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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 606-615, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474318

RESUMO

Cerebellar malformations are diverse congenital anomalies frequently associated with developmental disability. Although genetic and prenatal non-genetic causes have been described, no systematic analysis has been performed. Here, we present a large-exome sequencing study of Dandy-Walker malformation (DWM) and cerebellar hypoplasia (CBLH). We performed exome sequencing in 282 individuals from 100 families with DWM or CBLH, and we established a molecular diagnosis in 36 of 100 families, with a significantly higher yield for CBLH (51%) than for DWM (16%). The 41 variants impact 27 neurodevelopmental-disorder-associated genes, thus demonstrating that CBLH and DWM are often features of monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders. Though only seven monogenic causes (19%) were identified in more than one individual, neuroimaging review of 131 additional individuals confirmed cerebellar abnormalities in 23 of 27 genetic disorders (85%). Prenatal risk factors were frequently found among individuals without a genetic diagnosis (30 of 64 individuals [47%]). Single-cell RNA sequencing of prenatal human cerebellar tissue revealed gene enrichment in neuronal and vascular cell types; this suggests that defective vasculogenesis may disrupt cerebellar development. Further, de novo gain-of-function variants in PDGFRB, a tyrosine kinase receptor essential for vascular progenitor signaling, were associated with CBLH, and this discovery links genetic and non-genetic etiologies. Our results suggest that genetic defects impact specific cerebellar cell types and implicate abnormal vascular development as a mechanism for cerebellar malformations. We also confirmed a major contribution for non-genetic prenatal factors in individuals with cerebellar abnormalities, substantially influencing diagnostic evaluation and counseling regarding recurrence risk and prognosis.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512387

RESUMO

Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is a rare X-linked disorder characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability, hypotonia, craniofacial features, tapering digits, short stature, and skeletal deformities. Using whole exome sequencing and high-resolution targeted comparative genomic hybridization array analysis, we identified a novel microduplication encompassing exons five through nine of RPS6KA3 in three full brothers. Each brother presented with intellectual disability and clinical and radiographic features consistent with CLS. qRT-PCR analyses performed on mRNA from the peripheral blood of the three siblings revealed a marked reduction of RPS6KA3 levels suggesting a loss-of-function mechanism. PCR analysis of the patients' cDNA detected a band greater than expected for an exon 4-10 amplicon, suggesting this was likely a direct duplication that lies between exons 4 through 10, which was later confirmed by Sanger sequencing. This microduplication is only the third intragenic duplication of RPS6KA3, and the second and smallest reported to date thought to cause CLS. Our study further supports the clinical utility of methods such as next-generation sequencing and high-resolution genomic arrays to detect small intragenic duplications. These methods, coupled with expression studies and cDNA structural analysis have the capacity to confirm the diagnosis of CLS in these rare cases.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448840

RESUMO

Xq22 deletions that encompass PLP1 (Xq22-PLP1-DEL) are notable for variable expressivity of neurological disease traits in females ranging from a mild late-onset form of Spastic Paraplegia type 2 [MIM# 312920], sometimes associated with skewed X-inactivation, to an early-onset neurological disease trait (EONDT) of severe developmental delay, intellectual disability and behavioral abnormalities. Size and gene content of Xq22-PLP1-DEL vary and were proposed as potential molecular etiologies underlying variable expressivity in carrier females where two smallest regions of overlap (SROs) were suggested to influence disease. We ascertained a cohort of eight unrelated patients harboring Xq22-PLP1-DEL and performed high-density array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) and breakpoint-junction sequencing. Molecular characterization of Xq22-PLP1-DEL from 17 cases (8 herein and 9 published) revealed an overrepresentation of breakpoints that reside within repeats (11/17, ~65%) and the clustering of ~47% of proximal breakpoints in a genomic instability hotspot with characteristic non-B DNA density. These findings implicate a potential role for genomic architecture in stimulating the formation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL. The correlation of Xq22-PLP1-DEL gene content with neurological disease trait in female cases enabled refinement of the associated SROs to a single genomic interval containing six genes. Our data support the hypothesis that genes contiguous to PLP1 contribute to EONDT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426505

