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1.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103618, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34628351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Synovial inflammation is associated with pain severity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim here was to determine in a population with knee OA, whether synovial tissue from areas associated with pain exhibited different synovial fibroblast subsets, compared to synovial tissue from sites not associated with pain. A further aim was to compare differences between early and end-stage disease synovial fibroblast subsets. METHODS: Patients with early knee OA (n = 29) and end-stage knee OA (n = 22) were recruited. Patient reported pain was recorded by questionnaire and using an anatomical knee pain map. Proton density fat suppressed MRI axial and sagittal sequences were analysed and scored for synovitis. Synovial tissue was obtained from the medial and lateral parapatellar and suprapatellar sites. Fibroblast single cell RNA sequencing was performed using Chromium 10X and analysed using Seurat. Transcriptomes were functionally characterised using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the effect of fibroblast secretome on neuronal growth assessed using rat DRGN. FINDINGS: Parapatellar synovitis was significantly associated with the pattern of patient-reported pain in knee OA patients. Synovial tissue from sites of patient-reported pain exhibited a differential transcriptomic phenotype, with distinct synovial fibroblast subsets in early OA and end-stage OA. Functional pathway analysis revealed that synovial tissue and fibroblast subsets from painful sites promoted fibrosis, inflammation and the growth and activity of neurons. The secretome of fibroblasts from early OA painful sites induced greater survival and neurite outgrowth in dissociated adult rodent dorsal root ganglion neurons. INTERPRETATION: Sites of patient-reported pain in knee OA exhibit a different synovial tissue phenotype and distinct synovial fibroblast subsets. Further interrogation of these fibroblast pathotypes will increase our understanding of the role of synovitis in OA joint pain and provide a rationale for the therapeutic targeting of fibroblast subsets to alleviate pain in patients. FUNDING: This study was funded by Versus Arthritis, UK (21530; 21812).

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360594

RESUMO

Glucocorticoids provide indispensable anti-inflammatory therapies. However, metabolic adverse effects including muscle wasting restrict their use. The enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11ß-HSD1) modulates peripheral glucocorticoid responses through pre-receptor metabolism. This study investigates how 11ß-HSD1 influences skeletal muscle responses to glucocorticoid therapy for chronic inflammation. We assessed human skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis for 11ß-HSD1 activity ex vivo. Using the TNF-α-transgenic mouse model (TNF-tg) of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of corticosterone treatment and 11ß-HSD1 global knock-out (11ßKO) on skeletal muscle, measuring anti-inflammatory gene expression, muscle weights, fiber size distribution, and catabolic pathways. Muscle 11ß-HSD1 activity was elevated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and correlated with inflammation markers. In murine skeletal muscle, glucocorticoid administration suppressed IL6 expression in TNF-tg mice but not in TNF-tg11ßKO mice. TNF-tg mice exhibited reductions in muscle weight and fiber size with glucocorticoid therapy. In contrast, TNF-tg11ßKO mice were protected against glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy. Glucocorticoid-mediated activation of catabolic mediators (FoxO1, Trim63) was also diminished in TNF-tg11ßKO compared to TNF-tg mice. In summary, 11ß-HSD1 knock-out prevents muscle atrophy associated with glucocorticoid therapy in a model of chronic inflammation. Targeting 11ß-HSD1 may offer a strategy to refine the safety of glucocorticoids.


Assuntos
11-beta-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenase Tipo 1/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Deleção de Genes , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Atrofia Muscular/prevenção & controle , Osteoartrite do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Atrofia Muscular/induzido quimicamente , Atrofia Muscular/genética , Atrofia Muscular/patologia , Osteoartrite do Quadril/patologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201564

