Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 371
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Energy-dense formulae are often provided to critically ill patients with enteral feed intolerance with the aim of increasing energy delivery, yet the effect on gastric emptying is unknown. The rate of gastric emptying of a standard compared with an energy-dense formula was quantified in critically ill patients. METHODS: Mechanically ventilated adults were randomized to receive radiolabeled intragastric infusions of 200 mL standard (1 kcal/mL) or 100 mL energy-dense (2 kcal/mL) enteral formulae on consecutive days in this noninferiority, blinded, crossover trial. The primary outcome was scintigraphic measurement of gastric retention (percentage at 120 minutes). Other measures included area under the curve (AUC) for gastric retention and intestinal energy delivery (calculated from gastric retention of formulae over time), blood glucose (peak and AUC), and intestinal glucose absorption (using 3-O-methyl-D-gluco-pyranose [3-OMG] concentrations). Comparisons were undertaken using paired mixed-effects models. Data presented are mean ± SE. RESULTS: Eighteen patients were studied (male/female, 14:4; age, 55.2 ± 5.3 years). Gastric retention at 120 minutes was greater with the energy-dense formula (standard, 17.0 ± 5.9 vs energy-dense, 32.5 ± 7.1; difference, 12.7% [90% confidence interval, 0.8%-30.1%]). Energy delivery (AUC120 , 13,038 ± 1119 vs 9763 ± 1346 kcal/120 minutes; P = 0.057), glucose control (peak glucose, 10.1 ± 0.3 vs 9.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L, P = 0.362; and glucose AUC120 8.7 ± 0.3 vs 8.5 ± 0.3 mmol/L.120 minutes, P = 0.661), and absorption (3-OMG AUC120 , 38.5 ± 4.0 vs 35.7 ± 4.0 mmol/L.120 minutes; P = .508) were not improved with the energy-dense formula. CONCLUSION: In critical illness, administration of an energy-dense formula does not reduce gastric retention, increase energy delivery to the small intestine, or improve glucose absorption or glucose control; instead, there is a signal for delayed gastric emptying.

2.
Mol Pharm ; 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522821

RESUMO

We report that the stability of amorphous clofazimine (CFZ) against crystallization is vastly improved by salt formation with a polymer without sacrificing dissolution rate. A simple slurry method was used to produce the amorphous salt of CFZ with poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) at 75 wt % drug loading. The synthesis was performed under a mild condition suitable for thermally unstable drugs and polymers. Salt formation was confirmed by visible spectroscopy and glass temperature elevation. The amorphous salt at 75 wt % drug loading is remarkably stable against crystallization at 40 °C and 75% RH for at least 180 days. In contrast, the amorphous solid dispersion containing the un-ionized CFZ dispersed in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) crystallized in 1 week under the same condition. The high stability of the amorphous drug-polymer salt is a result of the absence of a drug-polymer crystalline structure, reduced driving force for crystallizing the free base, and reduced molecular mobility. Despite the elevated stability, the amorphous drug-polymer salt showed fast dissolution and high solution concentration in two biorelevant media (SGF and FaSSIF). Additionally, the amorphous CFZ-PAA salt has improved tabletability and powder flow relative to crystalline CFZ. The CFZ-PAA example suggests a general method to prepare amorphous drugs with high physical stability under tropical conditions and fast dissolution.

3.
Nutr Diabetes ; 11(1): 3, 2021 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414406

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The rate of gastric emptying and glucoregulatory hormones are key determinants of postprandial glycaemia. Intragastric administration of L-tryptophan slows gastric emptying and reduces the glycaemic response to a nutrient drink in lean individuals and those with obesity. We investigated whether tryptophan decreases postprandial glycaemia and slows gastric emptying in type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Twelve men with T2D (age: 63 ± 2 years, HbA1c: 49.7 ± 2.5 mmol/mol, BMI: 30 ± 1 kg/m2) received, on three separate occasions, 3 g ('Trp-3') or 1.5 g ('Trp-1.5') tryptophan, or control (0.9% saline), intragastrically, in randomised, double-blind fashion, 30 min before a mixed-nutrient drink (500 kcal, 74 g carbohydrates), containing 3 g 3-O-methyl-D-glucose (3-OMG) to assess glucose absorption. Venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, after tryptophan, and for 2 h post-drink for measurements of plasma glucose, C-peptide, glucagon and 3-OMG. Gastric emptying of the drink was quantified using two-dimensional ultrasound. RESULTS: Tryptophan alone stimulated C-peptide (P = 0.002) and glucagon (P = 0.04), but did not affect fasting glucose. In response to the drink, Trp-3 lowered plasma glucose from t = 15-30 min and from t = 30-45 min compared with control and Trp-1.5, respectively (both P < 0.05), with no differences in peak glucose between treatments. Gastric emptying tended to be slower after Trp-3, but not Trp-1.5, than control (P = 0.06). Plasma C-peptide, glucagon and 3-OMG increased on all days, with no major differences between treatments. CONCLUSIONS: In people with T2D, intragastric administration of 3 g tryptophan modestly slows gastric emptying, associated with a delayed rise, but not an overall lowering of, postprandial glucose.

