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1.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 248, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31375141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the tissue injury healing response and development of heterotopic ossification (HO) is poorly understood. Here we compare a rat blast model and human traumatized muscle from a blast injury to study the early signatures of osteogenesis and fibrosis during the formation of HO. METHODS: Rat and human tissues were characterized using histology, scanning electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, as well as gene and protein expression analysis. Additionally, animals and humans were assessed radiographically for HO formation following injury. RESULTS: Markers of bone formation were dramatically increased in tissue samples from both humans and rats, and both displayed increased fibroproliferative regions within the injured tissues and elevated expression of markers of tissue fibrosis such as TGF-ß1, Fibronectin, SMAD3 and PAI-1. Markers of inflammation and fibrosis (ACTA, TNFα, BMP1 and BMP3) were elevated at the RNA level in both rat and human samples. By day 42, bone formation in the rat blast model appeared similar in radiographs compared to human patients who progressed to develop post-traumatic HO. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrates that a similar early fibrotic response is evident in both the rat blast model and the human tissues following a traumatic injury and demonstrates the relevance of this animal model for future translational studies.

2.
Ambio ; 2019 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187429

RESUMO

Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) are an integral component of Arctic biodiversity. Given low genetic diversity, their ability to respond to future and rapid Arctic change is unknown, although paleontological history demonstrates adaptability within limits. We discuss status and limitations of current monitoring, and summarize circumpolar status and recent variations, delineating all 55 endemic or translocated populations. Acknowledging uncertainties, global abundance is ca 170 000 muskoxen. Not all populations are thriving. Six populations are in decline, and as recently as the turn of the century, one of these was the largest population in the world, equaling ca 41% of today's total abundance. Climate, diseases, and anthropogenic changes are likely the principal drivers of muskox population change and result in multiple stressors that vary temporally and spatially. Impacts to muskoxen are precipitated by habitat loss/degradation, altered vegetation and species associations, pollution, and harvest. Which elements are relevant for a specific population will vary, as will their cumulative interactions. Our summaries highlight the importance of harmonizing existing data, intensifying long-term monitoring efforts including demographics and health assessments, standardizing and implementing monitoring protocols, and increasing stakeholder engagement/contributions.

3.
World J Urol ; 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949802

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of paediatric ureteroscopy (URS) for stone disease from a specialist endourology centre in the UK. Ureteroscopy for management of stone disease has increased worldwide and is now being done more commonly in the paediatric age group. METHODS: Data were analysed retrospectively from a database maintained between April 2010 and May 2018. Consecutive patients ≤ 16 years of age undergoing semi-rigid or flexible URS for stone disease were included. Stone size and stone-free rate (SFR) were routinely assessed using an ultrasound (USS) and/or plain KUB XR. Complications were graded according to the Clavien-Dindo classification and recorded within 30 days post-procedure and readmissions within 90 days after the procedure were also captured. RESULTS: Over the 8-year period between April 2010 and April 2018, 81 patients with a mean age of 8.8 years (range 18 months-16 years) and a male to female ratio 1:1.1 underwent 102 procedures (1.28 procedure/patient to be stone free). Of the 81 patients, 29 (35.8%) had comorbidities, with 26 (32%) having multiple comorbidities. The mean (± SEM) single and overall stone size was 9.2 mm (± 0.48, range 3-30 mm) and 11.5 mm (± 0.74, range 4-46 mm) respectively, with 22 (27.1%) having multiple stones. Thirty-five (34.7%) had stent in situ pre-operatively. The stone location was in the ureter (26.6%), lower pole (35.4%), and renal pelvis (16.5%), with 22/81(27%) having multiple stones and 21/102 (20.5%) where a ureteral access sheath (UAS) was used. With a mean hospital stay of 1.2 days, the initial and final SFR was 73% and 99%, respectively, and 61/102 (60%) had ureteric stent placed at the end of the procedure. While there were no intra-operative complications, the readmission rate was less than 1% and there were only three early complications recorded. This included a case each of prolonged admission for pain control (grade I), urinary retention (grade II) and post-operative sepsis requiring a brief ITU admission (grade IV). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that in appropriate setting a high stone-free rate can be achieved with minimal morbidity for paediatric patients. There is potentially a need to factor the increasing role of URS in future paediatric urolithiasis guidelines.

