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3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17198, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057211

RESUMO

Although next-generation sequencing has demonstrated great potential for novel gene discovery, confirming disease-causing genes after initial discovery remains challenging. Here, we applied a network analysis approach to prioritize candidate genes identified from whole-exome sequencing analysis of 98 cutaneous melanoma patients from 27 families. Using a network propagation method, we ranked candidate genes by their similarity to known disease genes in protein-protein interaction networks and identified gene clusters with functional connectivity. Using this approach, we identified several new candidate susceptibility genes that warrant future investigations such as NGLY1, IL1RN, FABP2, PRKDC, and PROSER2. The propagated network analysis also allowed us to link families that did not have common underlying genes but that carried variants in genes that interact on protein-protein interaction networks. In conclusion, our study provided an analysis perspective for gene prioritization in the context of genetic heterogeneity across families and prioritized top potential candidate susceptibility genes in our dataset.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ewing sarcoma (EwS) is a rare, aggressive solid tumor of childhood, adolescence and young adulthood associated with pathognomonic EWSR1-ETS fusion oncoproteins altering transcriptional regulation. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 6 common germline susceptibility loci but have not investigated low-frequency inherited variants with minor allele frequencies below 5% due to limited genotyped cases of this rare tumor. METHODS: We investigated the contribution of rare and low-frequency variation to EwS susceptibility in the largest EwS genome-wide association study to date (733 EwS cases and 1,346 unaffected controls of European ancestry). RESULTS: We identified two low-frequency variants, rs112837127 and rs2296730, on chromosome 20 that were associated with EwS risk (OR = 0.186 and 2.038, respectively; P-value < 5×10-8) and located near previously reported common susceptibility loci. After adjusting for the most associated common variant at the locus, only rs112837127 remained a statistically significant independent signal (OR = 0.200, P-value = 5.84×10-8). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest rare variation residing on common haplotypes are important contributors to EwS risk. IMPACT: Motivate future targeted sequencing studies for a comprehensive evaluation of low-frequency and rare variation around common EwS susceptibility loci.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Sarcoma de Ewing/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923912

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Radiotherapy for childhood cancer is associated with elevated subsequent neoplasm (SN) risk, but the contribution of rare variants in DNA damage response and radiation sensitivity genes to SN risk is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted whole-exome sequencing in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors originally diagnosed during 1970 to 1986 (mean follow-up, 32.7 years), with reconstruction of doses to body regions from radiotherapy records. We identified patients who developed SN types previously reported to be related to radiotherapy (RT-SNs; eg, basal cell carcinoma [BCC], breast cancer, meningioma, thyroid cancer, sarcoma) and matched controls (sex, childhood cancer type/diagnosis, age, SN location, radiation dose, survival). Conditional logistic regression assessed SN risk associated with potentially protein-damaging rare variants (SnpEff, ClinVar) in 476 DNA damage response or radiation sensitivity genes with exact permutation-based P values using a Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of P < 8.06 × 10-5. RESULTS: Among 5,105 childhood cancer survivors of European descent, 1,108 (21.7%) developed at least 1 RT-SN. Out-of-field RT-SN risk, excluding BCC, was associated with homologous recombination repair (HRR) gene variants (patient cases, 23.2%; controls, 10.8%; odds ratio [OR], 2.6; 95% CI, 1.7 to 3.9; P = 4.79 × 10-5), most notably but nonsignificantly for FANCM (patient cases, 4.0%; matched controls, 0.6%; P = 9.64 × 10-5). HRR variants were not associated with likely in/near-field RT-SNs, excluding BCC (patient cases, 12.7%; matched controls, 12.9%; P = .92). Irrespective of radiation dose, risk for RT-SNs was also associated with EXO1 variants (patient cases, 1.8%; controls, 0.4%; P = 3.31 × 10-5), another gene implicated in DNA double-strand break repair. CONCLUSION: In this large-scale discovery study, we identified novel associations between RT-SN risk after childhood cancer and potentially protein-damaging rare variants in genes involved in DNA double-strand break repair, particularly HRR. With replication, these results could affect screening recommendations for childhood cancer survivors and risk-benefit assessments of treatment approaches.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12898, 2020 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732891

RESUMO

It is challenging to identify somatic variants from high-throughput sequence reads due to tumor heterogeneity, sub-clonality, and sequencing artifacts. In this study, we evaluated the performance of eight primary somatic variant callers and multiple ensemble methods using both real and synthetic whole-genome sequencing, whole-exome sequencing, and deep targeted sequencing datasets with the NA12878 cell line. The test results showed that a simple consensus approach can significantly improve performance even with a limited number of callers and is more robust and stable than machine learning based ensemble approaches. To fully exploit the multi-callers, we also developed a software package, SomaticCombiner, that can combine multiple callers and integrates a new variant allelic frequency (VAF) adaptive majority voting approach, which can maintain sensitive detection for variants with low VAFs.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12563, 2020 07 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32724039

RESUMO

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant Mendelian tumor predisposition disorder caused by germline pathogenic variants in the tumor suppressor NF2. Meningiomas are the second most common neoplasm in NF2, often occurring in multiple intracranial and spinal locations within the same patient. In this prospective longitudinal study, we assessed volumes and growth rates of ten spinal and ten cranial benign meningiomas in seven NF2 patients that concluded with surgical resection and performed whole-exome sequencing and copy-number variant (CNV) analysis of the tumors. Our comparison of the volume and the growth rate of NF2-associated spinal and cranial meningiomas point to the differences in timing of tumor initiation and/or to the differences in tumor progression (e.g., non-linear, saltatory growth) at these two anatomical locations. Genomic investigation of these tumors revealed that somatic inactivation of NF2 is the principal and perhaps the only driver of tumor initiation; and that tumor progression likely occurs via accumulation of CNVs, rather than point mutations. Results of this study contribute to a better understanding of NF2-associated meningiomas clinical behavior and their genetic underpinnings.

8.
mSystems ; 5(4)2020 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636335

RESUMO

Epidemiologic studies use various biosample collection methods to study associations between human oral microbiota and health outcomes. However, the agreement between the different methods is unclear. We compared a commercially available OMNIgene ORAL kit to three alternative collection methods: Saccomanno's fixative, Scope mouthwash, and nonethanol mouthwash. Oral samples were collected from 40 individuals over 4 visits. Two samples were collected from each subject per visit: one with OMNIgene and one with an alternative method. DNA was extracted using the DSP DNA Virus Pathogen kit, and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced using MiSeq. Oral collection methods were compared based on alpha and beta diversity metrics and phylum- and genus-level relative abundances. All alpha diversity metrics were significantly lower for Saccomanno's fixative than for OMNIgene (P < 0.001), whereas the two mouthwashes were more similar to OMNIgene. Principal-coordinate analysis (PCoA) using the Bray-Curtis and weighted UniFrac beta diversity matrices showed large differences in the microbial compositions of samples collected with Saccomanno's compared to those with OMNIgene and the mouthwashes. Clustering by collection method was not observed in unweighted UniFrac PCoA plots, suggesting differences in relative abundances but not specific taxa detected by the collection methods. Relative abundances of most taxa were significantly different between OMNIgene and the other methods at each taxonomic level, with Saccomanno's showing the least agreement with OMNIgene. There were clear differences in oral microbial communities between the four oral collection methods, particularly for Saccomanno's fixative.IMPORTANCE We compared four different oral collection methods for studying the human oral microbiome: an OMNIgene ORAL kit, Scope mouthwash, nonethanol mouthwash, and Saccomanno's fixative. Our study shows that the type of the collection method can have a large impact on the results of an oral microbiome analysis. We recommend that one consistent oral collection method should be used for all oral microbiome comparisons. While Scope and nonethanol mouthwashes are less expensive and provide results similar to those with OMNIgene, Saccomanno's fixative may be unfavorable due to the microbial differences detected in this study. Our results will help guide the design of future oral microbiome studies.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(26): eaba3231, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637605

