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1.
Stat Med ; 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588517

RESUMO

Rathouz and Gao [2] and Luo and Tsai [3] proposed valuable extensions to the generalized linear model for modeling a nonlinear monotonic relationship between the mean response and a set of covariates. In their extensions for discrete data the baseline response distribution is unspecified and is estimated from the data. We propose to extend this model for the analysis of longitudinal data by incorporating random effects into the linear predictor, and using maximum likelihood for estimation and inference. Motivated in particular by longitudinal studies of clinical scale outcomes, we developed an estimation procedure for a finite-support response using a generalized expectation-maximization algorithm where Gauss-Hermite quadrature is employed to approximate the integrals in the E step of the algorithm. Upon convergence, the observed information matrix is estimated through second-order numerical differentiation of the log-likelihood function. Asymptotic properties of the maximum likelihood estimates follow under the usual regularity conditions. Simulation studies are conducted to assess its finite-sample properties and compare the proposed model to the generalized linear mixed model. The proposed method is illustrated in an analysis of data from a longitudinal study of Huntington's disease.

2.
Arch Iran Med ; 24(1): 7-14, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588562

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current and daily smoking prevalence rates have been have investigated in several cross-sectional studies. However, analyses in terms of age-period-cohort (APC) have not been carried out. We assessed daily smoking dynamics over a 25-year period using the APC model. METHODS: In our analyses, we used data from 214,652 people aged 15 to 64 years, collected by national health surveys conducted in 1990-1991, 1999, 2005, 2007, 2011 and 2016. The Intrinsic Estimator model was used to analyze the impact of APC on daily smoking prevalence. RESULTS: Males were found to exhibit a higher prevalence of smoking compared to females (26.0% against 2.7%). Prevalence of smoking increased by age, peaking at the age groups of 40-44 in men and 45-49 in women, followed by a decreasing trend. The 1990 period had the highest prevalence in both genders, and the 2016 period had the lowest. The coefficients of birth cohort effects showed different patter19s of fluctuations in the two genders with the maximum and minimum coefficients for men calculated in the 1966-1970 and 1991-95 birth cohorts, and for females the 1931-1935 and 1971-1975 birth cohorts, respectively. CONCLUSION: We showed the impact of APC on daily tobacco smoking prevalence, and these factors should be considered when dealing with smoking.

3.
Perm J ; 25: 1-3, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635767

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Patient, provider, and system factors can contribute to chronic care management and outcomes. Few studies have examined these multilevel associations with osteoporosis care and outcomes. We examined how key process and structural factors at the patient, primary care physician (PCP), and primary care clinic (PCC) levels were associated with guideline concordant osteoporosis pharmacotherapy, daily calcium intake, vitamin D supplementation, and weekly exercise sessions at 52 weeks following enrollment in a cluster randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of observational data from 1 site of the trial. The study sample included 1996 men and women ≥ 50 years of age at the time of recruitment following completion of a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan and who had complete data at baseline and 52 weeks. Our primary independent variable was "relationship continuity": the DXA-ordering provider was the patient's PCP. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression accounted for patient, provider, and primary care clinic characteristics. RESULTS: In multivariable regression analyses, relationship continuity (ie, the PCP ordered the study DXA) was associated with higher average daily calcium intake and likelihood of vitamin D supplementation at 52 weeks. No PCP or primary care clinic factors were associated with osteoporosis care. CONCLUSIONS: The relationship continuity, in which the provider ordering a DXA is the patient's PCP and therefore also presents the results of a DXA, may help to promote patient behaviors associated with good bone health.