5.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 375, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the structural validity of the 20-item long-term conditions questionnaire (LTCQ) and to explore a potential short-form version of the scale using Rasch analysis. METHODS: Data were collected through postal surveys (February 2016-January 2017) from a sample of 1,211 participants diagnosed with at least one long-term condition (LTC). Identified participants were invited through either local authorities for a social care cohort (n = 294) or primary care practices for a health care cohort (n = 917). Participants were mailed a survey, including the LTCQ, demographic questions, a comorbidities measure, and other validated outcome measures. Respondents were invited to complete a follow-up survey including the LTCQ for assessment of reproducibility. RESULTS: The main assumptions of the Rasch model from the LTCQ were fulfilled, although infit and outfit indices indicated some items showed misfit. Misfitted items, items that did not have a preceding set or showed some local dependence were removed one at a time, with the remaining candidate items to form an 8-item short version, the LTCQ-8. The Rasch model for the LTCQ-8 explained 64% variance and had a reliability estimate greater than 0.80. Several items in the LTCQ showed uniform differential item function (DIF) in relation to the number of reported LTCs, age, cohort and type of LTCs, but fewer items exhibited DIF in the LTCQ-8. Spearman's rho correlations between the LTCQ and the LTCQ-8 were strong across the total sample and various subgroups. Correlations between the LTCQ-8 and all reference measures were moderate to strong, and comparable to correlations found between the LTCQ and these measures. CONCLUSIONS: The LTCQ measures a unidimensional construct, and it is therefore acceptable to use a summed total score. The LTCQ-8 also met the assumption of unidimensionality and had comparable construct validity with the LTCQ. Additional validation is required in an independent sample.

6.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 13(11)2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266396

RESUMO

Metformin, the most widely prescribed drug therapy for type 2 diabetes, has pleiotropic benefits, in addition to its capacity to lower elevated blood glucose levels, including mitigation of cardiovascular risk. The mechanisms underlying the latter remain unclear. Mechanistic studies have, hitherto, focused on the direct effects of metformin on the heart and vasculature. It is now appreciated that effects in the gastrointestinal tract are important to glucose-lowering by metformin. Gastrointestinal actions of metformin also have major implications for cardiovascular function. This review summarizes the gastrointestinal mechanisms underlying the action of metformin and their potential relevance to cardiovascular benefits.

7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; : 108610, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301790

RESUMO

AIM: Gastric emptying is a major determinant of the glycaemic response to carbohydrate and is frequently abnormal in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). There is little information about how chronic glycaemic control affects gastric emptying in T2DM. We evaluated gastric emptying of a 75g glucose drink in community-based patients with T2DM of short duration with good or poor glycaemic control, and compared this to young and older controls. METHODS: T2DM patients managed by diet and/or metformin, either well-controlled or poorly-controlled, together with young and age-matched older controls without diabetes, consumed a 75g oral glucose drink containing 150mg 13C-acetate for evaluation of gastric emptying (breath test) and blood glucose over 180min. RESULTS: The gastric half-emptying time (T50) was longer in the older than the young non-diabetic subjects (P=0.041), but shorter in well-controlled T2DM patients than age-matched older controls (P=0.043). The T50 in poorly-controlled T2DM patients was shorter than in older controls (P=0.006), but similar to young non-diabetic subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Gastric emptying of a glucose drink is delayed with ageing, but more rapid in patients with T2DM of relatively short duration, regardless of their glycaemic status. These observations support interventions that slow gastric emptying to improve postprandial glycaemia in these patients with T2DM.

