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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316077

RESUMO

PURPOSE: New treatments are introduced into standard care based on clinical trial results. However, it is not clear if these benefits are reflected in the broader population. This study analysed the clinical outcomes of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, treated with abiraterone and enzalutamide, within the Scottish National Health Service. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using record linkage of routinely collected healthcare data (study period: February 2012 to February 2017). Overall survival (OS) was analysed using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox Proportional Hazard models; a subgroup analysis comprised potentially trial-eligible patients. RESULTS: Overall, 271 patients were included and 73.8% died during the study period. Median OS was poorer than in the pivotal trials, regardless of medication and indication: 10.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.6-15.1) and 20.9 months (95% CI 14.9-29.0) for abiraterone, and 12.6 months (95% CI 10.5-18.2) and 16.0 months (95% CI 9.8-not reached) for enzalutamide, post and pre chemotherapy, respectively. Only 46% of patients were potentially "trial eligible" and in this subgroup OS improved. Factors influencing survival included baseline performance status, and baseline prostate-specific antigen, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin levels. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer prognostic features of non-trial eligible patients impact real-world outcomes of cancer medicines. Electronic record linkage of routinely collected healthcare data offers an opportunity to report outcomes on cancer medicines at scale and describe population demographics. The availability of such observational data to supplement clinical trial results enables patients and clinicians to make more informed treatment decisions, and policymakers to contextualise trial findings.

3.
JAMA Oncol ; 2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246234

RESUMO

Importance: Abiraterone acetate is combined with prednisone, 5 mg, twice daily for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) and with prednisone, 5 mg, once daily for newly diagnosed, high-risk, metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. Understanding the physiological effects of these and other regimens is important. Objective: To evaluate the safety of abiraterone acetate with 4 glucocorticoid regimens. Design, Setting, and Participants: Open-label, randomized clinical trial (1:1:1:1) of 164 men with mCRPC from 22 hospitals in 5 countries who were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 intervention groups between June 2013 and October 2014. Analyses were conducted from August 2017 to June 2018. Interventions: Abiraterone acetate, 1000 mg, once daily with prednisone, 5 mg, twice daily (n = 41), 5 mg once daily (n = 41), 2.5 mg twice daily (n = 40), or dexamethasone, 0.5 mg, once daily (n = 42). Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary end point was no mineralocorticoid excess (grade ≥1 hypokalemia or grade ≥2 hypertension) through 24 weeks (6 cycles) from treatment. Results: Of 164 men (median [range] age, 70 [50-90] years) randomized to receive abiraterone acetate, 1000 mg, daily with prednisone, 5 mg, twice daily, once daily, or 2.5 mg twice daily, or dexamethasone, 0.5 mg, once daily, 24 (70.6%) of 34 patients (95% CI, 53.8%-83.2%), 14 (36.8%) of 38 patients (95% CI, 23.4%-52.7%), 21 (60.0%) of 35 patients (95% CI, 43.6%-74.4%), and 26 (70.3%) of 37 patients (95% CI, 54.2%-82.5%), respectively, had no mineralocorticoid excess. Plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and urinary mineralocorticoid metabolites after 8 weeks were higher with prednisone, 2.5 mg, twice daily and 5 mg once daily than with 5 mg twice daily or dexamethasone, 0.5 mg, once daily. The level of urinary glucocorticoid metabolites appeared higher in patients who did not meet the primary end point, regardless of glucocorticoid regimen. Total lean body mass decreased in the prednisone groups and total body fat increased in the prednisone, 5 mg, twice daily and dexamethasone groups. In the dexamethasone group, there was an increase in serum insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, while total bone mineral density decreased. In the prednisone, 5 mg, twice daily, 5 mg once daily, 2.5 mg twice daily, and dexamethasone groups, median radiographic progression-free survival was 18.5, 15.3, 12.8, and 26.6 months, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: Abiraterone acetate with prednisone, 5 mg, twice daily or dexamethasone, 0.5 mg, once daily met the prespecified threshold for the primary end point (95% CI excluded 50% mineralocorticoid excess); abiraterone acetate with prednisone, 5 mg, once daily or 2.5 mg twice daily did not meet the threshold. Abiraterone acetate in combination with dexamethasone appeared to be particularly active but may be associated with adverse metabolic consequences. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01867710.