RESUMO

The new Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommends whole grains foods as the primary choice of grain products in the daily diet. This study examined whether higher shares of whole-grain consumption, beyond the recommended levels (i.e., above half) of the daily grain intake, are linked with optimal diet quality and intakes of some key nutrients, for both children and adolescents and adults in Canada. To meet the objective of this study, we used the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)-Nutrition 2015, which is a nationally representative data. We employed the propensity score matching (PSM) method in this study. PSM estimates the exposure effect when a set of individuals are exposed to a specific treatment (food group intake in this study) in a non-experimental setting. The results of our analyses implied that a high consumption of whole grains is associated with a good diet quality. However, after a certain level of whole-grain consumption, no significant differences can be observed in diet quality scores of children and adolescents and adults. Moreover, it was observed that the proportion of obese and overweight individuals was significantly lower among adults that had balanced intakes of whole and non-whole grains. The results of logistic regression analyses also showed the probability of being obese and overweight is significantly lower in the case of adults with balanced intakes of grains. However, no significant differences were observed in the prevalence of obesity and overweight across whole grains consumption patterns for children and adolescents.

5.
ACS Chem Biol ; 14(7): 1381-1383, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319669
6.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1276-1286, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124279

RESUMO

Lysine-specific demethylase 6B (KDM6B) demethylates trimethylated lysine-27 on histone H3. The methylation and demethylation of histone proteins affects gene expression during development. Pathogenic alterations in histone lysine methylation and demethylation genes have been associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. We have identified a number of de novo alterations in the KDM6B gene via whole exome sequencing (WES) in a cohort of 12 unrelated patients with developmental delay, intellectual disability, dysmorphic facial features, and other clinical findings. Our findings will allow for further investigation in to the role of the KDM6B gene in human neurodevelopmental disorders.

7.
J Hum Genet ; 64(6): 561-572, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858506

RESUMO

Variants have been identified in the embryonic ectoderm development (EED) gene in seven patients with syndromic overgrowth similar to that observed in Weaver syndrome. Here, we present three additional patients with missense variants in the EED gene. All the missense variants reported to date (including the three presented here) have localized to one of seven WD40 domains of the EED protein, which are necessary for interaction with enhancer of zeste 2 polycomb repressive complex 2 subunit (EZH2). In addition, among the seven patients reported in the literature and the three new patients presented here, all of the reported pathogenic variants except one occurred at one of four amino acid residues in the EED protein. The recurrence of pathogenic variation at these loci suggests that these residues are functionally important (mutation hotspots). In silico modeling and calculations of the free energy changes resulting from these variants suggested that they not only destabilize the EED protein structure but also adversely affect interactions between EED, EZH2, and/or H3K27me3. These cases help demonstrate the mechanism(s) by which apparently deleterious variants in the EED gene might cause overgrowth and lend further support that amino acid residues in the WD40 domain region may be mutation hotspots.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Criança , Simulação por Computador , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/etiologia , Hipotireoidismo Congênito/fisiopatologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/etiologia , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/fisiopatologia , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/química , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/etiologia , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/fisiopatologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Humanos , Masculino , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Taxa de Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/química , Conformação Proteica , Repetições WD40/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
Hum Mol Genet ; 28(9): 1548-1560, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624672

RESUMO

Golgi-associated retrograde protein (GARP) and endosome-associated recycling protein (EARP) are related heterotetrameric complexes that associate with the cytosolic face of the trans-Golgi network and recycling endosomes, respectively. At these locations, GARP and EARP function to promote the fusion of endosome-derived transport carriers with their corresponding compartments. GARP and EARP share three subunits, VPS51, VPS52 and VPS53, and each has an additional complex-specific subunit, VPS54 or VPS50, respectively. The role of these complexes in human physiology, however, remains poorly understood. By exome sequencing, we have identified compound heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding the shared GARP/EARP subunit VPS51 in a 6-year-old patient with severe global developmental delay, microcephaly, hypotonia, epilepsy, cortical vision impairment, pontocerebellar abnormalities, failure to thrive, liver dysfunction, lower extremity edema and dysmorphic features. The mutation in one allele causes a frameshift that produces a longer but highly unstable protein that is degraded by the proteasome. In contrast, the other mutant allele produces a protein with a single amino acid substitution that is stable but assembles less efficiently with the other GARP/EARP subunits. Consequently, skin fibroblasts from the patient have reduced levels of fully assembled GARP and EARP complexes. Likely because of this deficiency, the patient's fibroblasts display altered distribution of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, which normally sorts acid hydrolases to lysosomes. Furthermore, a fraction of the patient's fibroblasts exhibits swelling of lysosomes. These findings thus identify a novel genetic locus for a neurodevelopmental disorder and highlight the critical importance of GARP/EARP function in cellular and organismal physiology.