8.
J Neurodev Disord ; 12(1): 42, 2020 12 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perinatal exposure to air pollution and immune system dysregulation are two factors consistently associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, little is known about how air pollution may influence maternal immune function during pregnancy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between mid-gestational circulating levels of maternal cytokines/chemokines and previous month air pollution exposure across neurodevelopmental groups, and to assess whether cytokines/chemokines mediate the relationship between air pollution exposures and risk of ASD and/or intellectual disability (ID) in the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) study. METHODS: EMA is a population-based, nested case-control study which linked archived maternal serum samples collected during weeks 15-19 of gestation for routine prenatal screening, birth records, and Department of Developmental Services (DDS) records. Children receiving DDS services for ASD without intellectual disability (ASD without ID; n = 199), ASD with ID (ASD with ID; n = 180), ID without ASD (ID; n = 164), and children from the general population (GP; n = 414) with no DDS services were included in this analysis. Serum samples were quantified for 22 cytokines/chemokines using Luminex multiplex analysis technology. Air pollution exposure for the month prior to maternal serum collection was assigned based on the Environmental Protection Agency's Air Quality System data using the maternal residential address reported during the prenatal screening visit. RESULTS: Previous month air pollution exposure and mid-gestational maternal cytokine and chemokine levels were significantly correlated, though weak in magnitude (ranging from - 0.16 to 0.13). Ten pairs of mid-pregnancy immune markers and previous month air pollutants were significantly associated within one of the child neurodevelopmental groups, adjusted for covariates (p < 0.001). Mid-pregnancy air pollution was not associated with any neurodevelopmental outcome. IL-6 remained associated with ASD with ID even after adjusting for air pollution exposure. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that maternal immune activation is associated with risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. Furthermore, that prenatal air pollution exposure is associated with small, but perhaps biologically relevant, effects on maternal immune system function during pregnancy. Additional studies are needed to better evaluate how prenatal exposure to air pollution affects the trajectory of maternal immune activation during pregnancy, if windows of heightened susceptibility can be identified, and how these factors influence neurodevelopment of the offspring.

9.
Curr Opin Pharmacol ; 55: 116-124, 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227625

RESUMO

Intestinal glucose absorption is integral to postprandial glucose homeostasis. Glucose absorption is dependent on a number of factors, including the exposure of carbohydrate to the mucosa of the upper gastrointestinal tract (determined particularly by the rates of gastric emptying and small intestinal transit), the digestion of complex carbohydrate into monosaccharides, and glucose sensing and transport by the intestinal mucosa. The absorption of glucose in the small intestine is not only a determinant of the appearance of exogenous glucose in the peripheral circulation, but is also coupled to the release of gastrointestinal hormones that in turn influence postprandial glucose metabolism through modulating gastrointestinal motor function, insulin and glucagon secretion, and subsequent energy intake. This review describes the physiology and pathophysiology of intestinal glucose absorption in health and type 2 diabetes, including its relevance to glucose tolerance and the management of postprandial hyperglycaemia.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230553

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Hypoglycemia is a major barrier to optimal glycemic control in insulin-treated diabetes. Recent ADA guidelines have sub-categorized 'non-severe' hypoglycemia into level 1 (<3.9 mmol/L) and 2 (<3 mmol/L) hypoglycemia. Gastric emptying of carbohydrate is a major determinant of postprandial glycemia but its role in hypoglycemia counter-regulation remains under-appreciated. 'Marked' hypoglycemia (~2.6mmol/L) accelerates gastric emptying and increases carbohydrate absorption in health and type 1 diabetes, but the impact of 'mild' hypoglycemia (3.0-3.9mmol/L) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of two levels of hypoglycemia, 2.6mmol/L ('marked') and 3.6mmol/L ('mild'), on gastric emptying in health. DESIGN, SETTING AND SUBJECTS: Fourteen healthy male participants (mean age: 32.9 ± 8.3 years, BMI: 24.5 ± 3.4 kg/m 2) from the general community underwent measurement of gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid meal (100g beef) by scintigraphy over 120 min on 3 separate occasions, while blood glucose was maintained at either ~2.6mmol/L, ~3.6mmol/L, or ~6 mmol/L in random order from 15 min before until 60 min after meal ingestion using glucose-insulin clamp. Blood glucose was then maintained at 6mmol/L between 60-120 min on all days. RESULTS: Gastric emptying was accelerated during both mild (P=0.011) and marked (P=0001) hypoglycemia when compared to euglycemia, and was more rapid during marked, when compared to mild, hypoglycemia (P=0.008). Hypoglycemia-induced gastric emptying acceleration during mild (r=0.57, P=0.030) and marked (r=0.76, P=0.0014) hypoglycemia was related to gastric emptying during euglycemia. CONCLUSION: In health, acceleration of gastric emptying by insulin-induced hypoglycemia is dependent on the degree of hypoglycemia and baseline rate of emptying.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0240784, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166287