4.
Curr Urol Rep ; 20(3): 15, 2019 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790070

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Urolithiasis is a disease of prevalence across the world and up to a quarter of patients present with multiple stones. Most procedures carried out in this scenario are staged; however, there is a growing body of evidence to suggest bilateral simultaneous (BS) procedures are safe. We performed a systematic review to investigate and evaluate the evidence for these procedures. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted according to Cochrane and PRISMA checklist for all English-language articles from January 1996 to January 2018 using Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane library, Clinicaltrials.gov and Google Scholar. All studies (a minimum of 10 patients) with bilateral simultaneous percutaneous nephrolithotomy (BS-PCNL) or bilateral simultaneous ureteroscopy (BS-URS) and ipsilateral URS with contralateral simultaneous PCNL were included. Data was extracted for patient and stone demographics, outcomes and stone-free rate (SFR) and the level of evidence (using the GRADE assessment tool). Overall, 32 studies (1966 patients) were included in the review after the identification of 302 articles in the search. This included 16 studies (1073 patients) with BS-URS, 13 studies (750 patients) with BS-PCNL and 3 studies (143 patients) with URS and simultaneous contralateral PCNL. Of these, 8 were comparative studies and compared bilateral simultaneous procedure to either a unilateral or staged comparator. The mean operating time, SFR, the Clavien I-II and the Clavien ≥ III were 75 min, 91%, 22% and 1.4% for BS-URS; 157 min, 92%, 27% and 6.4% for BS-PCNL; 151 min, 76% and 5.6% for URS with contralateral PCNL. In comparison to staged procedures, although the SFR and complication rates were similar, there was a significantly reduced operative time and hospital stay with simultaneous procedures (p < 0.001). Although evidence for bilateral simultaneous endourological procedures is limited, results from available studies show that outcomes are at least equivalent to staged procedures. Key advantages seem to be reduced operative times, cost and hospital stay which will lead to an increased uptake of these procedures in the future.


Assuntos
Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Ureteroscopia/métodos , Urolitíase/cirurgia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Nefrostomia Percutânea , Resultado do Tratamento , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Urológicos
5.
Ther Adv Urol ; 10(11): 327-333, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30344644

RESUMO

Rezum is a minimally invasive transurethral water vapour therapy for benign prostatic enlargement which uses thermal energy for treatment. The short-term results show it to have good outcomes with a potential for outpatient-based treatment preserving sexual function. This review serves to provide an overview of the technique and evaluate its safety and efficacy.

6.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2018 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30219711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elective treatment of ureteric stones is needed after emergency drainage of urosepsis. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to look at the outcomes of elective ureteroscopic stone treatment in patients with prior sepsis and emergency drainage via retrograde ureteric stent (RUS) or percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Data of all patients who underwent elective ureteroscopy (URS) for stone disease over 5 yr (March 2012-December 2016) were prospectively collected. INTERVENTION: Elective URS following previous emergency RUS or PCN. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Outcomes were collated for consecutive patients who underwent emergency drainage for urosepsis secondary to stone disease, followed by elective URS. Data was collected regarding patient demographics, stone parameters, and clinical outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 24. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: In total, 76 patients underwent 82 elective procedures (six underwent bilateral URS) with a male to female ratio of 1:2 and a mean age of 57 yr. Emergency decompression was achieved via RUS in 63 (83%) and PCN in 13 (17%) patients. A positive urine culture on presentation was obtained in 26 (34%) patients, and 27 (36%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The mean single and overall stone size was 8.6 (2-23) and 10.8 (2-32) mm, respectively. The mean operating time was 42 (5-129) min with stone-free rate (SFR) of 97% (n=74). There were three (4%) complications in total, of which two patients developed urinary tract infection needing intravenous antibiotics (Clavien II) and a third developed sepsis (Clavien IV) needing ICU admission. There was no difference in ureteroscopic lithotripsy outcomes (operative time, complications, or SFR) on comparing initial RUS or PCN, admission to ICU or ward, positive or negative urine culture result, presence of single or multiple stones, and between American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade of patients. The ASA grade of patients was a significant predictor of day case procedures (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Elective URS achieved excellent outcomes in patients who previously presented with obstructing calculi and sepsis needing emergency decompression. Overnight inpatient admission was needed in some patients with a higher ASA grade. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this report, we look at the outcomes of planned ureteroscopy procedures for stone disease in patients with previous urosepsis. These patients with previous emergency drainage for urosepsis had excellent outcomes from their planned ureteroscopic surgery. This information will help in preoperative patient optimisation and counselling.

