Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 47
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Cancer Med ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral microbiota may be related to pancreatic cancer risk because periodontal disease, a condition linked to multiple specific microbes, has been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated the association between oral microbiota and pancreatic cancer in Iran. METHODS: A total of 273 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 285 controls recruited from tertiary hospitals and a specialty clinic in Tehran, Iran provided saliva samples and filled out a questionnaire regarding demographics and lifestyle characteristics. DNA was extracted from saliva and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced on the MiSeq. The sequencing data were processed using the DADA2 plugin in QIIME 2 and taxonomy was assigned against the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Logistic regression and MiRKAT models were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: No association was observed for alpha diversity with an average of 91.11 (standard deviation [SD] 2.59) sequence variants for cases and 89.42 (SD 2.58) for controls. However, there was evidence for an association between beta diversity and case status. The association between the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and pancreatic cancer was particularly strong with a MiRKAT P-value of .000142 and specific principal coordinate vectors had strong associations with cancer risk. Several specific taxa were also associated with case status after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: The overall microbial community appeared to differ between pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Whether these reflect differences evident before development of pancreatic cancer will need to be evaluated in prospective studies.

2.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426123

RESUMO

Telomeres are essential for chromosomal stability and markers of biological age. We evaluated the effect of pre-transplant short (<10th percentile-for-age) or very short (<5th or <1st percentile-for-age) leucocyte telomere length on survival after unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acquired severe aplastic anaemia (SAA). Patient pre-transplant blood samples and clinical data were available at the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. We used quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to measure relative telomere length (RTL) in 490 SAA patients who received HCT between 1990 and 2013 (median age = 20 years). One hundred and twelve patients (22·86%) had pre-HCT RTL <10th percentile-for-age, with the majority below the 5th percentile (N = 80, 71·43%). RTL <10th percentile-for-age was associated with a higher risk of post-HCT mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1·78, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1·18-2·69, P = 0·006) compared with RTL ≥50th percentile; no survival differences were noted in longer RTL categories (P > 0·10). Time-dependent effects for post-HCT mortality were only observed in relation to very short RTL; HR comparing RTL <5th versus ≥5th percentile = 1·38, P = 0·15 for the first 12 months after HCT, and HR = 3·91, P < 0·0001, thereafter, P-heterogeneity = 0·008; the corresponding HRs for RTL <1st versus ≥1st percentile = 1·29, P = 0·41, and HR = 5·18, P < 0·0001, P-heterogeneity = 0·005. The study suggests a potential role for telomere length in risk stratification of SAA patients in regard to their HCT survival.

3.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722027

RESUMO

Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumor-predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in NF1. NF1 patients have an 8-16% lifetime risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), a highly-aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma, often arising from pre-existing benign plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and atypical neurofibromas (ANF). ANF are distinct from both PN and MPNST, representing an intermediate step in malignant transformation. Methods: In the first comprehensive genomic analysis of ANF originating from multiple patients, we performed tumor/normal whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 16 ANFs. In addition, we conducted WES of three MPNSTs, copy-number meta-analysis of 26 ANFs and 28 MPNSTs, and whole transcriptome sequencing analysis of five ANFs and five MPNSTs. Results: We identified a low number of mutations (median 1, range 0-5) in the exomes of ANFs (only NF1 somatic mutations were recurrent), and frequent deletions of CDKN2A/B (69%) and SMARCA2 (42%). We determined that polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) genes EED or SUZ12 were frequently mutated, deleted or downregulated in MPNSTs but not in ANFs. Our pilot gene expression study revealed upregulated NRAS, MDM2, CCND1/2/3 and CDK4/6 in ANFs and MPNSTs, and overexpression of EZH2 in MPNSTs only. Conclusions: The PN-ANF transition is primarily driven by the deletion of CDKN2A/B. Further progression from ANF to MPNST likely involves broad chromosomal rearrangements and frequent inactivation of the PRC2 genes, loss of the DNA repair genes, and copy-number increase of signal transduction, cell cycle and pluripotency self-renewal genes.