RESUMO

Fatigue is a common symptom in those presenting with symptomatic COVID-19 infection. However, it is unknown if COVID-19 results in persistent fatigue in those recovered from acute infection. We examined the prevalence of fatigue in individuals recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 illness using the Chalder Fatigue Score (CFQ-11). We further examined potential predictors of fatigue following COVID-19 infection, evaluating indicators of COVID-19 severity, markers of peripheral immune activation and circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Of 128 participants (49.5 ± 15 years; 54% female), more than half reported persistent fatigue (67/128; 52.3%) at median of 10 weeks after initial COVID-19 symptoms. There was no association between COVID-19 severity (need for inpatient admission, supplemental oxygen or critical care) and fatigue following COVID-19. Additionally, there was no association between routine laboratory markers of inflammation and cell turnover (leukocyte, neutrophil or lymphocyte counts, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein) or pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-6 or sCD25) and fatigue post COVID-19. Female gender and those with a pre-existing diagnosis of depression/anxiety were over-represented in those with fatigue. Our findings demonstrate a significant burden of post-viral fatigue in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection after the acute phase of COVID-19 illness. This study highlights the importance of assessing those recovering from COVID-19 for symptoms of severe fatigue, irrespective of severity of initial illness, and may identify a group worthy of further study and early intervention.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132211

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The insulinotropic capacity of exogenous glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is reduced in type 2 diabetes and the insulin-resistant obese. We have tested the hypothesis that this response is the consequence of a reduced pancreatic GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1r) density in insulin-resistant obese animals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: GLP-1r density was measured in lean and insulin-resistant adult miniature pigs after the administration of a 68Ga-labeled GLP-1r agonist. The effect of hyperinsulinemia on GLP-1r was assessed using sequential positron emission tomography (PET), both in the fasted state and during a clamp. The impact of tissue perfusion, which could account for changes in GLP-1r agonist uptake, was also investigated using 68Ga-DOTA imaging. RESULTS: GLP-1r binding potential in the obese pancreas was reduced by 75% compared with lean animals. Similar reductions were evident for fat tissue, but not for the duodenum. In the lean group, induced hyperinsulinemia reduced pancreatic GLP-1r density to a level comparable with that of the obese group. The reduction in blood to tissue transfer of the GLP-1r ligand paralleled that of tissue perfusion estimated using 68Ga-DOTA. CONCLUSIONS: These observations establish that a reduction in abdominal tissue perfusion and a lower GLP-1r density account for the diminished insulinotropic effect of GLP-1 agonists in type 2 diabetes.

14.
Nutrients ; 12(11)2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33138061

RESUMO

Ageing is associated with changes in feeding behavior. We have reported that there is suppression of energy intake three hours after whey protein drink ingestion in young, but not older, men. This study aimed to determine these effects over a time period of 9 h. Fifteen younger (27 ± 1 years, 25.8 ± 0.7 kg/m2) and 15 older (75 ± 2 years, 26.6 ± 0.8 kg/m2) healthy men were studied on three occasions on which they received, in a randomized order, a 30 g/120 kcal, 70 g/280 kcal whey-protein, or control (~2 kcal) drink. Ad-libitum energy intake (sum of breakfast, lunch, and dinner) was suppressed in a protein load responsive fashion (P = 0.001). Suppression was minimal at breakfast, substantial at lunch (~-16%, P = 0.001), no longer present by dinner, and was less in older than younger men (-3 ± 4% vs. -8 ± 4%, P = 0.027). Cumulative protein intake was increased in the younger and older men (+20% and +42%, P < 0.001). Visual analogue scale ratings of fullness were higher and desire to eat and prospective food consumption were lower after protein vs. control, and these effects were smaller in older vs. younger men (interaction effect P < 0.05). These findings support the use of whey-protein drink supplements in older people who aim to increase their protein intake without decreasing their overall energy intake.

15.
Front Nutr ; 7: 582314, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33240919

RESUMO

The interaction of nutrients with the small intestine modulates postprandial cardiovascular function. Rapid small intestinal nutrient delivery may reduce blood pressure markedly, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Postprandial hypotension occurs in ~30% of patients with longstanding T2DM, but there is little information about the cardiovascular effects of different macronutrients. We compared the blood pressure and heart rate responses to standardized intraduodenal glucose and fat infusions in T2DM. Two parallel groups, including 26 T2DM patients who received intraduodenal glucose infusion and 14 T2DM patients who received intraduodenal fat, both at 2 kcal/min over 120 min, were compared retrospectively. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured at regular intervals. Systolic blood pressure was stable initially and increased slightly thereafter in both groups, without any difference between them. Diastolic blood pressure decreased in response to intraduodenal glucose, but remained unchanged in response to lipid, with a significant difference between the two infusions (P = 0.04). Heart rate increased during both intraduodenal glucose and lipid infusions (P < 0.001 each), and the increment was greater in response to intraduodenal fat than glucose (P = 0.004). In patients with T2DM, intraduodenal fat induced a greater increase in heart rate, associated with a diminished reduction in blood pressure, when compared with isocaloric glucose. The macronutrient composition of meals may be an important consideration in T2DM patients with symptomatic postprandial hypotension.

16.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 2020 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33034039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Almost half of deaths related to COVID-19 in the United States are linked to nursing homes (NHs). We describe among short-term and long-term residents at three NHs in Michigan the outbreak identification process, universal testing, point prevalence of COVID-19, and subsequent containment efforts, outcomes, and challenges. DESIGN: Outbreak investigation. SETTING: Three NHs in southeast Michigan. PARTICIPANTS: All residents (N = 215) at three NHs (total beds = 356) affiliated with a large academic healthcare system. METHODS: Upon detection of confirmed cases within the facility, each NH in collaboration and consultation with local hospital, public health officials, and parent corporation implemented immediate facility-wide testing and the following intervention measures: cohorting of COVID-19 positive residents; communication regarding testing and results with residents, healthcare professionals, and families; personal protective equipment reeducation and use throughout facilities; and dedicated staffing for infected patients cohorted in a dedicated COVID-19 wing. We collected patient data regarding demographics, symptoms, comorbidities, hospitalization, and 14-day outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 29 cases of COVID-19 were identified at three participating NHs. Nineteen cases of COVID-19 were identified through symptom-triggered testing from March 23 to April 23, 2020; 10 (4.7%) additional cases were identified through universal testing of 215 residents conducted from April 7 to 15, 2020. The hospitalization rate was 37.9%. The case fatality rate was 20.7% (6/29); these patients had multiple comorbidities. No residents who tested positive through the point-prevalence survey required hospitalization, and five were discharged home within 14 days. CONCLUSION: Proactive and coordinated steps between NH medical directors and administrators, referral hospitals including their laboratories, and local public health officials are necessary to rapidly respond to an outbreak and limit the transmission of COVID-19. This coordinated public health approach may save lives, minimize the burden to the healthcare system, and reduce healthcare costs.

17.
Diabetes ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33067312

RESUMO

The glucose portal sensor informs the brain of changes in glucose inflow via vagal afferents that require an activated GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1r). The GLP-1 system is known to be impaired in insulin-resistant conditions and we sought to understand the consequences of GLP-1 resistance on glucose portal signaling. GLP-1-dependent portal glucose signaling was identified, in vivo, using a novel 68Ga labeled GLP-1r positron-emitting probe that supplied a quantitative in situ tridimensional representation of the portal sensor with specific reference to the receptor density expressed in binding potential units. It also served as a map for single-neuron electrophysiology driven by an image-based abdominal navigation. We determined that, in insulin-resistant animals, portal vagal afferents failed to inhibit their spiking activity during glucose infusion, a GLP-1r-dependent function. This reflected a reduction in portal GLP-1r binding potential, particularly between the splenic vein and the entrance of the liver. We propose that insulin-resistance, through a reduction in GLP-1r density, leads to functional portal desensitization with a consequent suppression of vagal sensitivity to portal glucose.