4.
Lancet ; 392(10162): 2353-2366, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30355464

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Based on previous findings, we hypothesised that radiotherapy to the prostate would improve overall survival in men with metastatic prostate cancer, and that the benefit would be greatest in patients with a low metastatic burden. We aimed to compare standard of care for metastatic prostate cancer, with and without radiotherapy. METHODS: We did a randomised controlled phase 3 trial at 117 hospitals in Switzerland and the UK. Eligible patients had newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. We randomly allocated patients open-label in a 1:1 ratio to standard of care (control group) or standard of care and radiotherapy (radiotherapy group). Randomisation was stratified by hospital, age at randomisation, nodal involvement, WHO performance status, planned androgen deprivation therapy, planned docetaxel use (from December, 2015), and regular aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Standard of care was lifelong androgen deprivation therapy, with up-front docetaxel permitted from December, 2015. Men allocated radiotherapy received either a daily (55 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks) or weekly (36 Gy in six fractions over 6 weeks) schedule that was nominated before randomisation. The primary outcome was overall survival, measured as the number of deaths; this analysis had 90% power with a one-sided α of 2·5% for a hazard ratio (HR) of 0·75. Secondary outcomes were failure-free survival, progression-free survival, metastatic progression-free survival, prostate cancer-specific survival, and symptomatic local event-free survival. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards and flexible parametric models, adjusted for stratification factors. The primary outcome analysis was by intention to treat. Two prespecified subgroup analyses tested the effects of prostate radiotherapy by baseline metastatic burden and radiotherapy schedule. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00268476. FINDINGS: Between Jan 22, 2013, and Sept 2, 2016, 2061 men underwent randomisation, 1029 were allocated the control and 1032 radiotherapy. Allocated groups were balanced, with a median age of 68 years (IQR 63-73) and median amount of prostate-specific antigen of 97 ng/mL (33-315). 367 (18%) patients received early docetaxel. 1082 (52%) participants nominated the daily radiotherapy schedule before randomisation and 979 (48%) the weekly schedule. 819 (40%) men had a low metastatic burden, 1120 (54%) had a high metastatic burden, and the metastatic burden was unknown for 122 (6%). Radiotherapy improved failure-free survival (HR 0·76, 95% CI 0·68-0·84; p<0·0001) but not overall survival (0·92, 0·80-1·06; p=0·266). Radiotherapy was well tolerated, with 48 (5%) adverse events (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3-4) reported during radiotherapy and 37 (4%) after radiotherapy. The proportion reporting at least one severe adverse event (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3 or worse) was similar by treatment group in the safety population (398 [38%] with control and 380 [39%] with radiotherapy). INTERPRETATION: Radiotherapy to the prostate did not improve overall survival for unselected patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer. FUNDING: Cancer Research UK, UK Medical Research Council, Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research, Astellas, Clovis Oncology, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, and Sanofi-Aventis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel/uso terapêutico , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Linfonodos/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Orquiectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Padrão de Cuidado , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Heart ; 104(24): 1995-2002, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30228246