7.
Curr Urol Rep ; 19(10): 78, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094687

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Intravesical antibiotics (IVA) has been used for prophylaxis and treatment of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTIs). However, there is a lack of comprehensive evidence and consensus on its use. We conducted a systematic review to collect all available data about the effectiveness of IVA in prevention and treatment of rUTIs and to give an overview on the outcomes to date. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out for all English language articles from inception to August 2017, according to the Cochrane and PRISMA standards using MEDLINE, Scopus, Biomed Central, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Web of Science with references cross-checked and individual urology journals hand-searched. RESULTS: After an initial identification of 658 studies, we screened 37 abstracts and 18 full-text papers of which 11 were included in our final review. This included 285 patients with a mean age of 52 years and a female:male ratio of 129:117. The IVA used was gentamicin, neomycin/polymyxin, neomycin or colistin and IVA was used for rUTIs as prophylaxis in 5 studies (n = 168) and treatment in 6 studies (n = 117). Overall, a good reduction in symptomatic UTI was seen in 78%, with a short-term success rate and discontinuation rates of 71% (120/168) and 8% (14/168) in the prophylaxis group and 88% (103/117) and 5% (6/117) in the treatment groups respectively. There was a change in the sensitivity of organisms in 30% (50/168) and 23% (27/117) in the treatment and prophylaxis groups respectively. Twenty patients discontinued their IVA instillations which were higher for the non-gentamicin group (11%) compared to the gentamicin group (5%). The side effects were minor and included allergy, suprapubic discomfort, autonomic dysreflexia, urinary tract infections and diarrhoea. Intravesical antimicrobial instillation seems to be a relatively safe and effective method for the prophylaxis and treatment of recurrent UTIs, especially in the short term. It gives clinicians an alternative treatment modality in high-risk patients predisposed to UTIs where all other forms of systemic treatments have failed.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Infecções Urinárias/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Intravesical , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevenção Secundária , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
World J Urol ; 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151599

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Current trends show a rising incidence of kidney stone disease (KSD) globally, with a lifetime risk of 10% and increasing hospital admissions. However, it is not perceived as a life-threatening condition and there are no publications examining its mortality rate. The aim of this review was to report on the number of KSD mortalities in the literature from the past two decades, identify risk factors, and to summarize their key learning points. METHODS: A search was conducted for full-text English language articles that reported on KSD associated mortality, following intervention or conservative treatment, published between 1999 and 2017, using PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL, Clinicaltrials.gov, Google Scholar and The Cochrane Library. Study quality and risk of bias assessment was undertaken using a validated critical appraisal tool from the Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS: Of the 2786 articles identified, 34 were included. Of the total number of reported mortalities (2550), 21% were related to intervention. Sepsis was the leading cause of mortality. Risk factors identified were patients with multiple co-morbidities, spinal cord injury or neurogenic bladder and high stone burden. The main recommendations suggested were to treat pre-operative UTI or use prophylactic antibiotics and to reduce operative duration. The included studies were of moderate to good quality. CONCLUSION: Pre-procedural optimization of the patients is the key to avoiding KSD mortality, and care should be taken in patients with multiple co-morbidities. Surgeons should meticulously plan for patients with high stone burden to reduce their operative time, as mortality can be procedural related.