18.
Nutr Diabetes ; 10(1): 37, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004790

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is becoming more prevalent in older people. A management strategy in obese, young adults is to increase dietary protein relative to other macronutrients. It is not clear if this is effective in obese, older individuals. Obesity may be associated with diminished sensitivity to nutrients. We have reported that a 30-g whey protein drink slows gastric emptying more, and suppresses energy intake less, in older, than younger, non-obese men. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a 30 g whey protein drink on energy intake, GE and glycaemia in obese, older and younger men. METHODS: In randomized, double-blind order, 10 younger (age: 27 ± 2 years; BMI: 36 ± 2 kg/m²), and 10 older (72 ± 1 years; 33 ± 1 kg/m²), obese men were studied twice. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested a test drink containing 30 g whey protein (120 kcal) or control (2 kcal). Postprandial gastric emptying (antral area, 2D Ultrasound) and blood glucose concentrations were measured for 180 min. At t = 180 min subjects were given a buffet meal and ad libitum energy intake was assessed. RESULTS: Older subjects ate non-significantly less (~20%) that the younger subjects (effect of age, P = 0.16). Whey protein had no effect on subsequent energy intake (kcal) compared to control in either the younger (decrease 3 ± 8%) or older (decrease 2 ± 8%) obese men (age effect P > 0.05, protein effect P = 0.46, age × protein interaction effect P = 0.84). Whey protein slowed gastric emptying, to a similar degree in both age groups (50% emptying time: control vs. protein young men: 255 ± 5 min vs. 40 ± 7 min; older men: 16 ± 5 min vs. 50 ± 8 min; protein effect P = 0.001, age effect P = 0.93, age × protein interaction effect P = 0.13). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that obesity may blunt/abolish the age-related effect of whey protein on suppression of energy intake.

19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2015205, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870313

RESUMO

Importance: Increasing diversity in the physician workforce is a fulcrum for reducing health disparities. Efforts to increase the diversity in the internal medicine (IM) workforce may improve health equity among an increasingly diverse population with increasing prevalence of chronic disease. Objectives: To assess diversity trends in the academic IM workforce and evaluate how well these trends reflected medical student diversity and the changing demographic composition of the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study analyzed data from January 1, 1980, to December 31, 2018, from the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster and Applicant Matriculant File, which capture full-time US medical school faculty and matriculants, respectively, and population data through 2017 from the US Census Bureau. Main Outcomes and Measures: The study calculated the proportions of women and individuals from racial/ethnic groups that are traditionally underrepresented in medicine (URM) among IM faculty and faculty in all other clinical departments. These data were compared with the proportions of female and URM matriculants in US medical schools and the proportions of women and individuals from underrepresented racial/ethnic groups in the population. The analysis was stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, and intersections of sex and race/ethnicity. Results: From 1980 to 2018, the absolute number of full-time IM faculty increased from 10 964 to 42 547. Although IM was the department classification with the most women faculty, in 2018 it continued to have a lower proportion of women (n = 17 165 [40.3%]) compared with all other clinical departments (n = 48 936 [43.2%]). Among IM faculty, the percentage of URM faculty members more than doubled during the study period (from 4.1% to 9.7%) but still made up only a small portion of faculty members. The percentage of female matriculants among medical school matriculants increased steadily (from 28.7% in 1980 to 51.6% in 2018) and was nearly identical to their population representation in 2017 (50.7% compared with 50.8%). Although the percentage of URM matriculants had nearly doubled since 1980 (from 11.3% to 18.1%), it still lagged far behind the proportion of individuals in the US population who are members of underrepresented racial/ethnic groups (18.1% vs 31.5% in 2017). Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study found that progress has been made in diversifying academic IM faculty; however, it does not yet reflect the diversity of medical students or the US population. Continued efforts to increase the diversity of the academic IM workforce are needed.

20.
Auton Neurosci ; 229: 102718, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916479

RESUMO

Gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy represents an important and diverse, but poorly appreciated, manifestation of diabetic autonomic neuropathy that impacts negatively on quality of life. There is no test to assess gastrointestinal autonomic nerve damage directly in humans; cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests are often used as a surrogate, but are suboptimal. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in diabetes, but usually correlate only weakly with disordered motility. Diabetic gastroparesis, or abnormally delayed gastric emptying, occurs frequently and is the best characterized manifestation of gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy. There is a bi-directional relationship between postprandial glycaemia and the rate of gastric emptying. However, autonomic neuropathy can affect the function of any gut segment from the esophagus to the anus. Current management options for gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy are, for the main part, empirical and sub-optimal.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA