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1.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431484

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fields, JB, Merigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. External and internal load measures during preseason training in men collegiate soccer athletes. J Strength Cond Res 35(9): 2572-2578, 2021-Collegiate athletes are exposed to high volume loads during preseason training. Monitoring training load can inform training and recovery periods. Therefore, the purpose was to examine changes in and bidirectional relationship between external and internal load metrics in men collegiate soccer athletes (n = 20; age, 20 ± 1 year). Internal load measures of heart rate variability (HRV), salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C), and self-assessment wellness and ratings of perceived exertion scales were collected daily. External load measures of total distance, player load, high-speed distance, high inertial movement analysis, and repeated high-intensity efforts were collected in each training session using global positioning system/global navigation satellite system technology. A 1-way analysis of variance determined weekly changes in external load, physiological, hormonal, and subjective self-assessment measures of internal load. Bidirectional prediction of external load markers and self-assessment measures on physiological and hormonal markers of internal load were assessed by hierarchical linear regression models (p < 0.05). External load measures, C, energy, sleep, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) decreased (p < 0.01), whereas T, T:C ratio, anger, depression, and vigor increased (p < 0.01) from week 1 to week 2. Morning C positively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); T:C ratio negatively predicted afternoon external load and post-training RPE (p < 0.05); and morning HRV negatively predicted post-training RPE (p = 0.031). Despite reduced hormonal stress and external load across weeks, negative perceptions of fatigue increased, suggesting fatigue patterns may have a delayed response. Load may have a more belated, chronic effect on perceptions of fatigue, whereas hormonal changes may be more immediate and sensitive to change. Practitioners may wish to use a variety of external and internal load measures to understand athletes' stress responses to training.


Assuntos
Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Adulto Jovem
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34209814

RESUMO

Sport nutrition knowledge has been shown to influence dietary habits of athletes. The purpose of the current study was to examine relationships between sport nutrition knowledge and body composition and examine potential predictors of body weight goals in collegiate athletes. Participants included National Collegiate Athletic Association Division III women (n = 42, height: 169.9 ± 6.9 cm; body mass: 67.1 ± 8.6 kg; fat-free mass: 51.3 ± 6.6 kg; body fat per cent: 24.2 ± 5.3%) and men (n = 25, height: 180.8 ± 7.2 cm; body mass: 89.2 ± 20.5 kg; fat-free mass: 75.9 ± 12.2 kg; body fat per cent: 13.5 ± 8.9%) athletes. Body composition was assessed via air displacement plethysmography. Athletes completed a validated questionnaire designed to assess sport nutrition knowledge and were asked questions about their perceived dietary energy and macronutrient requirements, as well as their body weight goal (i.e., lose, maintain, gain weight). Athletes answered 47.98 ± 11.29% of questions correctly on the nutrition questionnaire with no differences observed between sexes (men: 49.52 ± 11.76% vs. women: 47.03 ± 11.04%; p = 0.40). An inverse relationship between sport nutrition knowledge scores and body fat percentage (BF%) (r = -0.330; p = 0.008), and fat mass (r = -0.268; p = 0.032) was observed for all athletes. Fat mass (ß = 0.224), BF% (ß = 0.217), and body mass index (BMI) (ß = 0.421) were all significant (p < 0.05) predictors of body weight goal in women. All athletes significantly (p < 0.001) underestimated daily energy (-1360 ± 610.2 kcal/day), carbohydrate (-301.6 ± 149.2 grams/day [g/day]), and fat (-41.4 ± 34.5 g/day) requirements. Division III collegiate athletes have a low level of sport nutrition knowledge, which was associated with a higher BF%. Women athletes with a higher body weight, BF% and BMI were more likely to select weight loss as a body weight goal. Athletes also significantly underestimated their energy and carbohydrate requirements based upon the demands of their sport, independent of sex.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Composição Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Necessidades Nutricionais , Percepção , Pletismografia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132221