4.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 22(3): 406-410, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in BRCA2 have been linked to a higher risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and high frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) gene alterations was recently reported in metastatic castration-resistant PCa specimens. Mutations in BRCA2 vary in racial and ethnic groups including African-American (AA) and Caucasian-American (CA) populations. METHODS: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were sequenced (Ion AmpliSeq targeted sequencing) in archived blood DNA specimens in 1240 PCa patients, including 30% AA patients, in three different cohorts: localized early stage (T2) PCa (N = 935); advanced PCa (50% T3-4) (N = 189); and metastatic PCa (N = 116). The sequences were analyzed for known and novel mutations in BRCA1/2. Statistical analyses were performed to determine associations of the mutations with clinico-pathological parameters. RESULTS: BRCA2 mutations with known pathogenic annotation were significantly more prevalent in men with advanced and metastatic PCa (3.1%) compared to patients with an organ-confined disease (0.7%). AA patients carried more frequently BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) when compared to Caucasian Americans (4.6 vs. 1.6%, respectively). Significantly, pathogenic BRCA2 mutations in men with localized early stage PCa increased the risk of distant metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Germline variants of unknown significance in BRCA1/2 are more frequent in AA than CA PCa patients; however, the prevalence of pathogenic mutations were similar across the races. Patients carrying BRCA2 pathogenic mutations are more likely to progress to metastasis.

5.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(11)2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400234

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer diagnosis in women and is responsible for considerable mortality among the women of Puerto Rico. However, there are few studies in Puerto Rico on the genetic factors influencing risk. To determine the contribution of pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, we sequenced these genes in 302 cases from two separate medical centers, who were not selected for age of onset or family history. We identified nine cases that are carriers of pathogenic germline mutation. This represents 2.9% of unselected cases and 5.6% of women meeting National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria for BRCA testing. All of the identified pathogenic mutations were in the BRCA2 gene and the most common mutation is the p.Glu1308Ter (E1308X) mutation in BRCA2 found in eight out of nine cases, representing 89% of the pathogenic carriers. The E1308X mutation has been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families in Spain, and analysis of flanking DNA polymorphisms shows that all E1308X carriers occur on the same haplotype. This is consistent with BRCA2 E1308X being a founder mutation for the Puerto Rican population. These results will contribute to better inform genetic screening and counseling of breast and ovarian cancer cases in Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican populations in mainland United States.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expression and nearly complete penetrance. PTCH1 is the major susceptibility locus and has no known hot spots or genotype-phenotype relationships. METHODS: We evaluated 18 NBCCS National Cancer Institute (NCI) families plus PTCH1 data on 333 NBCCS disease-causing mutations (DM) reported in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). National Cancer Institute families underwent comprehensive genomic evaluation, and clinical data were extracted from NCI and HGMD cases. Genotype-phenotype relationships were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests focusing on mutation type and PTCH1 domains. RESULTS: PTCH1 pathogenic mutations were identified in 16 of 18 NCI families, including three previously mutation-negative families. PTCH1 mutations were spread across the gene with no hot spot. After adjustment for multiple tests, a statistically significant genotype-phenotype association was observed for developmental delay and gross deletion-insertions (p = 9.0 × 10-6 ), and suggestive associations between falx cerebri calcification and all transmembrane domains (p = 0.002) and severe outcomes and gross deletion-insertions (p = 4.0 × 10-4 ). CONCLUSION: Overall, 89% of our NCI families had a pathogenic PTCH1 mutation. The identification of PTCH1 mutations in previously mutation-negative families underscores the importance of repeated testing when new technologies become available. Additional clinical information linked to mutation databases would enhance follow-up and future studies of genotype-phenotype relationships.