4.
Breast Cancer Res ; 23(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588869

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) and the Tyrer-Cuzick breast cancer risk prediction models are commonly used in clinical practice and have recently been extended to include polygenic risk scores (PRS). In addition, BOADICEA has also been extended to include reproductive and lifestyle factors, which were already part of Tyrer-Cuzick model. We conducted a comparative prospective validation of these models after incorporating the recently developed 313-variant PRS. METHODS: Calibration and discrimination of 5-year absolute risk was assessed in a nested case-control sample of 1337 women of European ancestry (619 incident breast cancer cases) aged 23-75 years from the Generations Study. RESULTS: The extended BOADICEA model with reproductive/lifestyle factors and PRS was well calibrated across risk deciles; expected-to-observed ratio (E/O) at the highest risk decile :0.97 (95 % CI 0.51 - 1.86) for women younger than 50 years and 1.09 (0.66 - 1.80) for women 50 years or older. Adding reproductive/lifestyle factors and PRS to the BOADICEA model improved discrimination modestly in younger women (area under the curve (AUC) 69.7 % vs. 69.1%) and substantially in older women (AUC 64.6 % vs. 56.8%). The Tyrer-Cuzick model with PRS showed evidence of overestimation at the highest risk decile: E/O = 1.54(0.81 - 2.92) for younger and 1.73 (1.03 - 2.90) for older women. CONCLUSION: The extended BOADICEA model identified women in a European-ancestry population at elevated breast cancer risk more accurately than the Tyrer-Cuzick model with PRS. With the increasing availability of PRS, these analyses can inform choice of risk models incorporating PRS for risk stratified breast cancer prevention among women of European ancestry.

5.
Int Wound J ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605543

RESUMO

Recent reviews suggest that amniotic membrane products may accelerate healing of diabetic foot ulcers. A new dried human amniotic membrane (dHAM) has been used for ocular ulcers but not for diabetic foot ulcers. This was a multi-centre, prospective, patient and observer blind, randomised controlled pilot trial, to investigate whether 2 weekly addition of the dHAM to standard care versus standard care alone increased the proportion of healed participants' index foot ulcers within 12 weeks. Thirty-one people (mean age 59.8 years, 81% male, 87% type 2 diabetes) were randomised (15 dHAM, 16 usual care). Within 12 weeks, healing occurred in 4 (27%) ulcers in the dHAM group versus 1 (6.3%) usual care group (P = .1). Percentage wound area reduction was higher in the dHAM versus control group. (P = .0057). There was no difference in AEs between the two groups. Six participants allocated to dHAM correctly identified their treatment group, although 5 in usual care incorrectly thought they were in the intervention arm. This pilot trial result is encouraging showing that this dHAM preparation is safe and promising treatment. These results will be used to design a statistically powered, definitive double blind randomised controlled trial.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(Supplement_1): S68-S73, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections (MRSA BSI) usually receive initial treatment with vancomycin but may be switched to daptomycin for definitive therapy, especially if treatment failure is suspected. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of switching from vancomycin to daptomycin compared with remaining on vancomycin among patients with MRSA BSI. METHODS: Patients admitted to 124 Veterans Affairs Hospitals who experienced MRSA BSI and were treated with vancomycin during 2007-2014 were included. The association between switching to daptomycin and 30-day mortality was assessed using Cox regression models. Separate models were created for switching to daptomycin any time during the first hospitalization and for switching within 3 days of receiving vancomycin. RESULTS: In total, 7411 patients received vancomycin for MRSA BSI. Also, 606 (8.2%) patients switched from vancomycin to daptomycin during the first hospitalization, and 108 (1.5%) switched from vancomycin to daptomycin within 3 days of starting vancomycin. In the multivariable analysis, switching to daptomycin within 3 days was significantly associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazards ratio [HR] = 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI]: .25, .92). However, switching to daptomycin at any time during the first hospitalization was not significantly associated with 30-day mortality (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: .69, 1.09). CONCLUSIONS: Switching to daptomycin within 3 days of initial receipt of vancomycin is associated with lower 30-day mortality among patients with MRSA BSI. This benefit was not seen when the switch occurred later. Future studies should prospectively assess the benefit of early switching from vancomycin to other anti-MRSA antibiotics.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1406, 2021 Jan 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446759