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Merrigan, JJ, O'Toole, KB, Wutzke, CJ, and Jones, MT. Kinetic and kinematic analysis of various drop jump performances in army reserve officer training corps cadets. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2021-The purpose was to examine effects of sex, drop height, and external loads on drop jump mechanics in Reserve Officer Training Corps cadets and whether findings were associated with strength. Males (n = 14) and females (n = 12) completed maximal isokinetic concentric (slow-C and fast-C) and eccentric (slow-E and fast-E) knee extensions and flexions at 60°·s-1 and 180°·s-1. After 72 hours, 3 drop jumps were performed under 3 conditions, (i.e., 30 cm unloaded [30UL], 30 cm loaded 15 kg [30L], and 60 cm unloaded [60UL]). No sex × condition interactions existed for any metric (p > 0.05). The 30L condition resulted in slower eccentric and concentric center of mass (COM) and angular velocities, reduced concentric vertical ground reaction forces (vGRF), and lower jump performances. Although 60UL resulted in greater eccentric COM and angular velocities, peak vGRF, impulse, and rate of force development (p < 0.008), no differences existed in jump performances. Males had faster COM and angular concentric velocities and smaller knee valgus angles, but no different vGRF compared with females. The change in the peak hip angle, because of 60UL, was associated with knee extension eccentric and concentric strength, whereas changes in knee angles were associated with eccentric strength. Likewise, eccentric strength influenced the effects of 30L on landing vGRF more so than concentric strength. Initial strength training is recommended, specifically emphasizing eccentric actions, before performing loaded (15 kg) drop jumps to reduce the increase of landing forces. However, caution may be required when performing drops from 60 cm because of increased forces, although no decline in jump performances were noted.

4.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(Suppl 1): S107-S113, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33666595

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Merrigan, JJ and Jones, MT. Acute inflammatory, cortisol, and soreness responses to supramaximal accentuated eccentric loading. J Strength Cond Res 35(2S): S107-S113, 2021-The purpose was to determine differences in time under tension, cortisol, inflammation, and perceived soreness between accentuated eccentric (AEL) and traditional loading (TRA) resistance exercise protocols. Resistance-trained men (n = 21) completed the AEL and TRA protocols in a random order, separated by 48 hours (sets × reps at eccentric/concentric) as follows: AEL65, 3 × 5 at 120/65% 1 repetition maximum (RM); AEL80, 3 × 3 at 120/80% 1RM; TRA65, 3 × 5 at 65/65% 1RM; and TRA80, 3 × 3 at 80/80% 1RM. Four linear position transducers measured eccentric time under tension (ETUT) and total time under tension (TTUT). Ultrasonography measured vastus lateralis muscle thickness and echo intensity at baseline and immediately post-exercise. Salivary cortisol was assessed at baseline, 0-, 15-, 30-, and 60-minute post-exercise. Perceived soreness was assessed at baseline, 24-, and 48-hours post-exercise. During rep 1, AEL65 and AEL80 had longer ETUT and TTUT than TRA65 (p ≤ 0.002) and TRA80 (p ≤ 0.008), respectively. However, AEL65 had shorter ETUT (reps 3-5) and TTUT (reps 3-5) than TRA65 (p ≤ 0.043). Similarly, ETUT (reps 2-3) and TTUT (rep 3) was shorter in AEL80 than TRA80 (p ≤ 0.045). However, there was no protocol effect for ETUT and TTUT (p > 0.05). Muscle thickness changes were trivial after each protocol (AEL80, d = 0.19; TRA80, d = 0.15; AEL65, d = 0.24; TRA65, d = 0.23), but changes in echo intensity were moderate (AEL80, d = 0.61; TRA80, d = 0.61; AEL65, d = 0.61; TRA65, d = 0.76). Salivary cortisol decreased below baseline at 30- and 60-minute post-exercise (p ≤ 0.006). Perceived soreness elevated from baseline to 24 hours for AEL80 (p = 0.006). The inflammatory, cortisol, and soreness responses after AEL were either low or similar to TRA, indicating similar recovery patterns between protocols.


Assuntos
Hidrocortisona , Força Muscular , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético , Músculo Quadríceps
5.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1182-1186, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677459