RESUMO

Clinical outcomes for patients with a wide range of malignancies have improved substantially over the last two decades. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are potent signalling cascade inhibitors and have been responsible for significant advances in cancer therapy. By inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-mediated tumour blood vessel growth, VEGFR-TKIs have become a mainstay of treatment for a number of solid malignancies. However, the incidence of VEGFR-TKI-associated cardiovascular toxicity is substantial and previously under-recognised. Almost all patients have an acute rise in blood pressure, and the majority develop hypertension. They are associated with the development of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD), heart failure and myocardial ischaemia and can have effects on myocardial repolarisation. Attention should be given to rigorous baseline assessment of patients prior to commencing VEGFR-TKIs, with careful consideration of baseline cardiovascular risk factors. Baseline blood pressure measurement, ECG and cardiac imaging should be performed routinely. Hypertension management currently follows national guidelines, but there may be a future role forendothelin-1 antagonism in the prevention or treatment of VEGFR-TKI-associated hypertension. VEGFR-TKI-associated LVSD appears to be independent of dose and is reversible. Patients who develop LVSD and heart failure should be managed with conventional heart failure therapies, but the role of prophylactic therapy is yet to be defined. Serial monitoring of left ventricular function and QT interval require better standardisation and coordinated care. Management of these complex patients requires collaborative, cardio-oncology care to allow the true therapeutic potential from cancer treatment while minimising competing cardiovascular effects.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Angiogênese/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias/induzido quimicamente , Hipertensão/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade , Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Cardiopatias/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias/terapia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Prognóstico , Receptores de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/antagonistas & inibidores , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
BJU Int ; 121(2): 268-274, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940952

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the uptake, safety and efficacy of docetaxel chemotherapy in hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer (mPC) in the first year of use outside of a clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients in the West of Scotland Cancer Network with newly diagnosed mPC were identified from the regional multidisciplinary team meetings and their treatment details were collected from electronic patient records. The rate of febrile neutropenia, hospitalisations, time to progression, and overall survival were compared between those patients who received docetaxel and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT), or ADT alone using survival analysis. RESULTS: Of the 270 eligible patients, 103 received docetaxel (38.1%). 35 patients (34%) were hospitalised and there were 17 episodes of febrile neutropenia (16.5%). Two patients (1.9%) died within 30 days of chemotherapy. Patients who received ADT alone had an increased risk of progression (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-3.25; log-rank test, P = 0.002) and had an increased risk of death (HR 5.88, 95% CI: 2.52-13.72; log-rank test, P = 0.001) compared to the docetaxel group. The risk of febrile neutropenia was nine-times greater if chemotherapy was started within 3 weeks of ADT initiation (95% CI: 1.22-77.72; P = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Docetaxel chemotherapy in hormone-naïve mPC has significant toxicities, but has a similar effect on time to progression and overall survival as seen in randomised trials. Chemotherapy should be started at ≥3 weeks after ADT.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Androgênios/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Neutropenia Febril/induzido quimicamente , Hormônio Liberador de Gonadotropina/agonistas , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida , Taxoides/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(16): 1770-1777, 2017 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28402747

RESUMO

Purpose Two previous single-arm trials have drawn conflicting conclusions regarding the activity of pazopanib in urothelial cancers after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients and Methods This randomized (1:1) open-label phase II trial compared the efficacy of pazopanib 800 mg orally with paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) in the second-line setting. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Results Between August 2012 and October 2014, 131 patients, out of 140 planned, were randomly assigned. The study was terminated early on the recommendation of the independent data monitoring committee because of futility. Final analysis after the preplanned number of deaths (n = 110) occurred after a median follow-up of 18 months. One hundred fifteen deaths had occurred at the final data extract presented here. Median OS was 8.0 months for paclitaxel (80% CI, 6.9 to 9.7 months) and 4.7 months for pazopanib (80% CI, 4.2 to 6.4 months). The hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for baseline stratification factors was 1.28 (80% CI, 0.99 to 1.67; one-sided P = .89). Median progression-free survival was 4.1 months for paclitaxel (80% CI, 3.0 to 5.6 months) and 3.1 months for pazopanib (80% CI, 2.7 to 4.6 months; HR, 1.09; 80% CI, 0.85 to 1.40; one-sided P = .67). Discontinuations for toxicity occurred in 7.8% and 23.1% for paclitaxel and pazopanib, respectively. Conclusion Pazopanib did not have greater efficacy than paclitaxel in the second-line treatment of urothelial cancers. There was a trend toward superior OS for paclitaxel.


Assuntos
Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida
9.
Invest New Drugs ; 35(5): 599-607, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28144789

RESUMO

Background Docetaxel and prednisolone chemotherapy (DP) extends survival in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, emergent clinical resistance is almost inevitable. AKT pathway activation is highly prevalent in mCRPC contributing to disease progression and DP resistance. AZD5363 is a potent oral pan-AKT inhibitor with pre-clinical data indicating activity in mCRPC and synergy with docetaxel. Methods This phase I trial was to determine an AZD5363 recommended phase II dose (RP2D) for combination with DP. Eligibility criteria included chemotherapy naive mCRPC, PSA or radiographic disease progression and ECOG performance status 0 or 1. Treatment comprised DP (75 mg/m2, IV, day 1 and 5 mg BID, PO, day 1-21 respectively for ten cycles) and AZD5363 to disease progression for all patients. We utilised a 3 + 3 dose escalation design to determine a maximum tolerated dose according to defined dose limiting toxicity criteria assessed using CTCAE version 4.03. Planned AZD5363 dose levels were 320 mg (DL1), 400 mg (DL2) and 480 mg (DL3), BID, PO, 4 days on/3 days off, from day 2 of each cycle. Results 10 patients were treated. Dose limiting toxicities affected 2 patients (grade 3 rash ≥5 days; grade 3 diarrhoea) in DL2. The commonest grade 3 or 4, AZD5363 related, symptomatic adverse events were rash and diarrhoea. Hyperglycaemia affected all patients but was self-limiting. PSA reduction to <50% at 12 weeks occurred in 7 patients. Conclusions The RP2D for AZD5363 is 320 mg BID, 4 days on/3 days off, in combination with full dose DP for mCRPC.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Docetaxel , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prednisolona/administração & dosagem , Antígeno Prostático Específico/metabolismo , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Taxoides/administração & dosagem
10.
BJU Int ; 119(6): 846-853, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27981711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of sorafenib dose escalation in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Intra-patient dose escalation may enhance the clinical benefit of targeted anticancer agents in metastatic disease. In this non-randomised, open-label, Phase 2b study, treatment-naïve patients with mRCC were initially treated with the standard oral sorafenib dose [400 mg twice daily (BID)]. Two dose escalations were planned, each 200 mg BID after 28 days at the prior level. Dose reductions, interruptions, or delayed escalations were used to manage adverse events (AEs). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population, which comprised patients with ≥6 months of treatment including ≥4 months of therapy at their highest tolerated dose. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. RESULTS: In all, 83 patients received sorafenib. The dose received for the longest duration was 400, 600, and 800 mg BID in 48.2%, 15.7%, and 24.1% of patients, respectively. The ORR was 44.4% [n = 8/18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 21.5-69.2] and 17.9% (n = 12/67; 95% CI 9.6-29.2) in the mITT and ITT populations, respectively. The median (95% CI) PFS was 7.4 (6.0-11.7) months (ITT). The most common AEs of any grade were hand-foot skin reaction (66.3%) and diarrhoea (63.9%). CONCLUSION: Sorafenib demonstrated clinical benefit in treatment-naïve patients with mRCC. However, relatively few patients could sustain doses of >400 mg BID. There was evidence that, where tolerated, escalation from the standard sorafenib dose may have enhanced clinical benefit. However, this study does not support dose escalation for most patients with treatment-naïve mRCC. Alternative protocols for sorafenib dose escalation could be explored.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sorafenibe , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Opt Express ; 24(22): 24836-24845, 2016 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27828425

RESUMO

We present a method by which the degree of longitudinal variation in photonic crystal fibre (PCF) may be characterised through seeded four-wave mixing (FWM). Using an iterative numerical reconstruction, we created a theoretical model of the PCF that displays FWM phasematching properties that are similar to experiment across all measured length scales. Our results demonstrate that the structure of our PCF varies by less than ±1 % and that the characteristic length of the variations is approximately 15 cm.