9.
Brain ; 142(2): 362-375, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30601941

RESUMO

De novo mutations of the sodium channel gene SCN8A result in an epileptic encephalopathy with refractory seizures, developmental delay, and elevated risk of sudden death. p.Arg1872Trp is a recurrent de novo SCN8A mutation reported in 14 unrelated individuals with epileptic encephalopathy that included seizure onset in the prenatal or infantile period and severe verbal and ambulatory comorbidities. The major biophysical effect of the mutation was previously shown to be impaired channel inactivation accompanied by increased current density. We have generated a conditional mouse mutation in which expression of this severe gain-of-function mutation is dependent upon Cre recombinase. Global activation of p.Arg1872Trp by EIIa-Cre resulted in convulsive seizures and lethality at 2 weeks of age. Neural activation of the p.Arg1872Trp mutation by Nestin-Cre also resulted in early onset seizures and death. Restriction of p.Arg1872Trp expression to excitatory neurons using Emx1-Cre recapitulated seizures and juvenile lethality between 1 and 2 months of age. In contrast, activation of p.Arg1872Trp in inhibitory neurons by Gad2-Cre or Dlx5/6-Cre did not induce seizures or overt neurological dysfunction. The sodium channel modulator GS967/Prax330 prolonged survival of mice with global expression of R1872W and also modulated the activity of the mutant channel in transfected cells. Activation of the p.Arg1872Trp mutation in adult mice was sufficient to generate seizures and death, indicating that successful therapy will require lifelong treatment. These findings provide insight into the pathogenic mechanism of this gain-of-function mutation of SCN8A and identify excitatory neurons as critical targets for therapeutic intervention.

10.
Open Heart ; 5(2): e000899, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30364565

RESUMO

Aims: Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) is effective treatment for selected patients with heart failure (HF) but has ~30% non-response rate. We evaluated whether specific biomarkers can predict outcome. Methods: A prospective single-centre pilot study of consecutive unselected patients undergoing CRT for HF between November 2013 and December 2015 evaluating cardiac extracellular matrix biomarkers and micro-ribonucleic acid (miRNA) expression before and after CRT assessing ability to predict functional response and survival. Each underwent three assessments (pre-implant, 6 weeks and 6 months postimplant) including: New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, echocardiography, electrocardiography, 6 min walk test (6MWT), Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP). Plasma markers of cardiac fibrosis assessed were: N-terminal pro-peptides of collagen I and III, collagen I C-terminal telopeptides (CTx) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) as well as a panel of miRNAs (miRNA-21, miRNA-30d, miRNA-122, miRNA-133a, miRNA-210 and miRNA-486). Results: A total of 52 patients were recruited; mean age (±SD) was 72.4±9.4 years; male=43 (82.7%), ischaemic aetiology=30 (57.7%), mean QRS duration=166.4±23.5 ms, left bundle branch block (LBBB) morphology = 39 (75.0%), mean NYHA=2.7±0.6, 6MWT=238.8±130.6 m, MLHFQ=46.4±21.3 and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)=24.3%±8.0%. Mean follow-up=1.7±0.3 and 5.8±0.7 months. There were 27 (55.1%) functional responders (3 no definable 6-month response; 2 missed assessments and 1 long-term lead displacement). No marker predicted response, however, CTx and LBBB trended most towards predicting functional response. Conclusion: No specific biomarkers reached significance for predicting functional response to CRT. CTx showed a trend towards predicting response and warrants further study. Trial registration number: NCT02541773.