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Fields, JB, Lameira, DM, Short, JL, Merrigan, JM, Gallo, S, White, JB, and Jones, MT. Relationship between external load and self-reported wellness measures across a collegiate men's soccer preseason. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1182-1186, 2021-Monitoring athlete training load is important to training programming and can help balance training and recovery periods. Furthermore, psychological factors can affect athlete's performance. Therefore, the purpose was to examine the relationship between external load and self-reported wellness measures during soccer preseason. Collegiate men soccer athletes (n = 20; mean ± SD age: 20.3 ± 0.9 years; body mass: 77.9 ± 6.8 kg; body height: 178.87 ± 7.18cm; body fat: 10.0 ± 5.0%; V̇o2max: 65.39 ± 7.61ml·kg-1·min-1) participated. Likert scale self-assessments of fatigue, soreness, sleep, stress, and energy were collected daily in conjunction with the Brief Assessment of Mood (vigor, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion). Total distance (TD), player load (PL), high-speed distance (HSD, >13 mph [5.8 m·s-1]), high inertial movement analysis (IMA, >3.5 m·s-2), and repeated high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) were collected in each training session using positional monitoring (global positioning system/global navigation satellite system [GPS/GNSS]) technology. Session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) was determined from athlete's post-training rating (Borg CR-10 Scale) and time of training session. Multilevel models revealed the bidirectional prediction of load markers on fatigue, soreness, sleep, energy, and sRPE (p < 0.05). Morning ratings of soreness and fatigue were predicted by previous afternoon's practice measures of TD, PL, HSD, IMA, RHIE, and sRPE. Morning soreness and fatigue negatively predicted that day's afternoon practice TD, PL, HSD, IMA, RHIE, and sRPE. Morning ratings of negative mood were positively predicted by previous day's afternoon practice HSD. In addition, negative morning mood states inversely predicted HSD (p = 0.011), TD (p = 0.002), and PL (p < 0.001) for that day's afternoon practice. Using self-reported wellness measures with GPS/GNSS technology may enhance the understanding of training responses and inform program development.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Físico Humano , Futebol , Adulto , Atletas , Fadiga , Humanos , Masculino , Esforço Físico , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Strength Cond Res ; 35(5): 1208-1216, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651736

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Merrigan, JJ, Tufano, JJ, and Jones, MT. Potentiating effects of accentuated eccentric loading are dependent upon relative strength. J Strength Cond Res 35(5): 1208-1216, 2021-The purpose was to evaluate the acute effects of accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) on bench press velocity and subsequent perceived effort (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE]) and soreness. Resistance-trained men (n = 8) and women (n = 2) completed 4 sets of 5 bench press repetitions with AEL and traditional loading (TL) using concentric loads of 50% (AEL50, TL50) and 65% (AEL65, TL65) 1-repetition maximum (1RM). Throughout each TL set, the eccentric load remained identical to the concentric. Variable resistance during the first repetition of AEL equaled 120% 1RM. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to evaluate differences between AEL and TL (p < 0.05). For the first repetition, AEL50 and AEL65 resulted in slower eccentric and concentric velocities. The increasing slope of eccentric and concentric velocity across repetitions was greater during AEL50 and AEL65 compared with TL50 and TL65, respectively (p < 0.05). As an individual's strength increased, AEL50 resulted in slower eccentric velocity and faster concentric velocity than TL50. The AEL65 resulted in faster concentric velocity than TL65 (p < 0.05). Mean protocol comparisons revealed trivial to small effects between AEL and TL. There were no differences in RPE or soreness between protocols with soreness ratings remaining unchanged from baseline (1.80 ± 0.20 AU; p < 0.05). Overall, AEL was not effective for increasing concentric velocity during the bench press with current loading protocols. Yet, stronger individuals may exhibit increases in concentric velocity from AEL, which may be a result of different pacing strategies employed during the eccentric phase. Furthermore, when using the current AEL protocols, eccentric intensities were increased with no greater RPE or soreness.


Assuntos
Treinamento de Força , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Dor
7.
Sports (Basel) ; 9(2)2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670086

RESUMO

Low-income Latino children are at high risk for obesity and associated comorbidities. Considering the health benefits of proper sleep habits and physical activity, understanding the patterns, or the relationship between these modifiable factors may help guide intervention strategies to improve overall health in this population. Thus, the purpose was to investigate bidirectional associations between physical activity and sleep among Latino children who are overweight/obese. Twenty-three children (boys, 70%; overweight, 17%; obese, 83%) (age 7.9 ± 1.4 years) wore activity monitors on their wrist for 6 consecutive days (comprising 138 total observations). Hierarchical linear modeling evaluated temporal associations between physical activity (light physical activity, LPA; moderate to vigorous activity, MVPA) and sleep (duration and efficiency). Although there was no association between MVPA and sleep (p > 0.05), daytime LPA was negatively associated with sleep duration that night (estimate ± SE = -10.77 ± 5.26; p = 0.04), and nighttime sleep efficiency was positively associated with LPA the next day (estimate ± SE = 13.29 ± 6.16; p = 0.03). In conclusion, increased LPA may decrease sleep duration that night, but increasing sleep efficiency may increase LPA the following day. Although further investigation is required, these results suggest that improving sleep efficiency may increase the level of physical activity reached among Latino children who are overweight/obese.