12.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158952, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27434372

RESUMO

The baseline value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been found to be prognostic in patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). We evaluated the impact of baseline NLR and its change in patients receiving enzalutamide. We included consecutive metastatic CRPC patients treated with enzalutamide after docetaxel and studies the change of NLR (>3 vs ≤3) after week 4 and 12 weeks. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. The impact of NLR on PFS and OS was evaluated by Cox regression analyses and on prostate-specific antigen response rates (PSA RR; PSA decline >50%) were evaluated by binary logistic regression. Data collected on 193 patients from 9 centers were evaluated. Median age was 73.1 years (range, 42.8-90.7). The median baseline NLR was 3.2. The median PFS was 3.2 months (95% CI = 2.7-4.2) in patients with baseline NLR >3 and 7.4 months (95% CI = 5.5-9.7) in those with NLR ≤3, p < 0.0001. The median OS was 10.4 months (95% CI = 6.5-14.9) in patients with baseline NLR >3 and 16.9 months (95% CI = 11.2-20.9) in those with baseline NLR ≤3, p < 0.0001. In multivariate analysis, changes in NLR at 4 weeks were significant predictors of both PFS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.07-1.42, p = 0.003, and OS (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51, p = 0.001. A persistent NLR >3 during treatment with enzalutamide seems to have both prognostic and predictive value in CRPC patients.


Assuntos
Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Prognóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feniltioidantoína/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Mol Diagn Ther ; 20(3): 255-63, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020582

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline by 50 % from the baseline to 12 weeks (PSA50w12) is currently used to predict response to treatment and clinical outcome of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We evaluated the association between PSA changes at 4 weeks and clinical outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had PSA levels assessed at baseline, and monthly during enzalutamide treatment. Early PSA increase was defined as an increased PSA level at 4 weeks ≥20 % (PSA + 20w4) from baseline. Early PSA decline was defined as a PSA response at 4 weeks ≥30 % (PSA30w4) and ≥50 % (PSA50w4) from baseline. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and their 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. The impact of early PSA increase and decline on PFS and OS was evaluated by Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: We assessed 193 patients with median age of 73 years (range 43-91 years). The median follow-up was 11.7 months (range 0.5-27.4 months). PSA + 20w4 predicted both PFS and OS [HR 6.50 (95 % CI 2.63-16.07; p < 0.0001) and HR 10.54 (95 % CI 4.02-27.64; p < 0.0001), respectively], whereas PSA30w4 and PSA50w4 predicted only PFS [HR 0.37 (95 % CI 0.21-0.67; p = 0.0009) and HR 0.34 (95 % CI 0.19-0.60; p = 0.0003), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: An early PSA increase, defined as a PSA level at 4 weeks ≥20 % (PSA + 20w4), could be useful to quickly identify patients unlikely to benefit from enzalutamide. Larger studies are needed to confirm PSA + 20W4 as an early biomarker of primary resistance to enzalutamide.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/sangue , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica , Feniltioidantoína/análogos & derivados , Feniltioidantoína/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 229, 2016 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26984511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 8000 cases of renal cancer are diagnosed each year in the UK, with a five-year survival rate of 50%. Treatment options are limited; a potential therapeutic target is the Src family kinases (SFKs). SFKs have roles in multiple oncogenic processes and promote metastases in solid tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate SFKs as potential therapeutic targets for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS: SFKs expression was assessed in a tissue microarray consisting of 192 ccRCC patients with full clinical follow-up. SFK inhibitors, dasatinib and saracatinib, were assessed in early ccRCC cell lines, 786-O and 769-P and a metastatic ccRCC cell line, ACHN (± Src) for effects on protein expression, apoptosis, proliferation and wound healing. RESULTS: High nuclear expression of Lyn and the downstream marker of activation, paxillin, were associated with decreased patient survival. Conversely, high cytoplasmic expression of other SFK members and downstream marker of activation, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were associated with increased patient survival. Treatment of non-metastatic 786-O and 769-P cells with dasatinib, dose dependently reduced SFK activation, shown via SFK (Y(419)) and FAK (Y(861)) phosphorylation, with no effect in metastatic ACHN cells. Dasatinib also increased apoptosis, while decreasing proliferation and migration in 786-O and 769-P cell lines, both in the presence and absence of Src protein. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that nuclear Lyn is a potential therapeutic target for ccRCC and dasatinib affects cellular functions associated with cancer progression via a Src kinase independent mechanism.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Prognóstico , Quinases da Família src/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Dasatinibe/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paxilina/administração & dosagem , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Serial de Tecidos , Quinases da Família src/genética
15.
Lancet Oncol ; 17(3): 378-88, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26794930