9.
Urolithiasis ; 2018 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30132276

RESUMO

Ureteroscopy and laser stone fragmentation (URSL) has had recent advancements with the more powerful laser systems with the ability to 'dust' and 'pop-dust' the stone. We wanted to look at the outcomes of this method for large stones (≥ 15 mm) using our new 100 W holmium laser. Over a period of 16 months (January 2017-April 2018), 50 patients underwent URSL for minimum cumulative stone size of ≥ 15 mm. Data were collected prospectively on patient and stone demographics and outcomes of URSL. The laser setting used was a power of 0.3-0.6 J and a frequency of 20-50 Hz using a long-pulse setting with a 272-µm fiber. Fifty patients underwent 55 URSL procedures (5 bilateral procedures) using dusting and pop-dusting settings. The mean age was 58 years (range 2-88 years) with a male:female ratio of 35:15. The mean single and overall stone size were 10.3 mm (3-23 mm) and 21 mm (range 15-52 mm) with two-thirds of all patients (65%) having multiple stones. The stone location was in the kidney (n = 65, 78%), in the ureter (n = 19, 22%) and 5 patients had bilateral renal stones. With a mean operating time of 51 min, the initial and final SFR were 93 and 98%, respectively. A pre-operative stent, access sheath and a post-operative stent were present in 29 (53%), 34 (62%) and 51 (93%) procedures, respectively. Over a mean hospital stay of 0.6 days (74% day-case procedures), there was one Clavien IV complication related to urosepsis but without any other major or minor complications. Dusting and pop-dusting techniques achieve an excellent SFR with low risk of complications even for large stones. This might set a new benchmark for treating large stones, bilateral or multiple stones in a single setting, without the need for secondary procedures in most cases.

10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 44(4): 750-757, July-Aug. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-954080

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess outcomes of ureteroscopy for treatment of stone disease in the elderly. Ureteroscopy (URS) is an increasingly popular treatment modality for urolithiasis and its applications are ever expanding with the development of newer technologies. Its feasibility and outcomes within the elderly population to our knowledge remain under-reported. Materials and Methods: We examined the patient demographics and surgical outcomes from our prospective database for patients ≥70 years who underwent URS for urolithiasis, in a 5-year period between March 2012 and December 2016. Results: A total of 110 consecutive patients underwent 121 procedures (1.1 procedure/patient) with a mean age of 77.2 years (range: 70-91 years). Stone location was in the kidney/ pelviureteric junction (PUJ) in 29%, ureter in 37% and in multiple locations in 34%. The initial and final stone free rate (SFR) was 88% and 97% respectively. While 73% were done as true day case procedures, 89% patients were discharged within 24 hours. Eleven patients (9%) underwent complications of which 10 were Clavien I/II including acute urinary retention, urinary tract infection, stent symptoms and pneumonia. One patient underwent Clavien IV complication where they needed intensive care unit admission for urosepsis but fully recovered and were discharged home subsequently. Conclusion: Ureteroscopy is a safe and effective method of managing urolithiasis in elderly patients. Although most patients are discharged within 24-hours, consideration needs to be made for patients where social circumstances can impact their discharge planning.

11.
Ther Adv Urol ; 10(6): 183-188, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899759

RESUMO

Aquablation is a minimally invasive surgical technology for benign prostate enlargement, which uses high-pressure saline to remove parenchymal tissue through a heat-free mechanism of hydrodissection. Early results show this to be a promising surgical strategy with a strong morbidity profile and reduced resection time. This review serves to provide an overview of the technique and evaluate its safety and efficacy.