8.
J Sports Sci ; 39(13): 1504-1511, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634732

RESUMO

This investigation examined the effect of rest- redistribution (RR) on the circulating cytokine response to resistance exercise in resistance- trained women. Participants (n = 13; 24 ± 4y; 65.0 ± 10.6 kg; 160.5 ± 5.1 cm) completed two sessions of back squats at 70% of 1- repetition maximum: Traditional sets (TS: 4x10, 120-s inter- set rest) and RR (4x 2x5) with 30-s intra- set rest after 5 repetitions and 90-s inter- set rest. Serum creatine kinase (CK), IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, and IL-6/IL-10 were determined before (PRE), immediately- post (IP), and 5, 15, 30, 60 min, 24 h, and 48 h post- exercise. CK increased significantly (p < 0.05) from PRE through 24 h for TS and through 48 h for RR. IL-15 was greater for RR than TS at 48 h. A condition effect was found for IL-10 and IL-6/IL-10 with a lower IL-10 and a greater IL-6/IL-10 for RR. A time effect demonstrated that IL-1ß and IL-10 peaked at IP. IL-8 was increased from 5 min to 60 min and 24 h. IL-6/IL-10 was increased from PRE to 30 min, 60 min, and 24 h. These results suggested that rest period configuration- specific differences exist for the inflammatory response in trained women during intramuscular homoeostatic disruption.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase/sangue , Citocinas/sangue , Inflamação/sangue , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 16(1): 66-72, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186894

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify acute effects of a single accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) repetition on subsequent back-squat kinetics and kinematics with different concentric loads. METHODS: Resistance-trained men (N = 21) participated in a counterbalanced crossover design and completed 4 protocols (sets × repetitions at eccentric/concentric) as follows: AEL65, 3 × 5 at 120%/65% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM); AEL80, 3 × 3 at 120%/80% 1-RM; TRA65, 3 × 5 at 65%/65% 1-RM; and TRA80, 3 × 3 at 80%/80% 1-RM. During AEL, weight releasers disengaged from the barbell after the eccentric phase of the first repetition and remained off for the remaining repetitions. All repetitions were performed on a force plate with linear position transducers attached to the barbell, from which eccentric and concentric peak and mean velocity, force, and power were derived. RESULTS: Eccentric peak velocity (-0.076 [0.124] m·s-1; P = .01), concentric peak force (187.8 [284.4] N; P = .01), eccentric mean power (-145.2 [62.0] W; P = .03), and eccentric peak power (-328.6 [93.7] W; P < .01) during AEL65 were significantly greater than TRA65. When collapsed across repetitions, AEL65 resulted in slower eccentric velocity and power during repetition 1 but faster eccentric and concentric velocity and power in subsequent repetitions (P ≤ .04). When comparing AEL80 with TRA80, concentric peak force (133.8 [56.9] N; P = .03), eccentric mean power (-83.57 [38.0] W; P = .04), and eccentric peak power (-242.84 [67.3] W; P < .01) were enhanced. CONCLUSIONS: Including a single supramaximal eccentric phase of 120% 1-RM increased subsequent velocity and power with concentric loads of 65% 1-RM, but not 80% 1-RM. Therefore, AEL is sensitive to the magnitude of concentric loads, which requires a large relative difference to the eccentric load, and weight releasers may not need to be reloaded to induce performance enhancement.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Estudos Cross-Over , Humanos , Masculino , Postura
10.
J Strength Cond Res ; 2020 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021579