RESUMO

Obesity increases the risk of hip osteoarthritis (OA). Recent studies have shown that adipokine extracellular nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (eNAMPT or visfatin) induces the production of IL-6 and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) in chondrocytes, suggesting it may promote articular cartilage degradation. However, neither the functional effects of extracellular visfatin on human articular cartilage tissue, nor its expression in the joint of hip OA patients of varying BMI, have been reported. Hip OA joint tissues were collected from patients undergoing joint replacement surgery. Cartilage explants were stimulated with recombinant human visfatin. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs were measured by ELISA and Luminex. Localisation of visfatin expression in cartilage tissue was determined by immunohistochemistry. Cartilage matrix degradation was determined by quantifying proteoglycan release. Expression of visfatin was elevated in the synovial tissue of hip OA patients who were obese, and was co-localised with MMP-13 in areas of cartilage damage. Visfatin promoted the degradation of hip OA cartilage proteoglycan and induced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, CCL20, and CCL4) and MMPs. The elevated expression of visfatin in the obese hip OA joint, and its functional effects on hip cartilage tissue, suggests it plays a central role in the loss of cartilage integrity in obese patients with hip OA.


Assuntos
Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Quadril/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Condrócitos/metabolismo , Citocinas/sangue , Articulação do Quadril/metabolismo , Articulação do Quadril/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Metaloproteinase 13 da Matriz/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NAD/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/sangue , Obesidade/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Osteoartrite do Quadril/patologia , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo
4.
Cells ; 10(4)2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916321

RESUMO

Metastasis Associated Lung Adenocarcinoma Transcript-1 (MALAT1) is implicated in regulating the inflammatory response and in the pathology of several chronic inflammatory diseases, including osteoarthritis (OA). The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between OA subchondral bone expression of MALAT1 with parameters of joint health and biomarkers of joint inflammation, and to determine its functional role in human OA osteoblasts. Subchondral bone and blood were collected from hip and knee OA patients (n = 17) and bone only from neck of femur fracture patients (n = 6) undergoing joint replacement surgery. Cytokines were determined by multiplex assays and ELISA, and gene expression by qPCR. MALAT1 loss of function was performed in OA patient osteoblasts using locked nucleic acids. The osteoblast transcriptome was analysed by RNASeq and pathway analysis. Bone expression of MALAT1 positively correlated to serum DKK1 and galectin-1 concentrations, and in OA patient osteoblasts was induced in response to IL-1ß stimulation. Osteoblasts depleted of MALAT1 exhibited differential expression (>1.5 fold change) of 155 genes, including PTGS2. Both basal and IL-1ß-mediated PGE2 secretion was greater in MALAT1 depleted osteoblasts. The induction of MALAT1 in human OA osteoblasts upon inflammatory challenge and its modulation of PGE2 production suggests that MALAT1 may play a role in regulating inflammation in OA subchondral bone.

5.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 135: 105972, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864951

RESUMO

Obesity is considered a global epidemic developed in part as a consequence of the overconsumption of high fat diets. One of the main negative outcomes of obesity is the development of low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, induced by dysregulated immune responses, which can lead to multiple obesity-related diseases. Ceramides are a group of bioactive lipids known to be elevated in obesity and obesity-associated conditions, including cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Ceramides may be key players in promoting an obesity-induced inflammatory environment due to their ability to activate key pathways such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and NLR pyrin domain containing receptor 3 (Nlrp3), while studies have shown that inhibition of ceramide synthesis gives rise to an anti-inflammatory environment. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) have been of interest due to their anti-inflammatory actions and shown to have beneficial effects in obesity-related diseases. This review will highlight the impact of ceramides in promoting an obesity-induced inflammatory microenvironment and discuss how n-3 PUFA could potentially counteract these responses and have a regulatory effect promoting immune homeostasis.


Assuntos
Ceramidas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Imunidade/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Animais , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia
7.
Geroscience ; 43(1): 85-110, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528828