12.
Arthrosc Tech ; 7(5): e453-e457, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29868418

RESUMO

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears represent one of the most common sports-related injuries in the young population. There are multiple studies showing higher failure rates in the younger population with an allograft supporting the routine use of an autograft. In addition, higher failure rates have been shown with grafts narrower than 8 mm in diameter. This places the surgeon in an operative dilemma determining what to do with a narrow graft or an attenuated hamstring during harvest. All-inside ACL reconstruction is a promising technique for reliably creating sufficiently wide grafts without the need for allograft augmentation. The purpose of this Technical Note is to detail a graft preparation using the all-inside technique as a bailout during hamstring autograft ACL when the graft is narrow or one of the tendons is attenuated during harvest.

13.
World J Urol ; 36(11): 1783-1793, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29730839

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: A rising incidence of kidney stone disease has led to an increase in ureteroscopy (URS) and shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Our aim was to compare the cost of URS and SWL for treatment of stones. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis based on Cochrane and PRISMA standards was conducted for all studies reporting on comparative cost of treatment between URS and SWL. The cost calculation was based on factual data presented in the individual studies as reported by the authors. English language articles from January 2001 to December 2017 using Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane library and Google Scholar were selected. Our study was registered with PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews)-registration number CRD 42017080350. RESULTS: A total of 12 studies involving 2012 patients (SWL-1243, URS-769) were included after initial identification and screening of 725 studies with further assessment of 27 papers. The mean stone size was 10 and 11 mm for SWL and URS, respectively, with stone location in the proximal ureter (n = 8 studies), distal ureter (n = 1), all locations in the ureter (n = 1) and in the kidney (n = 2). Stone free rates (84 vs. 60%) were favourable for URS compared to SWL (p < 0.001). Complication rates (23 vs. 30%) were non-significantly in favor of SWL (p = 0.11) whereas re-treatment rates (11 vs. 27%) were non-significantly in favor of URS (p = 0.29). Mean overall cost was significantly lower for URS ($2801) compared to SWL ($3627) (p = 0.03). The included studies had high risk of bias overall. On sub-analysis, URS was significantly cost-effective for both stones < 10 and ≥ 10 mm and for proximal ureteric stones. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence to suggest that URS is less expensive than SWL. However, due to lack of standardization, studies seem to be contradictory and further randomized studies are needed to address this issue.

14.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2018 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29657068

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Day case or ambulatory percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has risen over the last few years with the aim of discharging patients within 24h. OBJECTIVE: We perform a systematic review of literature to evaluate the outcomes of day-case PCNL surgery. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A Cochrane style search was performed and the following bibliographic databases were accessed: PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science. This was carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. All studies in the English language reporting on PCNL patients discharged within 24h were included. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Based on the literature search of 97 articles, nine (502 patients) met the inclusion criteria (mean age: 47 yr), with a mean stone size of 20.5mm. The mean operating time was 66min, and over a mean hospital stay of 17.5h, the stone-free rate was 95%. The overall complication rate was 13.5%; the vast majority of these complications were Clavien I-II complications, with a readmission rate of 3%. CONCLUSIONS: Day-case PCNL is a safe and feasible strategy in carefully selected cases. However, for its success, detailed planning and adherence to surgical protocol are paramount with strict criteria for inpatient admission and a thorough follow-up plan. PATIENT SUMMARY: Day-case percutaneous nephrolithotomy procedure seems to be a safe procedure with good outcomes, and low risk of complications and readmissions. Detailed preoperative protocol and planning are paramount, with indications for inpatient admission as well as a thorough follow-up plan.

15.
Urology ; 119: 5-16, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29626570

RESUMO

Use of α-blockers for medical expulsive therapy (MET) has been the subject of huge debate in urology. Moreover, there have been a number of randomized controlled trials with differing results. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy of α-blockers for MET. This review confirms there is a role for α-blockers in MET for ureteric stones specifically in stones >5 mm and distal ureteric stones, which is associated with improved stone expulsion. However, there is a slight increase in risk of nonsignificant side effects.