RESUMO

Cancer risk is highly variable in carriers of the common TP53-R337H founder allele, possibly due to the influence of modifier genes. Whole-genome sequencing identified a variant in the tumor suppressor XAF1 (E134*/Glu134Ter/rs146752602) in a subset of R337H carriers. Haplotype-defining variants were verified in 203 patients with cancer, 582 relatives, and 42,438 newborns. The compound mutant haplotype was enriched in patients with cancer, conferring risk for sarcoma (P = 0.003) and subsequent malignancies (P = 0.006). Functional analyses demonstrated that wild-type XAF1 enhances transactivation of wild-type and hypomorphic TP53 variants, whereas XAF1-E134* is markedly attenuated in this activity. We propose that cosegregation of XAF1-E134* and TP53-R337H mutations leads to a more aggressive cancer phenotype than TP53-R337H alone, with implications for genetic counseling and clinical management of hypomorphic TP53 mutant carriers.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3096, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555180

RESUMO

Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) and tumor evolution have been well described for clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC), but they are less studied for other kidney cancer subtypes. Here we investigate ITH and clonal evolution of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) and rarer kidney cancer subtypes, integrating whole-genome sequencing and DNA methylation data. In 29 tumors, up to 10 samples from the center to the periphery of each tumor, and metastatic samples in 2 cases, enable phylogenetic analysis of spatial features of clonal expansion, which shows congruent patterns of genomic and epigenomic evolution. In contrast to previous studies of ccRCC, in pRCC, driver gene mutations and most arm-level somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) are clonal. These findings suggest that a single biopsy would be sufficient to identify the important genetic drivers and that targeting large-scale SCNAs may improve pRCC treatment, which is currently poor. While type 1 pRCC displays near absence of structural variants (SVs), the more aggressive type 2 pRCC and the rarer subtypes have numerous SVs, which should be pursued for prognostic significance.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Epigenômica , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Filogenia
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2459, 2020 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424208

RESUMO

Intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) of genomic alterations may impact prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Here, we investigate ITH of somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs), DNA methylation, and point mutations in lung cancer driver genes in 292 tumor samples from 84 patients with LUAD. LUAD samples show substantial SCNA and methylation ITH, and clonal architecture analyses present congruent evolutionary trajectories for SCNAs and DNA methylation aberrations. Methylation ITH mapping to gene promoter areas or tumor suppressor genes is low. Moreover, ITH composed of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms altering the same cancer driver genes is shown in several tumors. To quantify ITH for valid statistical association analyses, we develope an average pairwise ITH index (APITH), which does not depend on the number of samples per tumor. Both APITH indexes for SCNAs and methylation aberrations show significant associations with poor prognosis. This study further establishes the important clinical implications of genetic and epigenetic ITH in LUAD.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(5): 817-822, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31982544

RESUMO

Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is most frequently immune-mediated; however, rare inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, such as Fanconi anemia (FA), may be causal and can present as aplastic anemia (AA). FA is primarily an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the presence of 2 pathogenic variants in a single FA/BRCA DNA repair pathway gene. Patients with SAA often undergo genetic testing during clinical evaluation that may identify single deleterious alleles in FA pathway genes. We quantified the rate of germline single deleterious alleles in 22 FA genes using both a general population database (3234 variants, 125,748 exomes) and in a cohort of patients with SAA undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) (21 variants in 730 patients). The variants were classified as deleterious using in silico tools (REVEL, MetaSVM, VEP) and database resources (ClinVar, LOVD-FA). We found similar rates of single deleterious alleles in FA genes in both groups (2.6% and 2.9%). The presence of a single deleterious variant in a gene for FA in SAA HCT recipients did not affect the overall survival after HCT (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.37 to 1.95; P  = 0.71), or post-HCT cancer risk (P = 0.52). Our results demonstrate that the identification of a germline monoallelic deleterious variant in an FA gene in patients with idiopathic SAA does not influence the outcome of HCT. Our findings suggest that there is no need for special treatment considerations for patients with SAA and a single deleterious FA allele identified on genetic testing.