RESUMO

Sarcopenia, broadly defined as the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, quality, and function, is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and an increased likelihood of adverse health outcomes. The regulation of skeletal muscle mass with ageing is complex and necessitates a delicate balance between muscle protein synthesis and degradation. The secretion and transfer of cytokines, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs), both discretely and within extracellular vesicles, have emerged as important communication channels between tissues. Some of these factors have been implicated in regulating skeletal muscle mass, function, and pathologies and may be perturbed by excessive adiposity. Indeed, adipose tissue participates in a broad spectrum of inter-organ communication and obesity promotes the accumulation of macrophages, cellular senescence, and the production and secretion of pro-inflammatory factors. Pertinently, age-related sarcopenia has been reported to be more prevalent in obesity; however, such effects are confounded by comorbidities and physical activity level. In this review, we provide evidence that adiposity may exacerbate age-related sarcopenia and outline some emerging concepts of adipose-skeletal muscle communication including the secretion and processing of novel myokines and adipokines and the role of extracellular vesicles in mediating inter-tissue cross talk via lncRNAs and miRNAs in the context of sarcopenia, ageing, and obesity. Further research using advances in proteomics, transcriptomics, and techniques to investigate extracellular vesicles, with an emphasis on translational, longitudinal human studies, is required to better understand the physiological significance of these factors, the impact of obesity upon them, and their potential as therapeutic targets in combating muscle wasting.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo , Sarcopenia , Adipocinas , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético
8.
Obes Rev ; 22(4): e13156, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33078547

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation that affects the phenotype of multiple tissues and therefore is implicated in the development and progression of several age-related chronic inflammatory disorders. Importantly, a new family of noncoding RNAs, termed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), have been identified as key regulators of inflammatory signalling pathways that can mediate both pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional gene regulation. Furthermore, several lncRNAs have been identified, which are differentially expressed in multiple tissue types in individuals who are obese or in preclinical models of obesity. In this review, we examine the evidence for the role of several of the most well-studied lncRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory pathways associated with obesity. We highlight the evidence for their differential expression in the obese state and in age-related conditions including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), sarcopenia, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, where obesity plays a significant role. Determining the expression and functional role of lncRNAs in mediating obesity-associated chronic inflammation will advance our understanding of the epigenetic regulatory pathways that underlie age-related inflammatory diseases and may also ultimately identify new targets for therapeutic intervention.

9.
FEBS J ; 2020 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33251764

RESUMO

Mesenchymal stromal fibroblasts have emerged as key mediators of the inflammatory response and drivers of localised inflammation, in part through their interactions with resident and circulating immune cells at inflammatory sites. As such, they have been implicated in a number of chronic inflammatory conditions as well as in tumour progression through modifying the microenvironment. The connection between metabolic changes and altered phenotype of fibroblasts in inflammatory microenvironments has clear implications for our understanding of how chronic inflammation is regulated and for the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics. In this review, we consider the evidence that changes to fibroblast metabolic state underpin chronic inflammation. We examine recent research on fibroblast metabolism in inflammatory microenvironments and consider their involvement in inflammation, providing insight into the role of fibroblasts and metabolism in mediating inflammatory disease progression namely cancer, arthritis and fibrotic disorders including chronic kidney disease, pulmonary fibrosis, heart disease and liver disease.

10.
Exp Physiol ; 105(12): 2178-2189, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965751

RESUMO

NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of the study? Is Vps34 a nutrient-sensitive activator of mTORC1 in human skeletal muscle? What is the main finding and its importance? We show that altering nutrient availability, via protein-carbohydrate feeding, does not increase Vps34 kinase activity in human skeletal muscle. Instead, feeding increased Vps34-mTORC1 co-localization in parallel to increased mTORC1 activity. These findings may have important implications in the understanding nutrient-induced mTORC1 activation in skeletal muscle via interaction with Vps34. ABSTRACT: The Class III PI3Kinase, Vps34, has recently been proposed as a nutrient sensor, essential for activation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). We therefore investigated the effects of increasing nutrient availability through protein-carbohydrate (PRO-CHO) feeding on Vps34 kinase activity and cellular localization in human skeletal muscle. Eight young, healthy males (21 ± 0.5 yrs, 77.7 ± 9.9 kg, 25.9 ± 2.7 kg/m2 , mean ± SD) ingested a PRO-CHO beverage containing 20/44/1 g PRO/CHO/FAT respectively, with skeletal muscle biopsies obtained at baseline and 1 h and 3 h post-feeding. PRO-CHO feeding did not alter Vps34 kinase activity, but did stimulate Vps34 translocation toward the cell periphery (PRE (mean ± SD) - 0.273 ± 0.040, 1 h - 0.348 ± 0.061, Pearson's Coefficient (r)) where it co-localized with mTOR (PRE - 0.312 ± 0.040, 1 h - 0.348 ± 0.069, Pearson's Coefficient (r)). These alterations occurred in parallel to an increase in S6K1 kinase activity (941 ± 466% of PRE at 1 h post-feeding). Subsequent in vitro experiments in C2C12 and human primary myotubes displayed no effect of the Vps34-specific inhibitor SAR405 on mTORC1 signalling responses to elevated nutrient availability. Therefore, in summary, PRO-CHO ingestion does not increase Vps34 activity in human skeletal muscle, whilst pharmacological inhibition of Vps34 does not prevent nutrient stimulation of mTORC1 in vitro. However, PRO-CHO ingestion promotes Vps34 translocation to the cell periphery, enabling Vps34 to associate with mTOR. Therefore, our data suggests that interaction between Vps34 and mTOR, rather than changes in Vps34 activity per se may be involved in PRO-CHO activation of mTORC1 in human skeletal muscle.