16.
Urology ; 119: 17-22, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29702154

RESUMO

Management of stone disease in solitary kidney remains a difficult treatment entity for the urologist. The challenge exists to deliver high clearance while maintaining strong safety profile. Twelve eligible studies were included, comprising a total of 693 patients with a male:female ratio of 2:1. Overall, 114 (16.4%) complications were reported. No fatalities were reported in any of the studies. Clavien III complications were recorded in less than 0.5% of the patients. This review confirms the effectiveness, safety, and reliability of this technique for this unique cohort of patients.

17.
Int Braz J Urol ; 44(4): 750-757, 2018 Jul-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522293

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess outcomes of ureteroscopy for treatment of stone disease in the elderly. Ureteroscopy (URS) is an increasingly popular treatment modality for urolithiasis and its applications are ever expanding with the development of newer technologies. Its feasibility and outcomes within the elderly population to our knowledge remain under-reported. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the patient demographics and surgical outcomes from our prospective database for patients ≥70 years who underwent URS for urolithiasis, in a 5-year period between March 2012 and December 2016. RESULTS: A total of 110 consecutive patients underwent 121 procedures (1.1 procedure/ patient) with a mean age of 77.2 years (range: 70-91 years). Stone location was in the kidney/ pelviureteric junction (PUJ) in 29%, ureter in 37% and in multiple locations in 34%. The initial and final stone free rate (SFR) was 88% and 97% respectively. While 73% were done as true day case procedures, 89% patients were discharged within 24 hours. Eleven patients (9%) underwent complications of which 10 were Clavien I/II including acute urinary retention, urinary tract infection, stent symptoms and pneumonia. One patient underwent Clavien IV complication where they needed intensive care unit admission for urosepsis but fully recovered and were discharged home subsequently. CONCLUSION: Ureteroscopy is a safe and effective method of managing urolithiasis in elderly patients. Although most patients are discharged within 24-hours, consideration needs to be made for patients where social circumstances can impact their discharge planning.


Assuntos
Ureteroscopia/métodos , Urolitíase/cirurgia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Complicações Intraoperatórias , Tempo de Internação , Litotripsia a Laser/métodos , Masculino , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento , Ureteroscopia/efeitos adversos , Ureteroscopia/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Curr Urol Rep ; 19(4): 27, 2018 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29516304

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of PCNL and the expertise surrounding it has expanded in recent decades. Miniaturisation of equipment and instrument size has formed a part of this innovation. Although an increasing number of studies have been performed on miniaturised PCNL (Mi-PCNL) recently, a critical appraisal on these is lacking. We therefore conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of Mi-PCNL techniques (< 15 Fr). RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted from 1990 to March 2017 on outcomes of Mi-PCNL [micro PCNL (m-PCNL) and ultra-mini PCNL (UMP)] in adult patients. Ten studies (three on m-PCNL and seven on UMP) were included in our study. Across the three studies, 118 patients (mean age 42.2 years, male to female ratio 1.3:1) underwent m-PCNL (4.8 Fr). For a mean stone size of 13.9 mm, a mean stone-free rate (SFR) was 89% and an overall complication rate was 15.2% [Clavien classification I (44%), II (28%), III (28%)], with no Clavien IV or V complications. Across the seven studies, 262 patients (mean age 49.4 years, male to female ratio 1.5:1) underwent UMP (13-14 Fr). For a mean stone size of 18.6 mm, a mean SFR was 88.3% and an overall complication rate was 6.2% [Clavien classification I (57%), II (36%), III (7%)], with no Clavien IV or V complications. While the transfusion rates for m-PCNL was 0.85%, only one case each in m-PCNL and UMP needed conversion to mini PCNL. Our review shows that for small- to medium-sized renal stones, Mi-PCNL can yield good stone-free rates whilst maintaining a low morbidity associated with it. There were no Clavien > III complications and no mortality with only one transfusion reported from this minimally invasive technique.