RESUMO

Merrigan, JJ, Jones, MT, Malecek, J, Padecky, J, Omcirk, D, Xu, N, Peñailillo, L, and Tufano, JJ. Comparison of traditional and rest-redistribution sets on indirect markers of muscle damage following eccentric exercise. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-The purpose was to investigate the effect of rest-redistribution (RR) on muscle damage after eccentric knee extensions. After 2 weeks of eccentric familiarization, 11 resistance-trained men performed 2 work-matched isokinetic unilateral eccentric knee extension protocols at 60°·s using a crossover design, separated by 7 days. Subjects performed 40 repetitions with 285 seconds of rest using traditional sets (TS; 4 sets of 10 with 95 seconds of interset rest) and RR (RR; 20 sets of 2 with 15 seconds of interset rest). Muscle morphology, tensiomyography, range of motion, perceived soreness, and strength were measured before and 0, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hour after RR and TS. There were no protocol × time interactions (p < 0.05). When collapsed across protocol and compared to baseline, echo intensity of the proximal vastus lateralis was 7 ± 9% greater at 0 hour (p = 0.042), echo intensity of the distal vastus lateralis was 6 ± 7% and 9 ± 7% greater at 0 hour (p = 0.048) and 24 hour (p < 0.001), respectively, and passive ROM was 2 ± 1% lower at 48 hour (p = 0.043) after exercise. No other differences existed over time for any other variable. Thus, contrary to concentric performance where RR likely plays a large role in maintaining performance, RR during eccentric isokinetic resistance training does not strongly influence exercise performance and indications of subsequent muscle damage.

11.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(9): 2407-2411, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865941

RESUMO

Merrigan, JJ, Dabbs, NC, and Jones, MT. Isometric mid-thigh pull kinetics: Sex differences and response to whole-body vibration. J Strength Cond Res 34(9): 2407-2411, 2020-The purpose was to investigate whether whole-body vibration's (WBV's) effect on force-time characteristics is dependent on time and sex. Subjects (men, n = 18; women, n = 18) performed a static quarter squat with WBV (frequency: 30 Hz; amplitude: 2-4 mm) and without for 5 × 30 seconds repetitions (1:1, WBV:rest). Next, they performed 2 sets of 3 repetitions of the isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) with 3 minutes of intraset rest and 5 minutes of interset rest. Peak force (PF) and rate of force development (RFD) from 0 to 50, 0 to 150, and 0 to 250 milliseconds (RFD50, RFD150, and RFD250) were analyzed (p < 0.05). A significant effect of condition existed for PF (p = 0.019) and RFD from 0 to 250 seconds (p = 0.031). In women, RFD was moderately affected immediately post-WBV (p = 0.070; d = 0.49). Yet in men, the effect of WBV on RFD existed 15 minutes after exposure (p = 0.017; d = 0.36). In absolute terms men produced more PF than women (1,008.6 ± 289.7 N; p < 0.001). All RFD bands were greater in men than those of women (RFD50, 5,519.3 ± 2,927.2 N·s; RFD150, 3,361.4 ± 1,385.3 N·s; RFD250, 2,505.7 ± 867.1 N·s; p < 0.05). However, relative to fat-free mass, PF in men (40.1 ± 7.2 N·kg) was not different from women (37.7 ± 6.4 N·kg; p = 0.284). The same was true for RFD150 (21.1 ± 24.1 N·kg·s; p = 0.084) and RFD250 (10.9 ± 14.1 N·kg·s; p = 0.128). Yet, RFD50 remained greater in men (139.1 ± 33.6 N·kg·s) than that of women (86.8 ± 34.5 N·kg·s; p = 0.034). Current WBV protocols resulted in trivial to moderate effects on IMTP forces, which may be dependent on sex and time. Finally, it is recommended that women complete movements with the intent to move weight quickly to improve early RFD.


Assuntos
Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Coxa da Perna/fisiologia , Vibração , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
12.
J Strength Cond Res ; 34(7): 1867-1874, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598121

RESUMO

Merrigan, JJ, Tufano, JJ, Fields, JB, Oliver, JM, and Jones, MT. Rest redistribution does not alter hormone responses in resistance-trained women. J Strength Cond Res 34(7): 1867-1874, 2020-The purpose was to examine acute effects of rest redistribution (RR) on perceptual, metabolic, and hormonal responses during back squats. Twelve resistance-trained women (training age 5 ± 2 years; one repetition maximum [1-RM] per body mass, 1.6 ± 0.2) performed traditional (TS, 4 sets of 10 repetitions with 120 seconds interset rest) and RR sets (4 sets of two 5 repetition clusters with 30-second intraset rest and 90-second interset rest) in counterbalanced order, separated by 72 hours. Both conditions were performed at 70% 1RM with 360 seconds of total rest. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were taken after each set. Blood was sampled at baseline, after each set, and at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes, as well as 24 and 48 hours after training. Alpha level was p ≤ 0.05. The RPE progressively increased throughout both conditions (p = 0.002) with a greater overall mean for TS (5.81 ± 0.14) than RR (4.71 ± 0.14; p = 0.003). Lactate increased above baseline and remained elevated through 15 minutes post in both conditions (4.00 ± 0.76; p = 0.001), with greater lactate levels for TS (6.33 ± 0.47) than RR (4.71 ± 0.53; p < 0.001). Total testosterone was elevated after set 2 (0.125 ± 0.02; p = 0.011), but no other time point, while free testosterone remained unchanged. Growth hormone continually rose from baseline to set 3 and returned to baseline by 60 minutes post (20.58 ± 3.19). Cortisol and creatine kinase did not change over time. No condition × time interactions existed for any hormone (p > 0.05). Use of rest redistribution resulted in lower perceived effort and lactate responses. Yet, hormone responses during rest redistribution were no different from TS.


Assuntos
Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso/fisiologia , Testosterona/metabolismo , Adulto , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Feminino , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Ácido Láctico/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(3): 488-500, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509118

RESUMO

Given the high prevalence of obesity in Latino children and potential health risks, the purpose of this study was to: 1) evaluate relationships among metabolic-risk, fitness, and body fatness; 2) determine sex differences in cardio-metabolic risk factors and fitness of obese children of Latino descent. Sixty children (boys, n = 39, 7.8 ± 1.5 years; girls, n = 21, 7.2 ± 1.5 years; body mass index, 97.8 ± 2.5th percentile) completed assessments of height, weight, and body fat, prior to fasted blood draws and a battery of fitness tests. Cardio-metabolic markers were analyzed, and a metabolic risk score created. Correlations and regression analyses evaluated the relationships among body fatness, metabolic-risk, and fitness. Independent samples t-tests determined sex differences (p < 0.05). Body fat related negatively to lower body power (p < 0.016), but positively to upper body power (p = 0.049). After controlling for age and sex, body fat (p < 0.001) was a positive predictor of variance in metabolic-risk scores, (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.001). Further, the association between body fat and metabolic-risk was not moderated by sex. Metabolic-risk scores and body fat were similar for both sexes, but boys performed better on muscular fitness tests, even after accounting for fat free mass (p < 0.05). Higher body fatness in obese Latino children may result in greater metabolic-risk and difficulty performing weight-bearing tasks. Therefore, culturally adapted weight management programs should employ a multifaceted approach to improve metabolic-risk and fitness.

14.
Int J Exerc Sci ; 13(4): 778-788, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509129

RESUMO

Monitoring internal load provides useful and non-invasive markers of training stress and adaptation. However, the relationship between internal load measures across a competitive window remains inconclusive and limited. The purpose of this study was to report various internal load measures, as well as their relationship, across a season in Division I women lacrosse athletes (n = 20). Ultra-short natural logarithm of the root mean square of successive differences (lnRMSSD), salivary testosterone, cortisol, the testosterone:cortisol ratio, and self-reported measures of fatigue and recovery were collected weekly for 13 weeks. Means ± SD were calculated to provide descriptive values and a repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze changes in testosterone, cortisol, testosterone:cortisol ratio (n = 8), and lnRMSSD (n = 8) over the course of the season. Pearson correlations assessed relationships between all internal load measures. No significant time effect was observed in testosterone (p = 0.059), cortisol (p = 0.544), testosterone:cortisol ratio (p = 0.120), or lnRMSSD (p = 0.062). lnRMSSD was correlated with testosterone (r = 0.265), cortisol (r = -0.232), testosterone:cortisol ratio (r = 0.345), and fatigue (r = -0.256) (p < 0.05). More research is needed to examine relationships among markers of internal stress across all phases of the training cycle. Routine monitoring may help practitioners optimize training programming to reduce injury, illness, and overtraining.