13.
Cancer Med ; 9(2): 797-806, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31750624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral microbiota may be related to pancreatic cancer risk because periodontal disease, a condition linked to multiple specific microbes, has been associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We evaluated the association between oral microbiota and pancreatic cancer in Iran. METHODS: A total of 273 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 285 controls recruited from tertiary hospitals and a specialty clinic in Tehran, Iran provided saliva samples and filled out a questionnaire regarding demographics and lifestyle characteristics. DNA was extracted from saliva and the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR amplified and sequenced on the MiSeq. The sequencing data were processed using the DADA2 plugin in QIIME 2 and taxonomy was assigned against the Human Oral Microbiome Database. Logistic regression and MiRKAT models were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders. RESULTS: No association was observed for alpha diversity with an average of 91.11 (standard deviation [SD] 2.59) sequence variants for cases and 89.42 (SD 2.58) for controls. However, there was evidence for an association between beta diversity and case status. The association between the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and pancreatic cancer was particularly strong with a MiRKAT P-value of .000142 and specific principal coordinate vectors had strong associations with cancer risk. Several specific taxa were also associated with case status after adjustment for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSION: The overall microbial community appeared to differ between pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Whether these reflect differences evident before development of pancreatic cancer will need to be evaluated in prospective studies.

14.
Br J Haematol ; 188(2): 309-316, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426123

RESUMO

Telomeres are essential for chromosomal stability and markers of biological age. We evaluated the effect of pre-transplant short (<10th percentile-for-age) or very short (<5th or <1st percentile-for-age) leucocyte telomere length on survival after unrelated donor haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acquired severe aplastic anaemia (SAA). Patient pre-transplant blood samples and clinical data were available at the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. We used quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to measure relative telomere length (RTL) in 490 SAA patients who received HCT between 1990 and 2013 (median age = 20 years). One hundred and twelve patients (22·86%) had pre-HCT RTL <10th percentile-for-age, with the majority below the 5th percentile (N = 80, 71·43%). RTL <10th percentile-for-age was associated with a higher risk of post-HCT mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 1·78, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1·18-2·69, P = 0·006) compared with RTL ≥50th percentile; no survival differences were noted in longer RTL categories (P > 0·10). Time-dependent effects for post-HCT mortality were only observed in relation to very short RTL; HR comparing RTL <5th versus ≥5th percentile = 1·38, P = 0·15 for the first 12 months after HCT, and HR = 3·91, P < 0·0001, thereafter, P-heterogeneity = 0·008; the corresponding HRs for RTL <1st versus ≥1st percentile = 1·29, P = 0·41, and HR = 5·18, P < 0·0001, P-heterogeneity = 0·005. The study suggests a potential role for telomere length in risk stratification of SAA patients in regard to their HCT survival.