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-clear cell renal cell carcinomas are histologically and genetically diverse kidney cancers with variable prognoses, and their optimum initial treatment is unknown. We aimed to compare the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and the VEGF receptor inhibitor sunitinib in patients with non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma. METHODS: We enrolled patients with metastatic papillary, chromophobe, or unclassified non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma with no history of previous systemic treatment. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive everolimus (10 mg/day) or sunitinib (50 mg/day; 6-week cycles of 4 weeks with treatment followed by 2 weeks without treatment) administered orally until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Randomisation was stratified by Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group and papillary histology. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population using the RECIST 1.1 criteria. Safety was assessed in all patients who were randomly assigned to treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01108445. FINDINGS: Between Sept 23, 2010, and Oct 28, 2013, 108 patients were randomly assigned to receive either sunitinib (n=51) or everolimus (n=57). As of December, 2014, 87 progression-free survival events had occurred with two remaining active patients, and the trial was closed for the primary analysis. Sunitinib significantly increased progression-free survival compared with everolimus (8·3 months [80% CI 5·8-11·4] vs 5·6 months [5·5-6·0]; hazard ratio 1·41 [80% CI 1·03-1·92]; p=0·16), although heterogeneity of the treatment effect was noted on the basis of histological subtypes and prognostic risk groups. No unexpected toxic effects were reported, and the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were hypertension (12 [24%] of 51 patients in the sunitinib group vs one [2%] of 57 patients in the everolimus group), infection (six [12%] vs four [7%]), diarrhoea (five [10%] vs one [2%]), pneumonitis (none vs five [9%]), stomatitis (none vs five [9%]), and hand-foot syndrome (four [8%] vs none). INTERPRETATION: In patients with metastatic non-clear cell renal cell carcinoma, sunitinib improved progression-free survival compared with everolimus. Future trials of novel agents should account for heterogeneity in disease outcomes based on genetic, histological, and prognostic factors. FUNDING: Novartis and Pfizer.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Everolimo/administração & dosagem , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma de Células Renais/mortalidade , Carcinoma de Células Renais/patologia , Intervalos de Confiança , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Esquema de Medicação , Everolimo/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Invasividade Neoplásica/patologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Pirróis/efeitos adversos , Sunitinibe , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Future Oncol ; 11(21): 2873-80, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26436556

RESUMO

Despite radical treatment, many men with prostate cancer will develop recurrence of their disease. In an exciting era of new therapies for prostate cancer in general, we focus on how these will specifically benefit those men with recurrent disease. We consider salvage treatments aimed at those with local recurrence confined to the prostate gland, therapies for those presenting with metastatic recurrence and the approach to men presenting with a rising prostate-specific antigen but no demonstrable disease (M0). In general, men with recurrent disease are often under-represented in randomized clinical trials. Consequently, evidence to guide treatment for these men is often lacking and this needs to be addressed in order to improve and better define our approach to this problem in the future.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/terapia , Retratamento/métodos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Masculino , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Terapia de Salvação/métodos
17.
Eur Urol ; 67(4): 599-602, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25465968

