Education and occupation were self-reported, the latter categorised as high-skilled white collar (HSWC), low-skilled white collar (LSWC) or blue collar. Separate general estimating equations were performed. RESULTS: The highest education group had greater HGS than the middle (0.33 psi) and lowest (0.48 psi) education groups, and 0.34 kg greater ALM than the lowest education group. HGS was 0.46 psi greater for HSWC than LSWC groups. Compared to LSWC groups, LLS was 5.38 and 7.08 kg greater in HSWC and blue-collar groups. Blue-collar and HSWC groups each had ~ 0.60-0.80kg greater ALM than LSWC. CONCLUSION: Progressive muscle loss can be prevented by targeted intervention; thus, we suggest clinical attention be directed towards specific social groups.

11.
Intern Med J ; 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32975868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A socioeconomic gradient exists in the utilisation of total hip replacements (THR) and total knee replacements (TKR) for osteoarthritis. However, the relations between socioeconomic status (SES) and time to THR or TKR is unknown. AIM: To describe the association between SES and time to THR and TKR. METHODS: 1072 older-adults residing in Tasmania, Australia were studied. Incident primary THR and TKR were determined by data linkage to the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. At baseline, each participant's area-level SES was determined by the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD), from the Australian Bureau of Statistics' 2001 census data. IRSAD was analysed in two ways; 1) categorised into quartiles, whereby quartile 1 represented the most socioeconomically disadvantaged group, 2) the cohort dichotomised at the quartile 1 cut-point. RESULTS: The mean age was 63.0 (±7.5) years, and 51% were women. Over the median follow-up of 12.9 (Interquartile range: 12.2-13.9) years, 56 (5%) participants had a THR, and 79 (7%) had a TKR. Compared to the most disadvantaged quartile, less disadvantaged participants were less likely to have a THR (i.e. less disadvantaged participants had a longer time to THR) (HR: 0.56, 95% CI 0.32, 1.00) but not TKR (HR: 0.90, 95% CI 0.53, 1.54). However, the former became non-significant after adjustment for pain and radiographic osteoarthritis, suggesting that the associations may be mediated by these factors. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that time to joint replacement was determined according to the symptoms/need of the participants rather than their SES. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

12.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(11): 861-869, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32926799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current pharmacologic therapies for patients with osteoarthritis are suboptimal. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of Curcuma longa extract (CL) for reducing knee symptoms and effusion-synovitis in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and knee effusion-synovitis. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12618000080224). SETTING: Single-center study with patients from southern Tasmania, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: 70 participants with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis and ultrasonography-defined effusion-synovitis. INTERVENTION: 2 capsules of CL (n = 36) or matched placebo (n = 34) per day for 12 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: The 2 primary outcomes were changes in knee pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and effusion-synovitis volume on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The key secondary outcomes were change in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and cartilage composition values. Outcomes were assessed over 12 weeks. RESULTS: CL improved VAS pain compared with placebo by -9.1 mm (95% CI, -17.8 to -0.4 mm [P = 0.039]) but did not change effusion-synovitis volume (3.2 mL [CI, -0.3 to 6.8 mL]). CL also improved WOMAC knee pain (-47.2 mm [CI, -81.2 to -13.2 mm]; P = 0.006) but not lateral femoral cartilage T2 relaxation time (-0.4 ms [CI, -1.1 to 0.3 ms]). The incidence of adverse events was similar in the CL (n = 14 [39%]) and placebo (n = 18 [53%]) groups (P = 0.16); 2 events in the CL group and 5 in the placebo group may have been treatment related. LIMITATION: Modest sample size and short duration. CONCLUSION: CL was more effective than placebo for knee pain but did not affect knee effusion-synovitis or cartilage composition. Multicenter trials with larger sample sizes are needed to assess the clinical significance of these findings. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: University of Tasmania and Natural Remedies Private Limited.

13.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 16(10): 541-542, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733004
14.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 571, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histological and epidemiological data suggest that increased signal intensity at the proximal patellar tendon on magnetic resonance imaging is a response to tendon loading. As patellofemoral geometry is a mediator of loading, we examined the association between patellofemoral geometry and the prevalence of increased signal intensity at the patellar tendon in community-based middle-aged adults. METHODS: Two hundred-one adults aged 25-60 years in a study of obesity and musculoskeletal health had the patellar tendon assessed from magnetic resonance imaging. Increased signal intensity at the proximal patellar tendon was defined as hyper-intense regions of characteristic pattern, size and distribution on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Indices of patellofemoral geometry, including Insall-Salvati ratio, patellofemoral congruence angle, sulcus angle, and lateral condyle-patella angle, were measured from magnetic resonance imaging using validated methods. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the association between patellofemoral geometrical indices and the prevalence of increased signal intensity at the patellar tendon. RESULTS: The prevalence of increased signal intensity at the patellar tendon was 37.3%. A greater Insall-Salvati ratio (odds ratio 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.97 per 0.1 change in the ratio, p = 0.02), indicative of a higher-riding patella, and a larger patellofemoral congruence angle (odds ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.85-0.98 per 5 degree change in the angle, p = 0.01), indicating a more laterally placed patella, were associated with reduced odds of increased signal intensity at the patellar tendon. Sulcus angle and lateral condyle-patella angle were not significantly associated with the odds of increased signal intensity at the patellar tendon. CONCLUSIONS: In community-based asymptomatic middle-aged adults, increased signal intensity at the patellar tendon was common and associated with Insall-Salvati ratio and patellofemoral congruence angle, suggesting a biomechanical mechanism. Such work is likely to inform tissue engineering and cell regeneration approaches to improving outcomes in those with tendon pathology.

15.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 533, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32778082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hip effusion-synovitis may be relevant to osteoarthritis (OA) but is of uncertain etiology. The aim of this study was to describe the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of hip effusion-synovitis with clinical and structural risk factors of OA in older adults. METHODS: One hundred ninety-six subjects from the Tasmanian Older Adult Cohort (TASOAC) study with a right hip STIR (Short T1 Inversion Recovery) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on two occasions were included. Hip effusion-synovitis CSA (cm2) was assessed quantitatively. Hip pain was determined by WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis) while hip bone marrow lesions (BMLs), cartilage defects (femoral and/or acetabular) and high cartilage signal were assessed on MRI. Joint space narrowing (0-3) and osteophytes (0-3) were measured on x-ray using Altman's atlas. RESULTS: Of 196 subjects, 32% (n = 63) had no or a small hip effusion-synovitis while 68% (n = 133) subjects had a moderate or large hip effusion-synovitis. Both groups were similar but those with moderate or large hip effusion-synovitis were older, had higher BMI and more hip pain. Cross-sectionally, hip effusion-synovitis at multiple sites was associated with presence of hip pain [Prevalence ratio (PR):1.42 95%CI:1.05,1.93], but not with severity of hip pain. Furthermore, hip effusion-synovitis size associated with femoral defect (ßeta:0.32 95%CI:0.08,0.56). Longitudinally, and incident hip cartilage defect (PR: 2.23 95%CI:1.00, 4.97) were associated with an increase in hip effusion-synovitis CSA. Furthermore, independent of presence of effusion-synovitis, hip BMLs predicted incident (PR: 1.62 95%CI: 1.13, 2.34) and worsening of hip cartilage defects (PR: 1.50 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86). While hip cartilage defect predicted incident (PR: 1.11 95%CI: 1.03, 1.20) and worsening hip BMLs (PR: 1.16 95%CI: 1.04, 1.30). CONCLUSIONS: Hip effusion-synovitis at multiple sites (presumably reflecting extent) may be associated with hip pain. Hip BMLs and hip cartilage defects are co-dependent and predict worsening hip effusion-synovitis, indicating causal pathways between defects, BMLs and effusion-synovitis.

16.
Clin Ther ; 42(8): e140-e149, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32713600

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Glucosamine is widely used by patients with osteoarthritis (OA) to provide symptomatic relief and to delay disease progression. However, clinical studies have reported inconsistent clinical outcomes. The current study hypothesized that the reported inconsistent clinical results could be, in part, due to variable bioavailability and elimination of glucosamine. This study therefore aimed to determine steady-state minimum plasma concentrations (Css min) of glucosamine to examine the variability among patients taking the supplement. METHODS: Patients with OA who had been taking glucosamine for at least 1 week were recruited. Patients' blood samples were collected 24 h after the ingestion of the previous dose to determine Observed Css min and after a 5-day washout period to determine the endogenous glucosamine levels (GlcNend). The Actual Css min was calculated by using the following equation: Actual Css min = Observed Css min - GlcNend. The glucosamine plasma concentrations were determined by using a previously developed HPLC method. FINDINGS: Ninety-one participants (age range, 42-89 years; mean [SD] age, 68.2 [7.6] years) were recruited (70% females). There was substantial (106-fold) variation, with a 45% coefficient of variation, between the Actual Css min levels (3-320 ng/mL) in participants. No significant association of Actual Css min was observed with various dose- and patient-related variables. IMPLICATIONS: The observed high variability in steady-state plasma concentrations indicates substantial inter-patient differences in the absorption and elimination of glucosamine, which could be a cause for inconsistent clinical outcomes in patients with OA.

17.
Bone ; 140: 115546, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730938

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine and compare risk factors associated with incident fractures in older adults with and without obesity, defined by both body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage. METHODS: 1,099 older adults (mean ± standard deviation age = 63.0 ± 7.5) years, participated in this prospective cohort study. Obesity status at baseline was defined by BMI (≥30 kg/m2) obtained by anthropometry and body fat percentage (≥30% for men and ≥40% for women) assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total hip and lumbar spine areal bone mineral density (aBMD) were assessed by DXA up to five years. Incident fractures were self-reported up to 10 years. RESULTS: Prevalence of obesity was 28% according to BMI and 43% according to body fat percentage. Obese older adults by BMI, but not body fat percentage, had significantly higher aBMD at the total hip and spine compared with non-obese (both p-value<0.05). Obese older adults by body fat percentage had significantly higher likelihood of all incident fractures (OR: 1.71; CI:1.08, 2.71) and non-vertebral fractures (OR: 1.88; CI:1.16, 3.04) compared with non-obese after adjusting for confounders. Conversely, obese older adults by BMI had a significantly lower likelihood (OR: 0.54; CI:0.31, 0.94) of non-vertebral fractures although this was no longer significant after adjustment for total hip aBMD (all p-value > 0.05). Mediation analysis confirmed that aBMD meditated the effects of BMI, but not body fat percentage, on all incident fractures. Higher baseline falls risk score was the only consistent predictor of increased likelihood of incident fracture in obese individuals only, according to both BMI and body fat percentage (both p-value<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Obesity defined by body fat percentage is associated with increased likelihood of incident fractures in community-dwelling older adults, whereas those who are obese according to BMI have reduced likelihood of incident fracture which appears to be explained by higher aBMD. Falls risk assessment may improve identification of obese older adults at increased risk of incident fractures.

18.
J Bone Miner Res ; 35(9): 1652-1659, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32638468

RESUMO

We have found that early-life exposures are associated with areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at ages 8 and 16 years. This study aimed to assess whether these associations persist into young adulthood when peak bone mass (PBM) is achieved and extend this analysis to microarchitecture. Participants were followed from perinatal period to 25 years old (n = 201). Outcomes were total body, spine, and hip aBMD (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), and cortical and trabecular bone measures at the distal radius and tibia (by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography [HRpQCT]). Early-life exposures including breastfeeding, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and birth weight. Sex, weight, height, vegetables, fruit and calcium intake at age 25 years were regarded as potential confounders in the analysis. There were significant interactions between period of gestation and early-life exposures for bone measures, so all analyses were stratified by period of gestation. Breastfeeding was beneficially associated with hip and total body aBMD, total, cortical and trabecular volumetric BMD (vBMD), cortical thickness, porosity, trabecular number (Tb.N), separation (Tb.Sp), and bone volume fraction (Tb.BV/TV) at radius and/or tibia at age 25 years in participants born prematurely (ß ranged from -0.92 to 0.94), but there were no associations in those born at term. Maternal smoking had no association with any DXA/HRpQCT measures in those born prematurely but was detrimentally associated with inner transitional zone porosity and Tb.N (ß = 0.40 and ß = -0.37, respectively) in those full-term participants. Associations of birth weight with bone measures did not persist after adjustment for weight gain since birth. Breastfeeding was associated with a lower risk of lower limb fractures and maternal smoking had a deleterious association with upper limb fractures. In conclusion, breastfeeding and maternal smoking may have effects on peak bone microarchitecture whereas the association with birth weight is countered by subsequent growth. © 2020 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623812

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine whether vitamin D supplementation or maintaining sufficient vitamin D level reduces foot pain over two years in patients with symptomatic knee OA. METHODS: A post hoc study was conducted from a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial named the VItamin D Effect on Osteoarthritis (VIDEO) study. Symptomatic knee OA patients with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels between 12.5 nmol/L to 60 nmol/L were included and randomly allocated to either monthly vitamin D3 or placebo treatment (1:1) for 2 years. Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI) was used to evaluate foot pain and Disabling foot pain was defined as at least one of the 10 functional limitation items (items 1-9,11) being documented as on 'most/every day(s)' in the last month. A repeated-measure mixed effect model was used to analyze the change of MFPDI scores between groups adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: A total of 413 patients with a mean age of 63.2 years (49.7% males) were enrolled and 340 completed the study. The mean MFPDI score was 22.8±7.3, with 23.7% participants having disabling foot pain at baseline. There were significant differences in MFPDI scores change between groups over 2 years, with more improvements in vitamin D group than in placebo group (-0.03 vs. 1.30, P=0.013) and more improvement in those maintaining sufficient vitamin D levels (n=226) than those who did not (n=114) (-0.09 vs. 2.19, P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Vitamin D supplementation and maintenance of sufficient vitamin D levels may improve foot pain in those with knee OA.

20.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 90: 104101, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474169

RESUMO

AIMS: To describe the associations between interindividual (between-person) and intraindividual (within-person) variability in physical activity (PA) and knee pain and functional limitation among older adults. We also investigated the potential bidirectional association of between-person and within-person variability in knee pain and functional limitation with PA. METHOD: Participants (N = 1064; 51% women; mean age 63 ± 7.4 years) were measured at baseline, 2.5, and 5 years. PA was measured using pedometers. Knee pain and functional limitation were assessed using the WOMAC scale. A two-part hurdle model, with adjustment for confounders, estimated the association of between-person and within-person variability in PA with knee pain/functional limitation (as the outcome). Linear mixed effect regression models described the association of between-person and within-person variability in knee pain and functional limitation with PA (as the outcome). RESULTS: Between-person effects showed that participants with a higher 5-year average PA had lower average WOMAC scores (ß= -1.17, 95% CI: -1.82, -0.51). Within-person effects showed that at time-points when participants had a higher PA level than average, they also had lower WOMAC scores (ß= -0.85, 95% CI: -1.36, -0.35). Conversely, both between-person (ß= -15.6, 95% CI: -22.5, -8.8) and within-person increase (ß= -7.4, 95% CI: -13.5, -1.4) in WOMAC scores were associated with lower PA. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that PA and knee pain/dysfunctional contribute to the development of one another. Pain can lead to changes in inter- and intraindividual PA levels, but the reverse is also possible - changes in PA results in changes in inter- and intraindividual pain/dysfunctional levels.

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