RESUMO

Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) is a neuroendocrine peptide distributed throughout the human body, including the CNS, where it is particularly abundant in brain regions associated with anxiety and depression. Based on earlier studies indicating that peripheral VIP may cross through the blood-brain barrier, we hypothesized plasma VIP levels to be associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as brain volume and resting-state functional connectivity in the amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampus, and orbitofrontal cortex. Plasma VIP concentrations and anxiety/depression symptoms were measured in 37 healthy females. Functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging were used to evaluate functional connectivity and brain volume respectively, and their associations with VIP concentrations within brain regions associated with anxiety and depression. Negative correlations were found between VIP levels and symptoms of anxiety (r = - 0.44, p = 0.002) and depression (r = - 0.50, p = 0.001). Functional connectivity demonstrated significant VIP-dependent positive associations between the amygdala seed region with both the right parahippocampus (t(33) = 3.1, pFDR = 0.02) and right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC; t(33) = 2.9, pFDR = 0.02). Moreover, VIP concentrations were significantly, positively correlated with brain volume in the left amygdala (r = 0.28, p = 0.007) and left lateral OFC (r = 0.29, p = 0.004). The present findings highlight a potential role for VIP in the neurobiology of affective symptoms.

8.
J Asthma ; : 1-5, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33492180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: : We examined asthma control in children hospitalized for status asthmaticus 7-10 days after discharge with or without an additional prescription for systemic corticosteroids. METHODS: : This was a prospective observational study of patients aged 5-17 years with a documented history of asthma or ß-agonist responsive wheezing admitted to the hospital for an acute asthma exacerbation. We compared patients who had any systemic corticosteroid prescribed at discharge with those who were not prescribed systemic corticosteroids at discharge. The primary outcomes were asthma control after discharge, as defined by the Asthma Control Test (ACT), and missed school days, which we modeled with multivariable linear and Poisson regression, respectively. RESULTS: : A total of 56 patients were included in the study, 29 (52%) received dexamethasone inpatient and then were discharged without additional prescribed systemic corticosteroids. Those without a corticosteroid prescription at discharge were less likely to have received noninvasive ventilation (p = 0.02), pulmonology consultation (p = 0.02), and continuous albuterol (p = 0.01) during hospitalization. These patients also tended toward shorter length of stay (p = 0.07) compared to those receiving systemic corticosteroid prescription at discharge. In multivariable models, being discharged without systemic corticosteroid prescription was associated with poorer asthma control after discharge [beta (95% CI), -2.21 (-2.65 to -1.77)] and more missed school days [coefficient estimate (95% CI), 0.87 (0.07-1.68)]. CONCLUSIONS: After hospitalization for an asthma exacerbation, patients not given systemic corticosteroids at discharge tended to have worse asthma control following discharge despite having less severe disease and requiring less aggressive inpatient management.Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at publisher's website.

9.
J Comp Eff Res ; 10(2): 77-91, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470848

RESUMO

Sepsis is a life-threatening infection that affects over 1.7 million Americans annually. Low-volume rural hospitals have worse sepsis outcomes, and emergency department (ED)-based telemedicine (tele-ED) has been one promising strategy for improving rural sepsis care. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of tele-ED consultation on sepsis care and outcomes in rural ED patients. The TELEvISED study is a multicenter (n = 25) retrospective propensity-matched comparative effectiveness study of tele-ED care for rural sepsis patients in a mature tele-ED network. Telemedicine-exposed patients will be matched with non telemedicine patients using a propensity score to predict tele-ED use. The primary outcome is 28-day hospital free days, and secondary outcomes include adherence with guidelines, mortality and organ failure. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04441944.

10.
Br J Cancer ; 124(4): 842-854, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. RESULTS: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10-18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.

11.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14091, 2021 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms can be challenging in terms of determining etiology and management strategies. Identifying likely organic pathology is important since it can be treated and may result in further, long-term harm to the patient if not treated. Currently, organic pathology is often identified via invasive procedures such as endoscopy or referral to a medical imaging service. We report on an approach that offers a first step at identifying patients with an organic gastrointestinal disease based on the SAGIS, a validated symptom questionnaire. METHODS: 8,922 patients referred to a tertiary care hospital were classified as having either functional gastrointestinal disease or an organic gastrointestinal disease. A model was developed to distinguish organic from functional symptoms on one random split half of the sample and validated on the other half. The incremental benefit of including psychological conditions and extra-gastrointestinal conditions was also evaluated. KEY RESULTS: Functional gastrointestinal patients scored higher on average than organic patients on all dimensions of the SAGIS and reported higher rates of psychological and extra-gastrointestinal conditions. All five dimensions of the SAGIS provided statistically independent discrimination of organic from functional diagnoses with good overall discrimination (AUC = 0.75). However, there was no noticeable incremental benefit of adding either psychological or extra-gastrointestinal conditions. Model performance was highly reproducible. CONCLUSIONS AND INFERENCES: The proposed algorithm for identifying likely organic gastrointestinal disease applied to symptoms as recorded in the SAGIS questionnaire provides a useful tool for the clinician in deciding what or if further diagnostic testing is required.