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Gemcitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy (GC regimen) represents a standard treatment for advanced urothelial carcinoma. We performed an open-label, single-arm, non-randomised, phase 2 trial evaluating the addition of sunitinib to standard GC chemotherapy (SGC regimen). Overall, 63 treatment-naïve participants were recruited and received up to six 21-d cycles of cisplatin 70 mg/m2 (intravenously [IV], day 1) and gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 (IV, days 1 and 8) combined with sunitinib 37.5 mg (orally, days 2-15). Following review of toxicity after the first six patients, the sunitinib dose was reduced to 25 mg for all patients. Overall response rate was 64%, with response noted in 37 of 58 patients. At 6 mo, 30 of 58 assessable patients (52%; 90% confidence interval [CI], 40-63%) were progression free. Median overall survival was 12 mo (95% CI, 9-15) and was heavily influenced by Bajorin prognostic group. Grade 3-4 toxicities were predominantly haematologic and limited the deliverability of the triple SGC regimen. The trial did not meet its prespecified primary end point of >60% patients progression free at 6 mo. Cumulative myelosuppression led to treatment delays of gemcitabine and cisplatin and dose reduction and/or withdrawal of sunitinib in the majority of cases. The triple-drug combination was not well tolerated. Phase 3 evaluation of the triple SGC regimen in advanced transitional cell carcinoma is not recommended. PATIENT SUMMARY: The addition of sunitinib to standard cisplatin and gemcitabine chemotherapy was poorly tolerated and did not improve outcomes in advanced urothelial carcinoma. Treatment delivery was limited by myelotoxicity.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/toxicidade , Doenças da Medula Óssea/induzido quimicamente , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Indóis/toxicidade , Pirróis/toxicidade , Neoplasias Urológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Desoxicitidina/toxicidade , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Indóis/administração & dosagem , Indóis/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/uso terapêutico , Sunitinibe , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias Urológicas/fisiopatologia
19.
Eur Urol ; 67(6): 1028-1038, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25301760

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common disease among men worldwide. It is important to know survival outcomes and prognostic factors for this disease. Recruitment for the largest therapeutic randomised controlled trial in PCa--the Systemic Therapy in Advancing or Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy: A Multi-Stage Multi-Arm Randomised Controlled Trial (STAMPEDE)--includes men with newly diagnosed metastatic PCa who are commencing long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); the control arm provides valuable data for a prospective cohort. OBJECTIVE: Describe survival outcomes, along with current treatment standards and factors associated with prognosis, to inform future trial design in this patient group. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: STAMPEDE trial control arm comprising men newly diagnosed with M1 disease who were recruited between October 2005 and January 2014. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Overall survival (OS) and failure-free survival (FFS) were reported by primary disease characteristics using Kaplan-Meier methods. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived from multivariate Cox models. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: A cohort of 917 men with newly diagnosed M1 disease was recruited to the control arm in the specified interval. Median follow-up was 20 mo. Median age at randomisation was 66 yr (interquartile range [IQR]: 61-71), and median prostate-specific antigen level was 112 ng/ml (IQR: 34-373). Most men (n=574; 62%) had bone-only metastases, whereas 237 (26%) had both bone and soft tissue metastases; soft tissue metastasis was found mainly in distant lymph nodes. There were 238 deaths, 202 (85%) from PCa. Median FFS was 11 mo; 2-yr FFS was 29% (95% CI, 25-33). Median OS was 42 mo; 2-yr OS was 72% (95% CI, 68-76). Survival time was influenced by performance status, age, Gleason score, and metastases distribution. Median survival after FFS event was 22 mo. Trial eligibility criteria meant men were younger and fitter than general PCa population. CONCLUSIONS: Survival remains disappointing in men presenting with M1 disease who are started on only long-term ADT, despite active treatments being available at first failure of ADT. Importantly, men with M1 disease now spend the majority of their remaining life in a state of castration-resistant relapse. PATIENT SUMMARY: Results from this control arm cohort found survival is relatively short and highly influenced by patient age, fitness, and where prostate cancer has spread in the body.


Assuntos
Antagonistas de Androgênios/uso terapêutico , Metástase Neoplásica/terapia , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Taxoides/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/mortalidade , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Metástase Neoplásica/diagnóstico , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Aptidão Física , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Opt Express ; 22(21): 25689-99, 2014 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25401602

RESUMO

We demonstrate a numerical technique that can evaluate the core-to-core variations in propagation constant in multicore fiber. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo process, we replicate the interference patterns of light that has coupled between the cores during propagation. We describe the algorithm and verify its operation by successfully reconstructing target propagation constants in a fictional fiber. Then we carry out a reconstruction of the propagation constants in a real fiber containing 37 single-mode cores. We find that the range of fractional propagation constant variation across the cores is approximately ± 2 × 10(-5).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Tecnologia de Fibra Óptica/instrumentação , Luz , Pinças Ópticas , Refratometria/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Método de Monte Carlo
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