15.
Sports (Basel) ; 8(6)2020 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32545603

RESUMO

Research describing the match and specific positional demands during match play in women's collegiate soccer is limited. The purpose of the study was to quantify the match demands of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division III soccer and assess position differences in movement kinematics, heart rate (HR), and energy expenditure. Twenty-five Division III women soccer players (height: 1.61 ± 0.3 m; body mass: 66.7 ± 7.5 kg; fat-free mass: 50.3 ± 6.5 kg; body fat%: 25.6 ± 5.1%) were equipped with a wearable global positioning system to assess the demands of 22 matches throughout a season. Players were categorized by position (goal keepers (GK), center defenders (CB), flank players (FP), forwards (F), and center midfielders (CM)). Players covered 9807 ± 2588 m and 1019 ± 552 m at high speeds (>249.6 m·m-1), with an overall average speed of 62.85 ± 14.7 m·m-1. This resulted in a mean HR of 74.2 ± 6% HR max and energy expenditure of 1259 ± 309 kcal. Significant and meaningful differences in movement kinematics were observed across position groups. CM covered the most distance resulting in the highest training load. FP covered the most distance at high speeds and mean HR values were highest in CM, CB, and FP positions.

16.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023809

RESUMO

Vitamin D may play a role in performance and injury risk, yet the required supplementation dosage for collegiate athletes is unclear. The objective of this study was to define the dosage of vitamin D3 supplementation required to beneficially affect serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) among a sample of collegiate basketball athletes. This was a quasi-experimental trial, participants were allocated to one of three groups of vitamin D3 daily at the beginning of pre-season training and dependent upon their baseline vitamin D status as follows: insufficient (<75 nmol/L) to 10,000 IU, sufficient (75-125 nmol/L) to 5000 IU and optimal (>125 nmol/L) to no supplementation. Follow-up assessments were completed ~ 5 months later in post season. The majority (n = 13) were allocated to 10,000 IU vs. n = 5 to 5000 IU and n = 2 to no supplementation. The 10,000 IU group showed the greatest change (35.0 ± 27.0 nmol/L) vs. the 5000 IU group (-9.3 ± 9.6 nmol/L) and no supplementation group (-41.6 ± 11.7 nmol/L, p < 0.01). Only 1 participant reached optimal status in the 10,000 IU group. In conclusion, a daily dosage of 10,000 IU vitamin D3 supplementation mitigated the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among collegiate basketball players but was insufficient for all to reach sufficient levels.


Assuntos
Basquetebol/fisiologia , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Deficiência de Vitamina D/terapia , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Atletas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Prevalência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 15(2): 255-261, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31188704

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine rest redistribution (RR) effects on back squat kinetics and kinematics in resistance-trained women. METHODS: Twelve women from strength and college sports (5.0 [2.2] y training history) participated in the randomized crossover design study with 72 hours between sessions (3 total). Participants completed 4 sets of 10 repetitions using traditional sets (120-s interset rest) and RR (30-s intraset rest in the middle of each set; 90-s interset rest) with 70% of their 1-repetition maximum. Kinetics and kinematics were sampled via force plate and 4 linear position transducers. The greatest value of repetitions 1 to 3 (peak repetition) was used to calculate percentage loss, [(repetition 10-peak repetition)/(peak repetition) × 100], and maintenance, {100-[(set mean-peak repetition)/(peak repetition)] × 100}, of velocity and power for each set. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for analyses (P < .05). RESULTS: Mean and peak force did not differ between conditions. A condition × repetition interaction existed for peak power (P = .049) but not for peak velocity (P = .110). Peak power was greater in repetitions 7 to 9 (P < .05; d = 1.12-1.27) during RR. The percentage loss of velocity (95% confidence interval, -0.22% to -7.22%; P = .039) and power (95% confidence interval, -1.53% to -7.87%; P = .008) were reduced in RR. Mean velocity maintenance of sets 3 (P = .036; d = 1.90) and 4 (P = .015; d = 2.30) and mean power maintenance of set 4 (P = .006; d = 2.65) were greater in RR. CONCLUSION: By redistributing a portion of long interset rest into the middle of a set, velocity and power were better maintained. Therefore, redistributing rest may be beneficial for reducing fatigue in resistance-trained women.


Assuntos
Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Descanso , Esportes/fisiologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Nutr Educ Behav ; 52(1): 55-63, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of a pediatric weight management program for low-income Latino families. METHODS: A pretest-posttest pilot study was conducted among 60 Latino children, aged 4-9, who were overweight/obese (body mass index-for-age ≥85th percentile). The 10-week group-based community program addressed diet, exercise, and behavior modification. Demand was assessed through recruitment and attendance, acceptability using postintervention surveys with participants, and limited efficacy testing of participant anthropometrics and cardiometabolic markers. RESULTS: Overall 65% of families were retained for follow-up. All families reported feeling more confident in making healthier food choices and would participate in the program again. Pre/post intervention testing found statistically significant decreases (P < .05) in body mass index for age z score, waist circumference, and % body fat. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: This culturally adapted group intervention for Latino families was acceptable and shows promise for improved health status, although it needs to be replicated with a larger group and longer follow-up.


Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos , Obesidade Pediátrica/terapia , Programas de Redução de Peso/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Dietoterapia , Terapia por Exercício , Família , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Circunferência da Cintura
19.
Sports (Basel) ; 7(11)2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752086

RESUMO

Vitamin D plays a key role in bone health, musculoskeletal function, and sport performance. Collegiate athletes competing in indoor sports may be at greater risk of vitamin D deficiency due to limited outdoor time. Therefore, the purpose was to assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations among collegiate men and women basketball (MBB, WBB) athletes. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I men (MBB, n = 11) and women (WBB, n = 9) were tested during the off-season (T1; July) and pre-season (T2; October). Measurements included serum 25(OH)D; skin pigmentation, bone mineral density, and daily sun exposure (self-reported). Paired t-tests determined changes in 25(OH)D by sport-season and sex. Pearson correlations examined relationships between outcome variables. MBB athletes (mean ± SD; 19.6 ± 1.3 years) showed a reduction in 25(OH)D (T1: 64.53 nmol·L-1 ± 11.96) (T2: 56.11 nmol·L-1 ± 7.90) (p = 0.001). WBB (20.1 ± 1.1 years) had no change in 25(OH)D (T1: 99.07 nmol·L-1 ± 49.94. T2: 97.56 nmol·L-1 ± 36.47, p = 0.848). A positive association between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation was observed (r = 0.47, p = 0.038). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with lean body mass (LBM), body mass (BM), and bone mineral density (BMD), while a positive association was seen between 25(OH)D and skin pigmentation. In summary, 25(OH)D insufficiency was prevalent amongst male collegiate basketball athletes, with 25(OH)D levels being lower in the pre-season (October) than the off-season (July). Furthermore, darker skin pigmentation significantly correlated with 25(OH)D, indicating that individuals with darker skin tones may be at a greater risk of insufficiency/deficiency. More research is needed to examine the relationships between 25(OH)D and bone health in athletes.

20.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(11): 3008-3014, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199450

RESUMO

Jagim, AR, Camic, CL, Askow, A, Luedke, J, Erickson, J, Kerksick, CM, Jones, MT, and Oliver, JM. Sex differences in resting metabolic rate among athletes. J Strength Cond Res 33(11): 3008-3014, 2019-The purpose of this study was to compare differences in resting metabolic rate (RMR) between sexes in Division III National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) collegiate athletes and to identify predictors of RMR. Sixty-eight male (M) (age: 20.1 ± 1.5 years; height: 181.8 ± 5.9 cm; body mass (BM): 93.7 ± 16.3 kg; and body fat%: 16.3 ± 8.6%) and 48 female (F) athletes (age: 19.4 ± 1.3 years; height: 166.5 ± 6.0 cm; BM: 63.4 ± 12.7 kg; and body fat%: 21.5 ± 6.3%) participated in a single day of testing, which included determination of RMR using indirect calorimetry and air displacement plethysmography to measure fat mass and fat-free mass (FFM). An independent-samples t-test was used to compare differences in body composition and RMR between sexes, and regression analysis was used to identify predictors of RMR. Men had a significantly higher absolute RMR (M: 2,481 ± 209 vs. F: 1,553 ± 193 kcals·d; p < 0.001), but when adjusted for BM (M: 25.6 ± 8.3 vs. F: 25.9 ± 2.5 kcals·kg BM per day; p = 0.82) and FFM (M: 31.1 ± 10.6 vs. F: 33.6 ± 3.8 kcals·kg FFM per day; p = 0.12), these differences became nonsignificant. Regression analysis indicated that BM in both men (ß = 0.73) and women (ß = 0.88) was the strongest predictor of RMR. The results of the current study indicate minimal differences in RMR between sexes among athletic populations when adjusted for BM and FFM. In the current group of athletes, BM seems to account for the largest variability in RMR.


Assuntos
Atletas , Metabolismo Basal , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Composição Corporal , Calorimetria Indireta , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pletismografia , Análise de Regressão , Adulto Jovem
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