7.
Cells ; 7(11)2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352968

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) comparisons from different methods are challenging due to differences in laboratory techniques and data configuration. This study aimed to assess the validity of converting the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) telomere/single copy gene (T/S) ratio to TL in kilobases (kb). We developed a linear regression equation to predict TL from qPCR T/S using flow cytometry with fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow FISH) TL data from 181 healthy donors (age range = 19⁻53) from the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) biorepository. TL measurements by qPCR and flow FISH were modestly correlated (R² = 0.56, p < 0.0001). In Bland-Altman analyses, individuals with the shortest (≤10th percentile) or longest (≥90th) flow FISH TL had an over- or under-estimated qPCR TL (bias = 0.89 and -0.77 kb, respectively). Comparisons of calculated TL from the NMDP samples and 1810 age- and sex-matched individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey showed significant differences (median = 7.1 versus 5.8 kb, respectively, p < 0.0001). Differences in annual TL attrition were also noted (31 versus 13 bp/year, respectively, p = 0.02). Our results demonstrate that TL calculated in kb from qPCR T/S may yield biased estimates for individuals with the shortest or longest TL, those often of high clinical interest. We also showed that calculated TL in kb from qPCR data are not comparable across populations and therefore are not necessarily useful.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3184, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093639

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (EWS) is a pediatric cancer characterized by the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion. We performed a genome-wide association study of 733 EWS cases and 1346 unaffected individuals of European ancestry. Our study replicates previously reported susceptibility loci at 1p36.22, 10q21.3 and 15q15.1, and identifies new loci at 6p25.1, 20p11.22 and 20p11.23. Effect estimates exhibit odds ratios in excess of 1.7, which is high for cancer GWAS, and striking in light of the rarity of EWS cases in familial cancer syndromes. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate genes at 6p25.1 (RREB1) and 20p11.23 (KIZ). The 20p11.22 locus is near NKX2-2, a highly overexpressed gene in EWS. Interestingly, most loci reside near GGAA repeat sequences and may disrupt binding of the EWSR1-FLI1 fusion protein. The high locus to case discovery ratio from 733 EWS cases suggests a genetic architecture in which moderate risk SNPs constitute a significant fraction of risk.

9.
Br J Haematol ; 181(5): 604-613, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29687880

RESUMO

Recurrent large-scale somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), and somatic point mutations can be analysed to stratify patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) into distinct prognostic groups. To investigate the relationship between SCNAs and somatic mutations, we performed whole-exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism microarray analyses on 98 CLL patients from 40 families with a high burden of CLL. Overall, 69 somatic mutations in 29 CLL driver genes were detected among 45 subjects (46%), with the most frequently mutated genes being TP53 (8·2%), NOTCH1 (8·2%) and ATM (5·1%). Additionally, 142 SCNAs from 54 subjects (57%) were detected, including losses of chromosome 13q14 (28·9%), 11q (5·6%), 17p (2·1%), and gain of chromosome 12 (4·2%). We found that patients having both an adverse point mutation in a CLL driver gene and an unfavourable SCNA tended to have poorer survival (Hazard ratio [HR] = 3·17, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0·97-10·35; P = 0·056) than patients having either a point mutation (HR = 1·34, 95%CI = 0·66-2·71; P = 0·42) or SCNAs (HR = 2·65, 95%CI = 0·77-9·13; P = 0·12). TP53 mutation carriers were associated with the poorest overall survival (HR = 4·39, 95%CI = 1·28-15·04; P = 0·018). Our study suggests that combining SCNA and mutational data could contribute to predicting outcome in familial CLL.

10.
Br J Haematol ; 181(3): 372-377, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29693246

RESUMO

In a previous whole exome sequencing of patients from 41 families with Hodgkin lymphoma, we identified two families with distinct heterozygous rare coding variants in POT1 (D224N and Y36H), both in a highly conserved region of the gene. POT1 D224N mutant did not bind to a single-stranded telomere oligonucleotide in vitro suggesting the mutation perturbs POT1's ability to bind to the telomeric G-rich overhang. Human HT1080 cells expressing POT1 D224N and lymphoblastoid cells carrying Y36H both showed increased telomere length and fragility in comparison to wild type cells. This strongly suggests that mutant POT1 causes chromosome instability and may play a role in lymphomagenesis in these families.