Assuntos
Anemia Aplástica/etiologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Anemia Aplástica/mortalidade , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Doadores não Relacionados , Adulto Jovem
15.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 147, 2019 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity of immune gene expression patterns of luminal breast cancer (BC), which is clinically heterogeneous and overall considered as low immunogenic, has not been well studied especially in non-European populations. Here, we aimed at characterizing the immune gene expression profile of luminal BC in an Asian population and associating it with patient characteristics and tumor genomic features. METHODS: We performed immune gene expression profiling of tumor and adjacent normal tissue in 92 luminal BC patients from Hong Kong using RNA-sequencing data and used unsupervised consensus clustering to stratify tumors. We then used luminal patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, N = 564) and a Korean breast cancer study (KBC, N = 112) as replication datasets. RESULTS: Based on the expression of 130 immune-related genes, luminal tumors were stratified into three distinct immune subtypes. Tumors in one subtype showed higher level of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), characterized by T cell gene activation, higher expression of immune checkpoint genes, higher nonsynonymous mutation burden, and higher APOBEC-signature mutations, compared with other luminal tumors. The high-TIL subtype was also associated with lower ESR1/ESR2 expression ratio and increasing body mass index. The comparison of the immune profile in tumor and matched normal tissue suggested a tumor-derived activation of specific immune responses, which was only seen in high-TIL patients. Tumors in a second subtype were characterized by increased expression of interferon-stimulated genes and enrichment for TP53 somatic mutations. The presence of three immune subtypes within luminal BC was replicated in TCGA and KBC, although the pattern was more similar in Asian populations. The germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism, which is prevalent in East Asian populations and was previously linked to immune activation, was not associated with immune subtypes in our study. This result does not support the hypothesis that the germline APOBEC3B deletion polymorphism is the driving force for immune activation in breast tumors in Asian populations. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that immune gene expression and associated genomic features could be useful to further stratify luminal BC beyond the current luminal A/B classification and a subset of luminal BC patients may benefit from checkpoint immunotherapy, at least in Asian populations.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade/genética , Transcriptoma , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Mutação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Microambiente Tumoral
16.
Neuro Oncol ; 2019 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30722027

RESUMO

Background: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumor-predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in NF1. NF1 patients have an 8-16% lifetime risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), a highly-aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma, often arising from pre-existing benign plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and atypical neurofibromas (ANF). ANF are distinct from both PN and MPNST, representing an intermediate step in malignant transformation. Methods: In the first comprehensive genomic analysis of ANF originating from multiple patients, we performed tumor/normal whole-exome sequencing (WES) of 16 ANFs. In addition, we conducted WES of three MPNSTs, copy-number meta-analysis of 26 ANFs and 28 MPNSTs, and whole transcriptome sequencing analysis of five ANFs and five MPNSTs. Results: We identified a low number of mutations (median 1, range 0-5) in the exomes of ANFs (only NF1 somatic mutations were recurrent), and frequent deletions of CDKN2A/B (69%) and SMARCA2 (42%). We determined that polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2) genes EED or SUZ12 were frequently mutated, deleted or downregulated in MPNSTs but not in ANFs. Our pilot gene expression study revealed upregulated NRAS, MDM2, CCND1/2/3 and CDK4/6 in ANFs and MPNSTs, and overexpression of EZH2 in MPNSTs only. Conclusions: The PN-ANF transition is primarily driven by the deletion of CDKN2A/B. Further progression from ANF to MPNST likely involves broad chromosomal rearrangements and frequent inactivation of the PRC2 genes, loss of the DNA repair genes, and copy-number increase of signal transduction, cell cycle and pluripotency self-renewal genes.