11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(4): 602-611, 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269814

RESUMO

Inherited GPI deficiencies (IGDs) are a subset of congenital disorders of glycosylation that are increasingly recognized as a result of advances in whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). IGDs cause a series of overlapping phenotypes consisting of seizures, dysmorphic features, multiple congenital malformations, and severe intellectual disability. We present a study of six individuals from three unrelated families in which WES or WGS identified bi-allelic phosphatidylinositol glycan class S (PIGS) biosynthesis mutations. Phenotypes included severe global developmental delay, seizures (partly responding to pyridoxine), hypotonia, weakness, ataxia, and dysmorphic facial features. Two of them had compound-heterozygous variants c.108G>A (p.Trp36∗) and c.101T>C (p.Leu34Pro), and two siblings of another family were homozygous for a deletion and insertion leading to p.Thr439_Lys451delinsArgLeuLeu. The third family had two fetuses with multiple joint contractures consistent with fetal akinesia. They were compound heterozygous for c.923A>G (p.Glu308Gly) and c.468+1G>C, a splicing mutation. Flow-cytometry analyses demonstrated that the individuals with PIGS mutations show a GPI-AP deficiency profile. Expression of the p.Trp36∗ variant in PIGS-deficient HEK293 cells revealed only partial restoration of cell-surface GPI-APs. In terms of both biochemistry and phenotype, loss of function of PIGS shares features with PIGT deficiency and other IGDs. This study contributes to the understanding of the GPI-AP biosynthesis pathway by describing the consequences of PIGS disruption in humans and extending the family of IGDs.

12.
Proc Nutr Soc ; : 1-15, 2018 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30249309

RESUMO

The NOVA food categorisation recommends 'avoiding processed foods (PF), especially ultra-processed foods (UPF)' and selecting minimally PF to address obesity and chronic disease. However, NOVA categories are drawn using non-traditional views of food processing with additional criteria including a number of ingredients, added sugars, and additives. Comparison of NOVA's definition and categorisation of PF with codified and published ones shows limited congruence with respect to either definition or food placement into categories. While NOVA studies associate PF with decreased nutrient density, other classifications find nutrient-dense foods at all levels of processing. Analyses of food intake data using NOVA show UPF provide much added sugars. Since added sugars are one criterion for designation as UPF, such a proof demonstrates a tautology. Avoidance of foods deemed as UPF, such as wholegrain/enriched bread and cereals or flavoured milk, may not address obesity but could decrease intakes of folate, calcium and dietary fibre. Consumer understanding and implementation of NOVA have not been tested. Neither have outcomes been compared with vetted patterns, such as Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension, which base food selection on food groups and nutrient contribution. NOVA fails to demonstrate the criteria required for dietary guidance: understandability, affordability, workability and practicality. Consumers' confusion about definitions and food categorisations, inadequate cooking and meal planning skills and scarcity of resources (time, money), may impede adoption and success of NOVA. Research documenting that NOVA can be implemented by consumers and has nutrition and health outcomes equal to vetted patterns is needed.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2008-2024, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30184290

RESUMO

The abundantly expressed calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMK2), alpha (CAMK2A), and beta (CAMK2B) isoforms are essential for learning and memory formation. Recently, a de novo candidate mutation (p.Arg292Pro) in the gamma isoform of CAMK2 (CAMK2G) was identified in a patient with severe intellectual disability (ID), but the mechanism(s) by which this mutation causes ID is unknown. Here, we identified a second, unrelated individual, with a de novo CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation, and used in vivo and in vitro assays to assess the impact of this mutation on CAMK2G and neuronal function. We found that knockdown of CAMK2G results in inappropriate precocious neuronal maturation. We further found that the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro mutation acts as a highly pathogenic gain-of-function mutation, leading to increased phosphotransferase activity and impaired neuronal maturation as well as impaired targeting of the nuclear CAMK2G isoform. Silencing the catalytic site of the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro protein reversed the pathogenic effect of the p.Arg292Pro mutation on neuronal maturation, without rescuing its nuclear targeting. Taken together, our results reveal an indispensable function of CAMK2G in neurodevelopment and indicate that the CAMK2G p.Arg292Pro protein acts as a pathogenic gain-of-function mutation, through constitutive activity toward cytosolic targets, rather than impaired targeting to the nucleus.