11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(5): 594-600, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475969

RESUMO

Background: Few studies have prospectively evaluated the association between oral microbiota and health outcomes. Precise estimates of the intrasubject microbial metric stability will allow better study planning. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the temporal variability of oral microbiota.Methods: Forty individuals provided six oral samples using the OMNIgene ORAL kit and Scope mouthwash oral rinses approximately every two months over 10 months. DNA was extracted using the QIAsymphony and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using the MiSeq. To estimate temporal variation, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for a variety of metrics and examined stability after clustering samples into distinct community types using Dirichlet multinomial models (DMMs).Results: The ICCs for the alpha diversity measures were high, including for number of observed bacterial species [0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.82 and 0.79; 95% CI: 0.75-0.94] from OMNIgene ORAL and Scope mouthwash, respectively. The ICCs for the relative abundance of the top four phyla and beta diversity matrices were lower. Three clusters provided the best model fit for the DMM from the OMNIgene ORAL samples, and the probability of remaining in a specific cluster was high (59.5%-80.7%).Conclusions: The oral microbiota appears to be stable over time for multiple metrics, but some measures, particularly relative abundance, were less stable.Impact: We used this information to calculate stability-adjusted power calculations that will inform future field study protocols and experimental analytic designs. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(5); 594-600. ©2018 AACR.

12.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(4): 383-391, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29269807

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest improved survival in patients with severe aplastic anemia receiving hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) from unrelated donors with longer telomeres. Here, we tested whether this effect is generalizable to patients with acute leukemia. From the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR®) database, we identified 1097 patients who received 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated HCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) between 2004 and 2012 with myeloablative conditioning, and had pre-HCT blood sample from the donor in CIBMTR repository. The median age at HCT for recipients was 40 years (range ≤1-68), and 32 years for donors (range = 18-61). We used qPCR for relative telomere length (RTL) measurement, and Cox proportional hazard models for statistical analyses. In a discovery cohort of 300 patients, longer donor RTL (>25th percentile) was associated with reduced risks of relapse (HR = 0.62, p = 0.05) and acute graft-versus-host disease II-IV (HR = 0.68, p = 0.05), and possibly with a higher probability of neutrophil engraftment (HR = 1.3, p = 0.06). However, these results did not replicate in two validation cohorts of 297 and 488 recipients. There was one exception; a higher probability of neutrophil engraftment was observed in one validation cohort (HR = 1.24, p = 0.05). In a combined analysis of the three cohorts, no statistically significant associations (all p > 0.1) were found between donor RTL and any outcomes.

13.
Hum Mol Genet ; 26(24): 4886-4895, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29036293

RESUMO

Known high-risk cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) genes account for melanoma risk in <40% of melanoma-prone families, suggesting the existence of additional high-risk genes or perhaps a polygenic mechanism involving multiple genetic modifiers. The goal of this study was to systematically characterize rare germline variants in 42 established melanoma genes among 144 CMM patients in 76 American CMM families without known mutations using data from whole-exome sequencing. We identified 68 rare (<0.1% in public and in-house control datasets) nonsynonymous variants in 25 genes. We technically validated all loss-of-function, inframe insertion/deletion, and missense variants predicted as deleterious, and followed them up in 1, 559 population-based CMM cases and 1, 633 controls. Several of these variants showed disease co-segregation within families. Of particular interest, a stopgain variant in TYR was present in five of six CMM cases/obligate gene carriers in one family and a single population-based CMM case. A start gain variant in the 5'UTR region of PLA2G6 and a missense variant in ATM were each seen in all three affected people in a single family, respectively. Results from rare variant burden tests showed that familial and population-based CMM patients tended to have higher frequencies of rare germline variants in albinism genes such as TYR, TYRP1, and OCA2 (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that rare nonsynonymous variants in low- or intermediate-risk CMM genes may influence familial CMM predisposition, warranting further investigation of both common and rare variants in genes affecting functionally important pathways (such as melanogenesis) in melanoma risk assessment.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Melanoma/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Fosfolipases A2 do Grupo VI/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Risco , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 109(11)2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059430