17.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 22(3): 406-410, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline mutations in BRCA2 have been linked to a higher risk of prostate cancer (PCa), and high frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) gene alterations was recently reported in metastatic castration-resistant PCa specimens. Mutations in BRCA2 vary in racial and ethnic groups including African-American (AA) and Caucasian-American (CA) populations. METHODS: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were sequenced (Ion AmpliSeq targeted sequencing) in archived blood DNA specimens in 1240 PCa patients, including 30% AA patients, in three different cohorts: localized early stage (T2) PCa (N = 935); advanced PCa (50% T3-4) (N = 189); and metastatic PCa (N = 116). The sequences were analyzed for known and novel mutations in BRCA1/2. Statistical analyses were performed to determine associations of the mutations with clinico-pathological parameters. RESULTS: BRCA2 mutations with known pathogenic annotation were significantly more prevalent in men with advanced and metastatic PCa (3.1%) compared to patients with an organ-confined disease (0.7%). AA patients carried more frequently BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS) when compared to Caucasian Americans (4.6 vs. 1.6%, respectively). Significantly, pathogenic BRCA2 mutations in men with localized early stage PCa increased the risk of distant metastasis. CONCLUSIONS: Germline variants of unknown significance in BRCA1/2 are more frequent in AA than CA PCa patients; however, the prevalence of pathogenic mutations were similar across the races. Patients carrying BRCA2 pathogenic mutations are more likely to progress to metastasis.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Seguimentos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(6): 1168-1180, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with variable expression and nearly complete penetrance. PTCH1 is the major susceptibility locus and has no known hot spots or genotype-phenotype relationships. METHODS: We evaluated 18 NBCCS National Cancer Institute (NCI) families plus PTCH1 data on 333 NBCCS disease-causing mutations (DM) reported in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). National Cancer Institute families underwent comprehensive genomic evaluation, and clinical data were extracted from NCI and HGMD cases. Genotype-phenotype relationships were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests focusing on mutation type and PTCH1 domains. RESULTS: PTCH1 pathogenic mutations were identified in 16 of 18 NCI families, including three previously mutation-negative families. PTCH1 mutations were spread across the gene with no hot spot. After adjustment for multiple tests, a statistically significant genotype-phenotype association was observed for developmental delay and gross deletion-insertions (p = 9.0 × 10-6 ), and suggestive associations between falx cerebri calcification and all transmembrane domains (p = 0.002) and severe outcomes and gross deletion-insertions (p = 4.0 × 10-4 ). CONCLUSION: Overall, 89% of our NCI families had a pathogenic PTCH1 mutation. The identification of PTCH1 mutations in previously mutation-negative families underscores the importance of repeated testing when new technologies become available. Additional clinical information linked to mutation databases would enhance follow-up and future studies of genotype-phenotype relationships.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Nevo Basocelular/genética , Mutação , Receptor Patched-1/genética , Adulto , Síndrome do Nevo Basocelular/patologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Exoma , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 10(11)2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30400234

RESUMO

Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer diagnosis in women and is responsible for considerable mortality among the women of Puerto Rico. However, there are few studies in Puerto Rico on the genetic factors influencing risk. To determine the contribution of pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, we sequenced these genes in 302 cases from two separate medical centers, who were not selected for age of onset or family history. We identified nine cases that are carriers of pathogenic germline mutation. This represents 2.9% of unselected cases and 5.6% of women meeting National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) criteria for BRCA testing. All of the identified pathogenic mutations were in the BRCA2 gene and the most common mutation is the p.Glu1308Ter (E1308X) mutation in BRCA2 found in eight out of nine cases, representing 89% of the pathogenic carriers. The E1308X mutation has been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families in Spain, and analysis of flanking DNA polymorphisms shows that all E1308X carriers occur on the same haplotype. This is consistent with BRCA2 E1308X being a founder mutation for the Puerto Rican population. These results will contribute to better inform genetic screening and counseling of breast and ovarian cancer cases in Puerto Rico and Puerto Rican populations in mainland United States.

20.
Cells ; 7(11)2018 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352968

RESUMO

Telomere length (TL) comparisons from different methods are challenging due to differences in laboratory techniques and data configuration. This study aimed to assess the validity of converting the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) telomere/single copy gene (T/S) ratio to TL in kilobases (kb). We developed a linear regression equation to predict TL from qPCR T/S using flow cytometry with fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow FISH) TL data from 181 healthy donors (age range = 19⁻53) from the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) biorepository. TL measurements by qPCR and flow FISH were modestly correlated (R² = 0.56, p < 0.0001). In Bland-Altman analyses, individuals with the shortest (≤10th percentile) or longest (≥90th) flow FISH TL had an over- or under-estimated qPCR TL (bias = 0.89 and -0.77 kb, respectively). Comparisons of calculated TL from the NMDP samples and 1810 age- and sex-matched individuals from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey showed significant differences (median = 7.1 versus 5.8 kb, respectively, p < 0.0001). Differences in annual TL attrition were also noted (31 versus 13 bp/year, respectively, p = 0.02). Our results demonstrate that TL calculated in kb from qPCR T/S may yield biased estimates for individuals with the shortest or longest TL, those often of high clinical interest. We also showed that calculated TL in kb from qPCR data are not comparable across populations and therefore are not necessarily useful.

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