14.
Pract Neurol ; 18(5): 399-406, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858216

RESUMO

Exercise is key to a healthy and productive life. For people with Parkinson's, exercise has reported benefits for controlling motor and non-motor symptoms alongside the use of pharmacological intervention. For example, exercise prolongs independent mobility and improves sleep, mood, memory and quality of life, all further enhanced through socialisation and multidisciplinary team support. Recent research suggests that optimally prescribed exercise programmes following diagnosis may alter neurophysiological processes, possibly slowing symptom progression.Given its benefits, professionals should encourage and motivate people with Parkinson's to exercise regularly from the time of diagnosis and provide guidance on what exercise to do. We provide examples of how the growing body of evidence on exercise for people with Parkinson's is revolutionising the services they are provided. We also highlight new resources available to help the wider support network (people such as volunteers, partners and friends of people with Parkinson's) with an interest in exercise promote a consistent message on the benefits of exercise.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Exercício/fisiologia , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Doença de Parkinson/reabilitação , Terapia por Exercício/normas , Humanos
15.
Biology (Basel) ; 7(2)2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29794985

RESUMO

Deletions and mutations involving the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1) gene at 17p11.2 cause Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS). Here we report a patient with autism as the main clinical presentation, with some SMS-like features and a rare de novo RAI1 gene mutation, c.3440G > A (p.R1147Q). We functionally characterized the RAI1 p.R1147Q mutant protein. The mutation, located near the nuclear localization signal, had no effect on the subcellular localization of the mutant protein. However, similar to previously reported RAI1 missense mutations in SMS patients, the RAI1 p.R1147Q mutant protein showed a significant deficiency in activating in vivo transcription of a reporter gene driven by a BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) intronic enhancer. In addition, expression of other genes associated with neurobehavioral abnormalities and/or neurodevelopmental disorders were found to be altered in this patient. These results suggest a likely contribution of RAI1, either alone or in combination of other factors, to social behavior and reinforce the RAI1 gene as a candidate gene in patients with autistic manifestations or social behavioral abnormalities.

16.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 24(4): 701-707, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799153

RESUMO

RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Underuse of anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation is known to increase the risk of stroke and is an international problem. The National Institute for Health Care and Excellence guidance CG180 seeks to reduce atrial fibrillation related strokes through prescriptions of Non-vitamin K antagonist Oral Anticoagulants. A quality improvement programme was established by the West of England Academic Health Science Network (West of England AHSN) to implement this guidance into General Practice. A realist evaluation identified whether the quality improvement programme worked, determining how and in what circumstances. METHODS: Six General Practices in 1 region, became the case study sites. Quality improvement team, doctor, and pharmacist meetings within each of the General Practices were recorded at 3 stages: initial planning, review, and final. Additionally, 15 interviews conducted with the practice leads explored experiences of the quality improvement process. Observation and interview data were analysed and compared against the initial programme theory. RESULTS: The quality improvement resources available were used variably, with the training being valued by all. The initial programme theories were refined. In particular, local workload pressures and individual General Practitioner experiences and pre-conceived ideas were acknowledged. Where key motivators were in place, such as prior experience, the programme achieved optimal outcomes and secured a lasting quality improvement legacy. CONCLUSION: The employment of a quality improvement programme can deliver practice change and improvement legacy outcomes when particular mechanisms are employed and in contexts where there is a commitment to improve service.