Assuntos
Cálculos Renais/cirurgia , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos
19.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 21(2): 153-160, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infection-related complications secondary to quinolone resistance have been on the rise following transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy of the prostate (TRUSBP). The aim of this review was to compare the efficacy of fosfomycin with quinolone-based antibiotic prophylaxis for TRUSBP. METHODS: A systematic review in line with the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane guidelines was conducted. All studies comparing fosfomycin vs. non-fosfomycin antimicrobial prophylaxis for TRUSBP were considered. The main outcomes were number of urinary tract infections (UTIs) (overall, afebrile, febrile, and urosepsis) and fluoroqinolone resistance. Secondary outcomes were positive urine and blood cultures, and adverse effects of drugs. RESULTS: Five studies comparing fosfomycin and non-fosfomycin antimicrobials were included in the review. In all, 1447 and 1665 patients were included in the fosfomycin and non-fosfomycin cohorts, respectively. The systematic review report significantly lower UTIs in the fosfomycin cohort (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI), 0.20 (0.13, 0.30), p < 0.00001. Urine cultures from patients given fosfomycin showed significantly lower resistance rates (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI) 0.27 (0.15, 0.50), p < 0.0001. The adverse effect profile between the two cohorts were similar (M-H, Fixed, 95% CI) 1.13 (0.51, 2.50), p = 0.33. On Grade Pro evaluation, overall UTI, afebrile UTI, febrile UTI, and urosepsis were rates as moderate, low, very low, and moderate quality evidence, respectively. Positive blood and urine culture were rated as moderate and very low-quality evidence, respectively. Fluoroquinolone resistance was rated as low-quality evidence. Adverse effects was rated as very low-quality evidence. CONCLUSIONS: This review suggests that fosfomycin has significantly lower septic complications with an equivalent side effect profile in comparison with quinolone-based prophylaxis regimen for TRUSBP. There is an urgent need for appropriate antibiotic stewardship and it is paramount that studies with robust methodology are developed to establish the role of fosfomycin over existing antibiotic regimens for TRUSBP.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia , Infecções Bacterianas/prevenção & controle , Fosfomicina/uso terapêutico , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Quinolonas/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Ultrassonografia
20.
Mil Med ; 2018 Mar 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29590419

RESUMO

Introduction: Combat injury of the sciatic nerve tends to be severe with variable but often profound consequences, is often associated with widespread soft tissue and bone injuries, significant neurologic impairment, severe neuropathic pain, and a prolonged recovery time. There is little contemporary data that describes the treatment and outcome of this significant military acquired peripheral nerve injury. We describe our institution's experience treating patients with combat-acquired sciatic nerve injury in the recent Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Materials and Methods: IRB approval was obtained, and a retrospective review was performed of the records of 5,137 combat-related extremity injuries between June 2007 and June 2015 to identify patients with combat-acquired sciatic nerve injury without traumatic amputation of the injured leg. The most common mechanisms of injury were gunshot wound to the upper thigh or pelvis, followed by blast injury. Thirteen patients were identified that underwent sciatic nerve exploration and repair. Nine patients had nerve repair using long-length acellular cadaveric allografts. Five patients underwent nerve surgery within 30 d of injury and eight had surgery on a delayed basis. The postoperative follow-up period was at least 2 yr. Results: Reduction of neuropathic pain was significant, 7/10 points on the 11-point pain intensity numerical rating scale. Eight patients displayed electrodiagnostic evidence of reinnervation distal to the injury zone; however, functional recovery was poor, as only 3 of 10 patients had detectable motor units distal to the knee, and recovery was only in tibial nerve innervated muscles. There were no serious surgical complications, in particular, wound infection or graft rejection associated with long-length cadaver allograft placement. Conclusion: Early surgery to repair sciatic nerve injury possibly promotes significant pain reduction, reduces narcotic usage and facilitates a long rehabilitation process. Allograft nerve placement is not associated with serious complications. A follow-up period longer than 3 yr would be required and is ongoing to assess the efficacy of our treatment of patients with combat-acquired sciatic nerve injury.

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