RESUMO

Background: Childhood cancer survivors treated with chest-directed radiotherapy have substantially elevated risk for developing breast cancer. Although genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in the general population is well studied, large-scale evaluation of breast cancer susceptibility after chest-directed radiotherapy for childhood cancer is lacking. Methods: We conducted a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in female survivors of childhood cancer, pooling two cohorts with detailed treatment data and systematic, long-term follow-up: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. The study population comprised 207 survivors who developed breast cancer and 2774 who had not developed any subsequent neoplasm as of last follow-up. Genotyping and subsequent imputation yielded 16 958 466 high-quality variants for analysis. We tested associations in the overall population and in subgroups stratified by receipt of lower than 10 and 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure. We report P values and pooled per-allele risk estimates from Cox proportional hazards regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among survivors who received 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure, a locus on 1q41 was associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (rs4342822, nearest gene PROX1 , risk allele frequency in control subjects [RAF controls ] = 0.46, hazard ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.49 to 2.44, P = 7.09 × 10 -9 ). Two rare variants also showed potentially promising associations (breast radiation ≥10 gray: rs74949440, 11q23, TAGLN , RAF controls = 0.02, P = 5.84 × 10 -8 ; <10 gray: rs17020562, 1q32.3, RPS6KC1 , RAF controls = 0.0005, P = 6.68 × 10 -8 ). Associations were restricted to these dose subgroups, with consistent findings in the two survivor cohorts. Conclusions: Our study provides strong evidence that germline genetics outside high-risk syndromes could modify the effect of radiation exposure on breast cancer risk after childhood cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Neoplasias Induzidas por Radiação/genética , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Proteínas Quinases S6 Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Mama/efeitos da radiação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Doença de Hodgkin/radioterapia , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia/radioterapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sobreviventes , Adulto Jovem , Quinases raf/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(8)2017 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28805708

RESUMO

Several methods have been employed to measure telomere length (TL) in human studies. It has been difficult to directly compare the results from these studies because of differences in the laboratory techniques and output parameters. We compared TL measurements (TLMs) by the three most commonly used methods, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), flow cytometry with fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow FISH) and Southern blot, in a cohort of patients with the telomere biology disorder dyskeratosis congenita (DC) and in their unaffected relatives (controls). We observed a strong correlation between the Southern blot average TL and the flow FISH total lymphocyte TL in both the DC patients and their unaffected relatives (R² of 0.68 and 0.73, respectively). The correlation between the qPCR average TL and that of the Southern blot method was modest (R² of 0.54 in DC patients and of 0.43 in unaffected relatives). Similar results were noted when comparing the qPCR average TL and the flow FISH total lymphocyte TL (R² of 0.49 in DC patients and of 0.42 in unaffected relatives). In conclusion, the strengths of the correlations between the three widely used TL assays (qPCR, flow FISH, and Southern blot) were significantly different. Careful consideration is warranted when selecting the method of TL measurement for research and for clinical studies.


Assuntos
Disceratose Congênita/patologia , Leucócitos/patologia , Homeostase do Telômero , Telômero/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Southern Blotting , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Disceratose Congênita/genética , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Humanos , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Telômero/genética , Encurtamento do Telômero , Adulto Jovem
16.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 165(3): 687-697, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28664506

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To characterize the spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 in population-based unselected breast cancer cases in an Asian population. METHODS: Germline DNA from 467 breast cancer patients in Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia, where 93% of the breast cancer patients in Sarawak are treated, was sequenced for the entire coding region of BRCA1; BRCA2; PALB2; Exons 6, 7, and 8 of TP53; and Exons 7 and 8 of PTEN. Pathogenic variants included known pathogenic variants in ClinVar, loss of function variants, and variants that disrupt splice site. RESULTS: We found 27 pathogenic variants (11 BRCA1, 10 BRCA2, 4 PALB2, and 2 TP53) in 34 patients, which gave a prevalence of germline mutations of 2.8, 3.23, and 0.86% for BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2, respectively. Compared to mutation non-carriers, BRCA1 mutation carriers were more likely to have an earlier age at onset, triple-negative subtype, and lower body mass index, whereas BRCA2 mutation carriers were more likely to have a positive family history. Mutation carrier cases had worse survival compared to non-carriers; however, the association was mostly driven by stage and tumor subtype. We also identified 19 variants of unknown significance, and some of them were predicted to alter splicing or transcription factor binding sites. CONCLUSION: Our data provide insight into the genetics of breast cancer in this understudied group and suggest the need for modifying genetic testing guidelines for this population with a much younger age at diagnosis and more limited resources compared with Caucasian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
17.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(7): 1054-1058, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389255

RESUMO

Telomeres are tandem nucleotide repeats and a protein complex located at the end of the chromosomes maintaining genomic stability. Their potential as a predictive biomarker for outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) in hematologic malignancies is still unclear. From the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research we randomly selected 536 acute leukemia patients from those who underwent myeloablative 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor HCT between 2005 and 2012 and who had an available pre-HCT blood sample in the repository. Relative telomere length (RTL) was measured by real-time quantitative PCR. We used Kaplan-Meier and competing risk estimators to calculate survival probability and cumulative incidence, respectively, across patient RTL tertiles. Cox proportional hazard regression was used for adjusted analyses. The study included 396 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 140 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. Median age at HCT was 41 years (range, .5 to 66), and median follow-up for survivors was 5.1 years (range, .4 to 8.3). Significant inverse correlations between age and RTL were observed in patients with AML (r = -.44, P < .0001) and ALL (r = -.48, P < .0001). Patients with ALL had longer RTL than those with AML (.48 versus .43, respectively); the difference was not statistically significant after adjusting for patient age (P = .96). Pre-HCT RTL in acute leukemia patients was not statistically significantly associated with overall survival (HR for longest RTL compared with shortest, .91; 95% CI, .65 to 1.28), disease-free survival (HR, .90; 95% CI, .64 to 1.25), transplant-related mortality (HR, .97; 95% CI, .60 to 1.59), incidence of relapse (HR, .89; 95% CI, .56 to 1.40), neutrophil engraftment (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, .85 to 1.32), or grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, .81 to 1.53), grades III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (HR, .92; 95% CI, .54 to 1.59), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, .81 to 1.50). In this study, recipient pre-HCT RTL had no prognostic role in post-transplant outcomes in acute leukemia patients.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Telômero/genética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gastroenterology ; 153(2): 488-494.e1, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28428144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aflatoxin, which causes hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer. We investigated whether patients with gallbladder cancer have higher exposure to aflatoxin than patients with gallstones. METHODS: We measured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine adducts in plasma samples from the Shanghai Biliary Tract Cancer case-control study, conducted from 1997 through 2001. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the population-attributable fraction for 209 patients with gallbladder cancer and gallstones vs 250 patients with gallstones without cancer (controls). In 54 patients with gallbladder cancer, tumor tissue was examined for the R249S mutation in TP53, associated with aflatoxin exposure, through targeted sequencing. RESULTS: The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in 67 (32%) of 209 patients with gallbladder cancer and 37 (15%) of the 250 controls (χ2 P < .0001), almost threefold more patients with gallbladder cancer than controls (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.70-4.33). Among participants with detectable levels of AFB1-lysine, the median level of AFB1-lysine was 5.4 pg/mg in those with gallbladder cancer, compared with 1.2 pg/mg in controls. For patients in the fourth quartile of AFB1-lysine level vs the first quartile, the OR for gallbladder cancer was 7.61 (95% CI, 2.01-28.84). None of the 54 gallbladder tumors sequenced were found to have the R249S mutation in TP53. The population-attributable fraction for cancer related to aflatoxin was 20% (95% CI, 15%-25%). CONCLUSIONS: In a case-control study of patients with gallbladder cancer and gallstones vs patients with gallstones without cancer, we associated exposure to aflatoxin (based on plasma level of AFB1-lysine) with gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder cancer does not appear associate with the R249S mutation in TP53. If aflatoxin is a cause of gallbladder cancer, it may have accounted for up to 20% of the gallbladder cancers in Shanghai, China, during the study period, and could account for an even higher proportion in high-risk areas. If our findings are verified, reducing aflatoxin exposure might reduce the incidence of gallbladder cancer.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/sangue , Aflatoxinas/toxicidade , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/induzido quimicamente , Cálculos Biliares/complicações , Lisina/sangue , Venenos/toxicidade , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China , Feminino , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/sangue , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/genética , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Cálculos Biliares/sangue , Genes p53 , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fatores de Risco , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética
19.
J Med Genet ; 54(6): 417-425, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28280134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diamond-Blackfan anaemia (DBA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome (IBMFS) characterised by erythroid hypoplasia. It is associated with congenital anomalies and a high risk of developing specific cancers. DBA is caused predominantly by autosomal dominant pathogenic variants in at least 15 genes affecting ribosomal biogenesis and function. Two X-linked recessive genes have been identified. OBJECTIVES: We aim to identify the genetic aetiology of DBA. METHODS: Of 87 families with DBA enrolled in an institutional review board-approved cohort study (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier:NCT00027274), 61 had genetic testing information available. Thirty-five families did not have a known genetic cause and thus underwent comprehensive genomic evaluation with whole exome sequencing, deletion and CNV analyses to identify their disease-associated pathogenic variant. Controls for functional studies were healthy mutation-negative individuals enrolled in the same study. RESULTS: Our analyses uncovered heterozygous pathogenic variants in two previously undescribed genes in two families. One family had a non-synonymous variant (p.K77N) in RPL35; the second family had a non-synonymous variant (p. L51S) in RPL18. Both of these variants result in pre-rRNA processing defects. We identified heterozygous pathogenic variants in previously known DBA genes in 16 of 35 families. Seventeen families who underwent genetic analyses are yet to have a genetic cause of disease identified. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, heterozygous pathogenic variants in ribosomal genes were identified in 44 of the 61 families (72%). De novo pathogenic variants were observed in 57% of patients with DBA. Ongoing studies of DBA genomics will be important to understand this complex disorder.


Assuntos
Anemia de Diamond-Blackfan/genética , Mutação/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Adulto Jovem
20.
PLoS Med ; 13(12): e1002162, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27923066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histologic subtype of lung cancer and has a high risk of distant metastasis at every disease stage. We aimed to characterize the genomic landscape of LUAD and identify mutation signatures associated with tumor progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed an integrative genomic analysis, incorporating whole exome sequencing (WES), determination of DNA copy number and DNA methylation, and transcriptome sequencing for 101 LUAD samples from the Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology (EAGLE) study. We detected driver genes by testing whether the nonsynonymous mutation rate was significantly higher than the background mutation rate and replicated our findings in public datasets with 724 samples. We performed subclonality analysis for mutations based on mutant allele data and copy number alteration data. We also tested the association between mutation signatures and clinical outcomes, including distant metastasis, survival, and tumor grade. We identified and replicated two novel candidate driver genes, POU class 4 homeobox 2 (POU4F2) (mutated in 9 [8.9%] samples) and ZKSCAN1 (mutated in 6 [5.9%] samples), and characterized their major deleterious mutations. ZKSCAN1 was part of a mutually exclusive gene set that included the RTK/RAS/RAF pathway genes BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, MET, and NF1, indicating an important driver role for this gene. Moreover, we observed strong associations between methylation in specific genomic regions and somatic mutation patterns. In the tumor evolution analysis, four driver genes had a significantly lower fraction of subclonal mutations (FSM), including TP53 (p = 0.007), KEAP1 (p = 0.012), STK11 (p = 0.0076), and EGFR (p = 0.0078), suggesting a tumor initiation role for these genes. Subclonal mutations were significantly enriched in APOBEC-related signatures (p < 2.5×10-50). The total number of somatic mutations (p = 0.0039) and the fraction of transitions (p = 5.5×10-4) were associated with increased risk of distant metastasis. Our study's limitations include a small number of LUAD patients for subgroup analyses and a single-sample design for investigation of subclonality. CONCLUSIONS: These data provide a genomic characterization of LUAD pathogenesis and progression. The distinct clonal and subclonal mutation signatures suggest possible diverse carcinogenesis pathways for endogenous and exogenous exposures, and may serve as a foundation for more effective treatments for this lethal disease. LUAD's high heterogeneity emphasizes the need to further study this tumor type and to associate genomic findings with clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Metilação de DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/fisiopatologia , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Adulto , Idoso , Exoma , Feminino , Genômica , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA