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1.
Mod Pathol ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471586

RESUMO

TP53 mutations drive colorectal cancer development, with missense mutations frequently leading to accumulation of abnormal TP53 protein. TP53 alterations have been associated with poor prognosis and chemotherapy resistance, but data remain controversial. Here, we examined the predictive utility of TP53 overexpression in the context of current adjuvant treatment practice for patients with stage III colorectal cancer. A prospective cohort of 264 stage III patients was tested for association of TP53 expression with 5-year disease-free survival, grouped by adjuvant treatment. Findings were validated in an independent retrospective cohort of 274 stage III patients. Overexpression of TP53 protein (TP53+) was found in 53% and 52% of cases from the prospective and retrospective cohorts, respectively. Among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, TP53+ status was associated with shorter disease-free survival (p ≤ 0.026 for both cohorts), while no difference in outcomes between TP53+ and TP53- cases was observed for patients treated with surgery alone. Considering patients with TP53- tumors, those receiving adjuvant treatment had better outcomes compared with those treated with surgery alone (p ≤ 0.018 for both cohorts), while no treatment benefit was apparent for patients with TP53+ tumors. Combined cohort-stratified analysis adjusted for clinicopathological variables and DNA mismatch repair status confirmed a significant interaction between TP53 expression and adjuvant treatment for disease-free survival (pinteraction = 0.030). For the combined cohort, the multivariate hazard ratio for TP53 overexpression among patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy was 2.03 (95% confidence interval 1.41-2.95, p < 0.001), while the hazard ratio for adjuvant treatment among patients with TP53- tumors was 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.24-0.71, p = 0.001). Findings were maintained irrespective of tumor location or when restricted to mismatch repair-proficient tumors. Our data suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy benefit in stage III colorectal cancer is restricted to cases with low-level TP53 protein expression. Identifying TP53+ tumors could highlight patients that may benefit from more aggressive treatment or follow-up.

2.
Viruses ; 11(9)2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491938

RESUMO

Coronaviruses represent current and emerging threats for many species, including humans. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is responsible for sporadic infections in mostly Middle Eastern countries, with occasional transfer elsewhere. A key step in the MERS-CoV replication cycle is the fusion of the virus and host cell membranes mediated by the virus spike protein, S. The location of the fusion peptide within the MERS S protein has not been precisely mapped. We used isolated peptides and giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) to demonstrate membrane binding for a peptide located near the N-terminus of the S2 domain. Key residues required for activity were mapped by amino acid replacement and their relevance in vitro tested by their introduction into recombinant MERS S protein expressed in mammalian cells. Mutations preventing membrane binding in vitro also abolished S-mediated syncytium formation consistent with the identified peptide acting as the fusion peptide for the S protein of MERS-CoV.

3.
Cardiol Young ; : 1-7, 2019 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514764

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The way risk is interpreted by parents of children undergoing congenital cardiac surgery is poorly documented. Literature suggests clinicians have concerns that parents may not understand the complexity of procedures. Conversely, some parents perceive an unnecessary over-emphasis of risks. AIM: To explore how risk is encountered by parents of children who are undergoing cardiac surgery, in order to deliver effective and compassionate care. METHODS: A qualitative approach was adopted. Interviews were undertaken with 18 parents (mothers n = 10; fathers n = 8). Recordings were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a constant comparative-based approach. FINDINGS: Three themes emerged from the data: the nature of risk, reflecting the complexity of parental perception of risk and the influence of the doctor-parent relationship; presenting risk, highlighting the way in which risk is presented to and interpreted by parents; and risk and responsibility, examining the way in which parents engaged with risk and the impact of this on their relationship. CONCLUSIONS: The way in which risk is perceived by parents is complex and multi-factorial. The doctor-parent relationship is key to parental engagement. However, parents manage risk and uncertainty through a number of mechanisms, including those perceived as being not rational. This can cause tension, particularly when required to engage in informed decision-making.

4.
J Knee Surg ; 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434143

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to evaluate diurnal variation in knee cartilage 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2 mapping relaxation times, as well as activity- and body mass index (BMI)-dependent variability, using quantitative analysis of T2 values from segmented regions of the weight-bearing articular surfaces of the medial and lateral femoral condyles and tibial plateaus. Ten healthy volunteers' daily activity (steps) were tracked with Fitbit pedometers. Sagittal MRI T2 maps were obtained in the morning and afternoon on days 2 and 3. Mean T2 values were analyzed for variation related to the number of steps taken (activity), time of day (diurnal variation), and BMI using mixed effect model. Significant (albeit small) differences in the medial femoral and medial tibial cartilage regions were identified between morning and afternoon scans (diurnal variation). Daily activity did not result in significant changes and increasing BMI only demonstrated a slight increase in T2 values for the lateral tibial plateau. These findings suggest that it may be necessary to control diurnal variation when using quantitative MRI T2 mapping to assess articular cartilage longitudinally in healthy participants. Further investigation is needed to confirm these findings and determine if they also apply to symptomatic patients.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(8): 1252-1262, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367015

RESUMO

Mutations in gene regulatory elements have been associated with a wide range of complex neuropsychiatric disorders. However, due to their cell-type specificity and difficulties in characterizing their regulatory targets, the ability to identify causal genetic variants has remained limited. To address these constraints, we perform an integrative analysis of chromatin interactions, open chromatin regions and transcriptomes using promoter capture Hi-C, assay for transposase-accessible chromatin with high-throughput sequencing (ATAC-seq) and RNA sequencing, respectively, in four functionally distinct neural cell types: induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-induced excitatory neurons and lower motor neurons, iPSC-derived hippocampal dentate gyrus-like neurons and primary astrocytes. We identify hundreds of thousands of long-range cis-interactions between promoters and distal promoter-interacting regions, enabling us to link regulatory elements to their target genes and reveal putative processes that are dysregulated in disease. Finally, we validate several promoter-interacting regions by using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) techniques in human excitatory neurons, demonstrating that CDK5RAP3, STRAP and DRD2 are transcriptionally regulated by physically linked enhancers.

6.
Langmuir ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454251

RESUMO

Polymerization of synthetic phospholipid monomers has been widely used to enhance the stability of lipid membranes in applications such as membrane-based biosensing, where the inherent instability of fluid-phase lipid bilayers can be problematic. However, lipid polymerization typically decreases membrane fluidity, which may be required to maintain the activity of reconstituted integral proteins and peptides. Prior work has shown that a bilayer composed of binary mixtures of poly(lipid) and fluid lipid exhibits enhanced stability and supports the function of incorporated biomolecules. This work examines the structural basis of these findings using planar supported lipid bilayers (PSLBs) composed of binary mixtures of a polymerizable lipid, 1,2-bis[10-(2',4'-hexadienoloxy)decanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (bis-SorbPC), and a nonpolymerizable lipid, 1,2-diphytanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPhPC). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements showed that long-range lateral diffusion was minimally affected when the poly(lipid) mole ratio was ≤0.7. Atomic force microscopy, used to examine phase segregation in these PSLBs, showed that DPhPC forms a continuous lipid matrix that is 0.2-0.4 nm thicker than the island-like poly(bis-SorbPC) domains, with lateral dimensions of ≤200 nm. The nanoscale phase segregation allows for long-range lateral diffusion of lipid probes in the DPhPC matrix. The combination of fluidity and stability in these materials should make them useful in membrane-based biosensing applications.

7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 108: 14-19, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Seasonal changes in mood and behaviour are commonly reported in the general population but considerably less is known regarding seasonality and pregnancy. This study investigated the relationship between seasons and depression and anxiety symptoms, salivary cortisol concentrations, custom birthweight centiles (CBWC) and placenta weight for pregnant women living in South Wales. METHODS: This study utilised data from the longitudinal Grown in Wales (GiW) cohort. Women were recruited at the presurgical elective caesarean section (ELCS) appointment, when they provided saliva samples and completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and trait subscale of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data on birthweight and placental weight was extracted from medical notes. Seasonal data was available for 316 participants. RESULTS: No association was identified between seasons and EPDS (p = .178), STAI scores (p = .544), CBWC (p = .683) or placental weight (p = .857). Significance was identified between seasons and salivary cortisol concentration (p<.001), with highest levels in autumn and winter. Adjusted linear regression identified spring (B=-.05, p=.007, 95% CI -.09, -.01) and summer (B=-.06, p = .001, 95% CI -09, -.02) compared to autumn, and spring (B=-.05, p=.009, 95% CI -.09, -.01) and summer (B=-.06, p=.002, 95% CI -.10, -.02) compared to winter to be associated with decreased cortisol concentrations. CONCLUSION: This study found no association between season and maternally-reported mental health symptoms, birthweight by CBWC or placental weight but did between season and term salivary cortisol. This finding will have implications for studies that do not account for seasonality when using salivary cortisol as a biomarker.

8.
Cell Tissue Bank ; 20(3): 331-337, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31214919

RESUMO

The use of musculoskeletal allografts has become increasingly popular among surgeons. The purpose of this review is to highlight the procurment and delievery process of fresh osteochondral allografts in the United States. The four distributors of fresh osteochondral allografts in the United States were contacted. Surveys containing quantitative and qualitative sections concerning the procurement and processing of osteochondral allograft tissue were obtained. Our results showed an average of 13 ± 4.24 years of experience with osteochondral allografts. The average donor age ranged from 13.5 ± 3 to 37.5 ± 5 years, with an average age of 27 ± 2.83 years. All donors were between ages 12 and 45 years old. The percentage of screened donors that were accepted for allograft transplant was consistent at 70-75% for 3 out of the 4 tissue banks. The percentage of grafts that expire without implantation ranged from 20% to 29%. Maximum shipping time varied between 24 and 96 hours. Each tissue bank used its own proprietary storage medium. The time from donor death to the harvest of allograft tissue was < 24 hours. The most commonly requested osteochondral allograft tissue for all banks was the medial femoral condyle. The market share of fresh allografts is as follows: Joint Restoration Foundation (JRF) 59.9%, Muskuloskeletal Transplant Foundation (MTF) 15.3%, LifeNet Health (LN) 14.5%, and Regeneration Technology Incorporated (RTI) 10.2%, with approximately 4700 fresh allografts distributed in 2018. This compiled data from the four tissue banks that supply fresh osteochondral allograft in the United States  provides important background information for patients and orthopaedic surgeons.

9.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

10.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 78(2): 263-272, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177338

RESUMO

Lygodium microphyllum is one of the most noxious invasive plants in Florida, USA, smothering native vegetation in cypress swamps, pine flatwoods, and Everglades tree islands and altering fire regimes. The eriophyid mite Floracarus perrepae was introduced from Australia to help control L. microphyllum infestations. While F. perrepae exhibits high population growth rates in its native range, its population dynamics in Florida are unknown, particularly the dynamics that occur within the leaf roll galls the mite induces on the margins of leaves. Here, we monitored a shade house colony of F. perrepae in south Florida for 2 years to identify seasonal patterns and potential climate drivers of within-gall mite density. Gall dissections of mite-infested colony plants were performed monthly. Mite density within galls exhibited two cycles per year: a strong cycle that boomed in spring and busted in summer, and a weak cycle that moderately increased mite density in fall and declined in winter. Climate variables, particularly those related to wind speed, were positively associated with higher mite density. Our study sheds light on the within-gall dynamics of F. perrepae and suggests that the highest within-gall mite densities occur in the spring and fall.


Assuntos
Gleiquênias/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Ácaros/fisiologia , Animais , Florida , Espécies Introduzidas , Dinâmica Populacional , Vento
11.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 284-292, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039525

RESUMO

Altered reproductive hormone levels have been associated with the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and this risk may be imparted by their modulatory effect upon hippocampal structure and function. Currently it is unclear whether altered levels of reproductive hormones are causally associated with hippocampal volume reductions and the risk of depressive disorders. Here, we utilize genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from a GWAS focusing on reproductive hormones, consisting of 2913 individuals. Using this data, we generated polygenic risk scores (PRS) for estradiol, progesterone, prolactin and testosterone in the European RADIANT cohort consisting of 176 postpartum depression (PPD) cases (100% female, mean age: 41.6 years old), 2772 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases (68.6% female, mean age: 46.9 years old) and 1588 control participants (62.5% female, mean age: 42.4 years old), for which there was also a neuroimaging subset of 111 individuals (60.4% female, mean age: 50.0 years old). Only the best-fit PRS for estradiol showed a significant negative association with hippocampal volume, as well as many of its individual subfields; including the molecular layer and granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1, CA2/3 and CA4 regions. Interestingly, several of these subfields are implicated in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. When we tested the same estradiol PRS for association with case-control status for PPD or MDD there was no significant relationship observed. Here, we provide evidence that genetic risk for higher plasma estradiol is negatively associated with hippocampal volume, but this does not translate into an increased risk of MDD or PPD. This work suggests that the relationship between reproductive hormones, the hippocampus, and depression is complex, and that there may not be a clear-cut pathway for etiology or risk moderation.

12.
Ultramicroscopy ; 204: 55-72, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129494

RESUMO

Quantitative chemical analyses of Ni3Al based hardening precipitates (γ') in polycrystalline Ni based superalloys have been conducted using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), coupled with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The aim of the current investigation is (1) to evaluate the accuracy of calibration (k factor determinations and absorption corrections using a combination of differential X-ray absorption (DXA) and convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED)) by comparing with thermodynamic calculations and (2) to demonstrate the importance of the EDX chemical analysis by taking advantage of its unique capabilities to analyse sub-micron scale chemistries within a mesoscopic field of view under STEM. Our experimental findings show good agreement with the mole fraction ratio of γ' to the disordered γ matrix predicted using the Lever rule on a thermodynamically stabilised unimodal superalloy, RR1000. The significance of analysing a statistically viable number of samples in thermodynamically metastable superalloys and the chemical fluctuations found in coarse γ', sized above 200 nm on a scale of a few hundred nanometres in the context of solving a complex morphological evolution of γ' particles is demonstrated.

13.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-10, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31140291

RESUMO

Objectives: The quality of the relationship between people with dementia and their informal caregiver maybe an important determinant of life satisfaction and well-being for both members of the dyad. Taking a dyadic perspective, the aim of this study was to examine whether self- and partner-rated relationship quality influences life satisfaction and well-being for both people with dementia and their caregivers. Design and methods: Using data from 1283 dyads in the Improving the Experience of Dementia and Enhancing Active Life (IDEAL) cohort, we examined the impact of current relationship quality on life satisfaction and well-being in dementia caregiving dyads. Data were analysed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) framework. Results: Self-rated relationship quality was associated with own life satisfaction and well-being for both people with dementia and caregivers. Partner-rated relationship quality did not influence own life satisfaction or well-being for either member of the dyad. Conclusion: This study is the first to use the APIM framework to explore the dyadic associations between relationship quality and life satisfaction and well-being in a large cohort of dementia caregiving dyads. The obtained findings suggest that the individual perception of the quality of the caregiving relationship held by each member of the caregiving dyad is an important factor for that member's life satisfaction and well-being, while the partner's perception of relationship quality is not. The findings highlight the importance of considering the individual perspective of both the person with dementia and the caregiver and enabling each to maintain positive perceptions of relationship quality.

14.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 2019 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994872

RESUMO

Importance: The role of large, rare copy number variants (CNVs) in neuropsychiatric disorders is well established, but their association with common psychiatric disorders, such as depression, remains unclear. Objective: To examine the association of a group of 53 CNVs associated with neurodevelopmental disorders and burden of rare CNVs with risk of depression. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study used data from the UK Biobank study sample, which comprised 502 534 individuals living in the United Kingdom. Individuals with autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, or bipolar affective disorder diagnoses were excluded. Analyses were further restricted to individuals of European genetic ancestry (n = 407 074). The study was conducted from January 2017 to September 2018. Exposures: CNV carrier status. Main Outcomes and Measures: For the primary outcome, individuals who reported that a physician had told them they had a depression diagnosis were defined as cases. Analyses were repeated using 2 alternative depression definitions: self-reported lifetime depression with current antidepressant prescription at the time of visit 1, and hospital discharge diagnosis of depression. Results: Copy number variants were identified in 488 366 individuals aged 37 to 73 years. In total, 407 074 individuals with European genetic ancestry (220 201 female [54.1%]; mean [SD] age of 56.9 [8.0] years) were included in the study. Of these individuals, 23 979 (5.9%) had self-reported lifetime depression and 383 095 (94.1%) reported no lifetime depression. The group of 53 neurodevelopmental CNVs was associated with self-reported depression (odds ratio [OR], 1.34; 95% CI, 1.19-1.49, uncorrected P = 1.38 × 10-7), and these results were consistent when using 2 alternative definitions of depression. This association was partially explained by physical health, educational attainment, social deprivation, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. A strong independent association remained between the neurodevelopmental CNVs and depression in analyses that incorporated these other measures (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.11-1.43; P = 2.87 × 10-4). Eight individual CNVs were nominally associated with risk of depression, and 3 of these 8 CNVs (1q21.1 duplication, Prader-Willi syndrome duplication, and 16p11.2 duplication) survived Bonferroni correction for the 53 CNVs tested. After the exclusion of carriers of neurodevelopmental CNVs, no association was found between measures of CNV burden and depression. Conclusions and Relevance: Neurodevelopmental CNVs appear to be associated with depression, extending the spectrum of clinical phenotypes that are associated with CNV carrier status.

15.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

16.
Psychol Health ; : 1-17, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010321

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Informal caregivers of people with dementia develop their own beliefs about the condition, referred to as Dementia Representations (DRs), as they try to make sense of the changes they are observing. The first aim of this study was to provide a profile of the types of DRs held by caregivers. The second aim was to examine the impact of caregivers' DRs on their well-being, satisfaction with life (SwL) and caregiving stress. METHODS: Participants were 1264 informal caregivers of people in the mild-to-moderate stages of dementia from time-point 1 of the IDEAL cohort study. MEASURES: DRs were measured using questionnaire items covering: Identity, Cause, Control, and Timeline. RESULTS: Almost half (49.2%) of caregivers used a diagnostic term to describe the person's condition, although 93.4% of caregivers stated they were aware of the diagnosis. Higher well-being, SwL, and lower caregiving stress were associated with the use of an identity term relating to specific symptoms of dementia, attributing the cause to ageing or not knowing the cause, and believing the condition would stay the same. Lower well-being, SwL, and higher caregiving stress were associated with believing there was little that could be done to control the effects of the condition. CONCLUSION: Healthcare professionals should assess and gain an understanding of caregivers' DRs in order to provide more tailored information and support.

17.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004555

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: It has been suggested that agitated depression (AD) is a common, severe feature in bipolar disorder. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of AD and investigate whether presence of AD was associated with episodic and lifetime clinical features in a large well-characterized bipolar disorder sample. METHOD: The prevalence of agitation, based on semi-structured interview and medical case-notes, in the most severe depressive episode was estimated in 2925 individuals with DSM-IV bipolar disorder recruited into the UK Bipolar Disorder Research Network. Predictors of agitation were ascertained using symptoms within the same episode and lifetime clinical features using multivariate models. RESULTS: 32.3% (n = 946) experienced agitation during the worst depressive episode. Within the same episode, significant predictors of presence of agitation were: insomnia (OR 2.119, P < 0.001), poor concentration (OR 1.966, P = 0.027), decreased libido (OR 1.960, P < 0.001), suicidal ideation (OR 1.861, P < 0.001), slowed activity (OR 1.504, P = 0.001), and poor appetite (OR 1.297, P = 0.029). Over the lifetime illness course, co-morbid panic disorder (OR 2.000, P < 0.001), suicide attempt (OR 1.399, P = 0.007), and dysphoric mania (OR 1.354, P = 0.017) were significantly associated with AD. CONCLUSIONS: Agitation accompanied bipolar depression in at least one-third of cases in our sample and was associated with concurrent somatic depressive symptoms, which are also common features of mixed manic states. Furthermore, AD in our sample was associated with lifetime experience of mixed mania, in addition to severe lifetime illness course including comorbid panic disorder and suicidal behavior. Our results have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of agitated features in bipolar depression.

19.
Sociol Health Illn ; 41(6): 1040-1055, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874329

RESUMO

Professional autonomy has come under greater scrutiny due to managerialism, consumerism, information and communication technologies (ICT), and the changing composition of professions themselves. This scrutiny is often portrayed as a tension between professional and managerial logics. Recently, medical autonomy has increasingly been shaped in terms of transparency, where publication of clinical performance (via ICT) might be a more pervasive form of surveillance. Such transparency may have the potential for a more explicit managerial logic but is contested by clinicians. This paper applies notions of surveillance to public reporting of cardiac surgery, involving the online publication of mortality rates of named surgeons. It draws on qualitative data from a case-study of cardiac surgeons in one hospital, incorporating interviews with health care managers and national policymakers in England. We examine how managerial logics are mediated by professional autonomy, generating patterns of enrolment, resistance and reactivity to public reporting. The managerial 'gaze' of public reporting is becoming widespread but the surgical specialty is accommodating it, leading to a re-assertion of knowledge, based on professional definitions. The paper assesses whether this form of surveillance is challenging to or being assimilated by the medical profession, thereby recasting the profession itself.

20.
Kidney Int ; 95(5): 1234-1243, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922665

RESUMO

The current Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines recommend the use of the bedside creatinine-based Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation in adults. However, this approach causes implausible changes in estimated GFR (eGFR) at the transition from pediatric to adult care. We investigated the performance of the KDIGO strategy and various creatinine-based eGFR equations in a cross-sectional dataset of 5,764 subjects (age 10-30 years), using directly measured GFR (mGFR) as reference. We also evaluated longitudinal GFR slopes in 136 subjects who transitioned to adult care. Implausible changes in eGFR resulted from the large overestimation (bias=+21 mL/min/1.73m2) and poor precision of the CKD-EPI equation in the 18-20 year age group, compared to CKiD in the 16-18 year age group (bias=-2.7 mL/min/1.73m2), resulting in a mean change of 23 mL/min/1.73m2 at the transition to adult care. Averaging the CKiD and CKD-EPI estimates in young adults only partially mitigated this issue. The Full Age Spectrum equation (with and without height), the Lund-Malmö Revised equation, and an age-dependent weighted average of CKiD and CKD-EPI resulted in much smaller changes in eGFR at the transition (change of 0.6, -2.1, -0.9 and -1.8 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively). The longitudinal analysis revealed a significant difference in average GFR slope between mGFR and the KDIGO strategy (-2.2 vs. +2.9 mL/min/1.73 m2/year), which was not observed with the other approaches. These results suggest that the KDIGO recommendation for GFR estimation at the pediatric-adult care transition should be revisited.

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