12.
Eye (Lond) ; 2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504973

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the presenting features of ocular surface disease in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated with dupilumab at a tertiary, university hospital. To establish the need for treatment of dupilumab-associated ocular surface disease and report any long-term effects on the ocular surface. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of consecutive patients treated with dupilumab for AD between January 2017 and August 2019 was undertaken. Data were collected on demographics, incidence and type of ocular disease features, natural history and treatment. RESULTS: A total of 50% (14/28) patients developed ocular symptoms with a mean time of onset of 6.75 (±6.1) weeks from starting dupilumab. Of these, 69% (9/13) were diagnosed with conjunctivitis associated with cicatrisation in two patients and periorbital skin changes in four. Of these nine, four had prior history of atopic keratoconjunctivitis. All were treated with topical steroids; two required additional ciclosporin drops. In all, 67% (6/9) patients went on to have on-going ocular inflammation requiring maintenance drops at a mean of 16 (±6.9) months of follow-up. All patients had improvement in their AD severity; only one patient discontinued dupilumab due to ocular side effects. CONCLUSION: The rate of dupilumab-associated ocular surface disease was 32%. Periorbital skin changes and conjunctival cicatrisation were noted in association with conjunctivitis. Ocular surface disease improved on topical steroids and ciclosporin but 67% of patients needed on-going treatment. Close liaison with an ophthalmologist should be considered in those patients who develop conjunctivitis or have a past history of severe ocular surface disease.

13.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 24(1): 153-174, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189248

RESUMO

Birds of prey are highly complex and intelligent species with many of their activities deeply rooted in modal action patterns, such as foraging, courtship and nest building, migration, bathing, or preening. Raptors in managed care are susceptible to presenting undesired behavior when the environment provides antecedents for these behaviors and consequences to maintain them. This article aims to describe concepts of behavior in birds of prey in managed care, with inferences from their wild counterparts, to assist in understanding the etiologies and management of undesired behaviors.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Comportamento Animal , Aves Predatórias , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais
14.
Toxicol Sci ; 180(1): 136-147, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372950

RESUMO

Skin sensitization following the covalent modification of proteins by low molecular weight chemicals (haptenation) is mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules presented on the surface of almost all nucleated cells. There exist 3 nonmutually exclusive hypotheses for how haptens mediate CTL recognition: direct stimulation by haptenated peptides, hapten modification of HLA leading to an altered HLA-peptide repertoire, or a hapten altered proteome leading to an altered HLA-peptide repertoire. To shed light on the mechanism underpinning skin sensitization, we set out to utilize proteomic analysis of keratinocyte presented antigens following exposure to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB). We show that the following DNCB exposure, cultured keratinocytes present cysteine haptenated (dinitrophenylated) peptides in multiple HLA molecules. In addition, we find that one of the DNCB modified peptides derives from the active site of cytosolic glutathione-S transferase-ω. These results support the current view that a key mechanism of skin sensitization is stimulation of CTLs by haptenated peptides. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD021373.

15.
Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) ; 20(3): E186-E189, 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement utilizing a frame-based technique requires registration of the stereotactic frame with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. This traditionally has been accomplished with a conventional CT scanner. In recent years, intraoperative CT has become more prevalent. OBJECTIVE: To compare the coordinates obtained with intraoperative CT and conventional CT for registration of the stereotactic frame for DBS. METHODS: Patients undergoing DBS electrode placement between 2015 and 2017, who underwent both conventional and intraoperative CT for registration of the stereotactic frame, were included for analysis. The coordinates for the stereotactic target, anterior commissure, and posterior commissure for each CT method were recorded. The mean, maximum, minimum, and standard deviation of the absolute difference for each of the paired coordinates was calculated. Paired t-tests were performed to test for statistical significance of the difference. The directional difference as well as the vector error between the paired coordinates was also calculated. RESULTS: The mean absolute difference between conventional and intraoperative CT for the coordinate pairs was less than 0.279 mm or 0.211 degrees for all coordinate pairs analyzed. This was not statistically significant for any of the coordinate pairs. Moreover, the maximum absolute difference between all coordinate pairs was 1.04 mm. CONCLUSION: Intraoperative CT imaging provides stereotactic frame registration coordinates that are similar to those obtained by a standard CT scanner. This may save time and hospital resources by obviating the need for the patient to go to the radiology department for a CT scan.

16.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 5(1): e000583, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33305006

RESUMO

Background: Although helmets are associated with reduction in mortality from motorcycle collisions, many states have failed to adopt universal helmet laws for motorcyclists, in part on the grounds that prior research is limited by study design (historical controls) and confounding variables. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association of helmet use in motorcycle collisions with hospital charges and mortality in trauma patients with propensity score analysis in a state without a universal helmet law. Methods: Motorcycle collision data from the Arizona State Trauma Registry from 2014 to 2017 were propensity score matched by regressing helmet use on patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, alcohol intoxication, illicit drug use, and comorbidities. Linear and logistic regression models were used to evaluate the impact of helmet use. Results: Our sample consisted of 6849 cases, of which 3699 (54.0%) were helmeted and 3150 (46.0%) without helmets. The cohort was 88.1% male with an average age of 40.9±16.0 years. Helmeted patients were less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (20.3% vs. 23.7%, OR 0.82 (0.72-0.93)) and ventilated (7.8% vs. 12.0%, OR 0.62 (0.52-0.75)). Propensity-matched analyses consisted of 2541 pairs and demonstrated helmet use to be associated with an 8% decrease in hospital charges (B -0.075 (0.034)) and a 56% decrease in mortality (OR 0.44 (0.31-0.58)). Discussion: In a state without mandated helmet use for all motorcyclists, the burden of the unhelmeted rider is significant with respect to lives lost and healthcare charges incurred. Although the helmet law debate with respect to civil liberties is complex and unsettled, it appears clear that helmet use is strongly associated with both survival and less economic encumbrance on the state. Level of evidence: Level III, prognostic and epidemiological.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33306601

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In certain regions of the U.S. there has been a dramatic proliferation of trauma centers. The goal of our study was to evaluate transport times during this period of trauma center proliferation. METHODS: Aggregated data summarizing level I trauma center admissions in Arizona between 2009 and 2018 were provided to our institution by the Arizona Department of Health Services. We evaluated patient demographics, transport times and injury severity for both rural and urban injuries. RESULTS: Data included statistics summarizing 266,605 level I trauma admissions in the state of Arizona. The number of state-designated trauma centers during this time increased from 14 to 47, with level I centers increasing from 8 to 13. Slight decreases in mean ISS (rural 9.4 vs. 8.4; urban 7.9 vs 7.0) were observed over this period. Median transport time for cases transported from the injury scene directly to a level I center remained stable in urban areas at 0.9 hours in both 2009 and 2018. In rural areas, transport times for these cases were approximately double, but also stable, with median times of 1.8 and 1.9 hours. Transport times for cases requiring inter-facility transfer prior to admission at a level I center increased by 0.3 hours for urban injuries (5.3 hours to 5.6) and 0.9 hours for rural injuries (5.6 to 6.5). CONCLUSION: Despite the 3-fold increase in the number of state-designated trauma centers, transport time has not decreased in urban or rural areas. This finding highlights the need for regulatory oversight regarding the number and geographic placement of state-designated trauma centers. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33368598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders are common in older adult populations and are associated with worse long-term outcomes and poorer treatment response than either disorder alone. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the efficacy and effectiveness of psychological interventions for treating co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders in older adults. METHOD: The study was registered (PROSPERO CRD4201603834), databases systematically searched (MEDLINE, PSYCINFO, PubMed and Cochrane Reviews) and articles screened according to PRISMA guidelines. INCLUSION: Participants aged ≥60 years with clinically significant anxiety and depression, psychological intervention evaluated against control in randomised controlled trial, changes in both anxiety and depression reported at post-treatment. ResultsFour studies were included (total n = 255, mean age range 67-71 years). Overall, psychological interventions (cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness) resulted in significant benefits over control conditions (active, waitlist) for treating depression in the presence of co-occurring anxiety (Hedges' g = -0.44), and treating anxiety in the presence of depression (Hedges' g = -0.55). However, conclusions are limited; the meta-analysis was non-significant, few studies were included, several were low quality and there was high heterogeneity between studies. Benefits at follow-up were not established. CONCLUSION: Co-occurring anxiety and mood disorders can probably be treated simultaneously with psychological interventions in older adults with moderate effect sizes, however, more research is needed. Given comorbidity is common and associated with worse clinical outcomes, more high-quality clinical trials are needed that target the treatment of co-occurring anxiety and mood disorders, and report changes in diagnostic remission for both anxiety and mood disorders independently.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150569

RESUMO

Meta-analysis is an approach to formally, systematically and quantitatively analyze multiple existing research studies and to synthesize new research findings based upon the existing data. Until the late 1970s, meta-analyses were not regularly reported in the medical literature, but since then there has been an exponential growth of meta-analyses and they are now among the most frequently cited form of research. A properly performed systematic review and meta-analysis is a very important tool in evidence-based medicine and a good understanding of the steps involved in doing a systematic review and meta-analysis is important to yield meaningful results. The purpose of this review article is to provide a brief overview about systematic reviews and meta-analyses and the underlying principles for conducting this type of research. Methodological approaches for conducting a meticulous meta-analysis are described and the important steps involved in the interpretation and presentation of meta-analysis are outlined and discussed. The key objective of this paper is to outline a step-by-step approach that is useful to all researchers, who would like to conduct their first meta-analysis. This paper also provides clinicians and researchers with the information to interpret systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

20.
Brain Behav Immun ; 2020 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249172

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a symptom-based disorder of gut-brain interactions generating abdominal pain. It is also associated with a vulnerability to develop extraintestinal symptoms, with fatigue often reported as one of the most disturbing. Fatigue is related to brain function and inflammation in several disorders, however, the mechanisms of such relations in IBS remain elusive. This study aimed to elucidate fatigue and its association with a resting state network of mesocorticolimbic regions of known importance in fatigue, and to explore the possible role of circulating TNF-α levels in IBS and healthy controls (HC). Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted in 88 IBS patients and 47 HC of similar age and gender to investigate functional connectivity between mesocorticolimbic regions. Further, fatigue impact on daily life and plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), of known relevance to immune activation in IBS, were also measured. The selected mesocorticolimbic regions indeed formed a functionally connected network in all participants. The nucleus accumbens (NAc), in particular, exhibited functional connectivity to all other regions of interest. In IBS, fatigue impact on daily life was negatively correlated with the connectivity between NAc and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally (left p = 0.019; right p = 0.038, corrected for multiple comparisons), while in HC, fatigue impact on daily life was positively correlated to the connectivity between the right NAc and anterior middle insula in both hemispheres (left p = 0.009; right p = 0.011). We found significantly higher levels of TNF- α in IBS patients compared to HC (p=0.001) as well as a positive correlation between TNF- α and fatigue impact on daily life in IBS patients (rho=0.25, p=0.02) but not in HC (rho=-0.13, p=0.37).There was no association between functional connectivity in the mesocorticolimbic network and plasma levels of TNF- α in either group In summary, this novel multimodal study provides the first evidence that the vulnerability to fatigue in IBS is associated with connectivity within a mesocorticolimbic network as well as immune activation. These findings warrant further investigation, both peripherally and potentially with measurements of central immune activation as well.

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