17.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 22: 157-160, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751260

RESUMO

A 34-year old Caucasian female was initially diagnosed with multiple small-vessel strokes at age 20 years which were etiologically classified as secondary to anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) although she had no history or laboratory data to suggest APS. Based on her MRI of brain findings, one of her neurologists was concerned she could have multiple sclerosis (MS) and hence the patient was referred to our clinic for further evaluation. The patient's MRI of brain showed confluent lesions in the periventricular and juxta-cortical lesions that fulfil 2017 McDonald criteria for dissemination in space. She had no symptoms other than occasional, mild headaches and had no findings to suggest clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) or MS; additionally, her cerebrospinal fluid analysis was unremarkable. Past history showed that she had undergone surgery for glaucoma, and subsequently developed bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in the third decade that was diagnosed as Meniere's disease. Her family history revealed that her son had dysmorphic facies and was small for age. He had a bifid uvula, bilaterally duplicated thumbs and scoliosis. Additionally, he had hypertelorism, a wide forehead and flattening of mid-face. Due to his complex medical presentation, whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed that revealed a maternally inherited heterozygous pathogenic frameshift in the FOXC1 gene. Genotyping of the mother showed the FOXC1 gene variant and adds to the growing list of differential diagnoses that may mimic MS in the context of radiological changes involving cerebral small vessels. This is the first report of a FOXC1 gene variant presenting with radiological features that can erroneously be interpreted as being consistent with MS.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Variação Genética , Glaucoma/genética , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Criança , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Família , Feminino , Glaucoma/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico
18.
Pediatr Dev Pathol ; : 1093526618770327, 2018 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29652239

RESUMO

Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type I (SGBS, OMIM312870), caused by defects of the GPC3 and GPC4 genes on chromosome Xq26, is an X-linked recessive macrosomia/multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by somatic overgrowth, coarse facial features, variable congenital anomalies, increased tumor risk, and mild-to-moderate neurodevelopmental anomalies. We report the postmortem findings in 3 second-trimester male siblings with SGBS who displayed ambiguous genitalia (in all 3) and gonadal dysgenesis (ovotestis) (in 1), thus expanding the SGBS spectrum to include these disorders of sex development.

19.
Arthritis ; 2018: 7807490, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29593902

RESUMO

Objective: Interprofessional collaboration is a crucial component of care for children with rheumatic disease. Interprofessional care, when delivered appropriately, prevents disability and improves long-term prognosis in this vulnerable group. Methods: The aim of this survey was to explore allied health professionals' and nurses' confidence in treating paediatric rheumatology patients. Results: Overall, 117 participants were recruited, 77.9% of participants reported being "not confident at all," "not confident," or "neutral" in treating children with rheumatic diseases (RD) despite 65.1% of participants reporting having treated >1 paediatric rheumatology case in the past month. Furthermore, 67.2% of participants felt their undergraduate education in paediatric rheumatology was inadequate. "Journals" or "texts books" were used by 49.3% of participants as their primary source of continuing professional development (CPD) and 39.3% of participants indicated that they did not undertake any CPD related to paediatric rheumatology. Small group and online education were perceived to be potentially of "great benefit" for CPD. Conclusion: This paper highlights allied health professionals' and nurses' perceived inadequacy of their undergraduate education in paediatric RD and their low confidence in recognising and treating RD. Undergraduate and postgraduate education opportunities focusing on interprofessional collaboration should be developed to address this workforce deficiency.

20.
Arch Dis Child ; 103(10): 984-986, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29330170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A subnormal cortisol response (30 min level (C30min)<550 nmol/L) to synthetic adrenocorticotrophic hormone/Synacthen test (SDST) in all infants does not necessarily indicate underlying or persistent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis pathology. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the diagnoses and outcomes in 68 infants who had a SDST at age <6 months from 2011 to 2014. RESULTS: 29 (43%) infants had a subnormal SDST. Causative pathology was identified in 9/29 (31%). In 20/29 (69%) with no identified pathology, repeat SDST was normal in 18/20 (90%) at median age 0.6 (range 0.1-3.2) years but persistently subnormal in 2. Those with a transient abnormality were more likely to be small for gestational age (P=0.03) and had higher initial SDST C30min (390 nmol/L vs 181 nmol/L, P=0.01) than those with pathology. CONCLUSION: Specific aetiology can be identified in a third of infants with a subnormal SDST. When the aetiology remains elusive, adrenal function should be reassessed as the problem can be transient.

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