11.
J Proteome Res ; 19(7): 2585-2597, 2020 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32227958

RESUMO

Synovial fluid (SF) is of great interest for the investigation of orthopedic pathologies, as it is in close proximity to various tissues that are primarily altered during these disease processes and can be collected using minimally invasive protocols. Multi-"omic" approaches are commonplace, although little consideration is often given for multiple analysis techniques at sample collection. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomics are two complementary techniques particularly suited to the study of SF. However, currently there are no agreed upon standard protocols that are published for SF collection and processing for use with NMR metabolomic analysis. Furthermore, the large protein concentration dynamic range present within SF can mask the detection of lower abundance proteins in proteomics. While combinational ligand libraries (ProteoMiner columns) have been developed to reduce this dynamic range, their reproducibility when used in conjunction with SF, or on-bead protein digestion protocols, has yet to be investigated. Here we employ optimized protocols for the collection, processing, and storage of SF for NMR metabolite analysis and LC-MS/MS proteome analysis, including a Lys-C endopeptidase digestion step prior to tryptic digestion, which increased the number of protein identifications and improved reproducibility for on-bead ProteoMiner digestion.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Líquido Sinovial
12.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(7): 3789-3805, 2020 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980816

RESUMO

By interacting with proteins and nucleic acids, the vast family of mammalian circRNAs is proposed to influence many biological processes. Here, RNA sequencing analysis of circRNAs differentially expressed during myogenesis revealed that circSamd4 expression increased robustly in mouse C2C12 myoblasts differentiating into myotubes. Moreover, silencing circSamd4, which is conserved between human and mouse, delayed myogenesis and lowered the expression of myogenic markers in cultured myoblasts from both species. Affinity pulldown followed by mass spectrometry revealed that circSamd4 associated with PURA and PURB, two repressors of myogenesis that inhibit transcription of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein family. Supporting the hypothesis that circSamd4 might complex with PUR proteins and thereby prevent their interaction with DNA, silencing circSamd4 enhanced the association of PUR proteins with the Mhc promoter, while overexpressing circSamd4 interfered with the binding of PUR proteins to the Mhc promoter. These effects were abrogated when using a mutant circSamd4 lacking the PUR binding site. Our results indicate that the association of PUR proteins with circSamd4 enhances myogenesis by contributing to the derepression of MHC transcription.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Desenvolvimento Muscular/genética , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Mioblastos/citologia , Mioblastos/metabolismo , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/biossíntese , Cadeias Pesadas de Miosina/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , RNA Circular/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
13.
Burns ; 46(2): 259-266, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826149

RESUMO

Obesity has become a world-wide pandemic and is considered a major risk factor for various diseases. Despite this, recent intriguing clinical observations have been made suggesting that being overweight has some advantages. Overweight and some obese patients were reported to have significantly lower all-cause mortality, described as the 'obesity paradox'. This phenomenon resulted in increased research aimed at investigating the influence of adipose tissue on outcomes of various clinical states including critical illness. In this review, we summarise research findings on the effect burn injury and trauma-related critical illness have on adipose tissue and discuss potential mechanisms by which adipose tissue influences outcomes in burn and other critically ill patients. Burn injury and critical illness influence adipose tissue functionally and morphologically, with circulating levels of fat derived hormones, adipokines, altered in patients following injury and/or critical illness. As adipokines regulate a variety of processes including inflammation and metabolism, this disruption in the adipokine axis may explain the obesity paradox phenomenon observed in critically ill patients. We conclude that further research on the influence of individual adipokines on prognosis in burn and critically ill patients and the mechanisms involved is required to increase understanding of their therapeutic potential.


Assuntos
Adipocinas/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Queimaduras/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Adipocinas/imunologia , Adiponectina/imunologia , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/imunologia , Queimaduras/imunologia , Estado Terminal , Fibrose/imunologia , Fibrose/metabolismo , Grelina/imunologia , Grelina/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Leptina/imunologia , Leptina/metabolismo , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/imunologia , Nicotinamida Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Obesidade/imunologia , Sobrepeso/imunologia , Sobrepeso/metabolismo , Resistina/imunologia , Resistina/metabolismo , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Cicatrização/imunologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia
14.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 72(4): 609-619, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) associated with the inflammatory phenotype of synovial fibroblasts from obese patients with osteoarthritis (OA), and to explore the expression and function of these lncRNAs. METHODS: Synovium was collected from normal-weight patients with hip fracture (non-OA; n = 6) and from normal-weight (n = 8) and obese (n = 8) patients with hip OA. Expression of RNA was determined by RNA-sequencing and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Knockdown of lncRNA was performed using LNA-based GapmeRs. Synovial fibroblast cytokine production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: Synovial fibroblasts from obese patients with OA secreted greater levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (mean ± SEM 162 ± 21 pg/ml; P < 0.001) and CXCL8 (262 ± 67 pg/ml; P < 0.05) compared to fibroblasts from normal-weight patients with OA (IL-6, 51 ± 4 pg/ml; CXCL8, 78 ± 11 pg/ml) or non-OA patients (IL-6, 35 ± 3 pg/ml; CXCL8, 56 ± 6 pg/ml) (n = 6 patients per group). RNA-sequencing revealed that fibroblasts from obese OA patients exhibited an inflammatory transcriptome, with increased expression of proinflammatory messenger RNAs (mRNAs) as compared to that in fibroblasts from normal-weight OA or non-OA patients (>2-fold change, P < 0.05; n = 4 patients per group). A total of 19 lncRNAs were differentially expressed between normal-weight OA and non-OA patient fibroblasts, and a further 19 lncRNAs were differentially expressed in fibroblasts from obese OA patients compared to normal-weight OA patients (>2-fold change, P < 0.05 for each), which included the lncRNA for metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1). MALAT1 was rapidly induced upon stimulation of OA synovial fibroblasts with proinflammatory cytokines, and was up-regulated in the synovium from obese OA patients as compared to normal-weight OA patients (1.6-fold change, P < 0.001) or non-OA patients (6-fold change, P < 0.001). MALAT1 knockdown in OA synovial fibroblasts (n = 4 patients) decreased the levels of mRNA expression and protein secretion of CXCL8 (>1.5-fold change, P < 0.01), whereas it increased expression of mRNAs for TRIM6 (>2-fold change, P < 0.01), IL7R (<2-fold change, P < 0.01), HIST1H1C (>1.5-fold change, P < 0.001), and MAML3 (>1.5-fold change, P < 0.001). In addition, MALAT1 knockdown inhibited the proliferation of synovial fibroblasts from obese patients with OA. CONCLUSION: Synovial fibroblasts from obese patients with hip OA exhibit an inflammatory phenotype. MALAT1 lncRNA may mediate joint inflammation in obese OA patients.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Osteoartrite do Quadril/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Idoso , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Osteoartrite do Quadril/complicações
15.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 20(1): 575, 2019 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785617

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite it being known that subchondral bone affects the viscoelasticity of cartilage, there has been little research into the mechanical properties of osteochondral tissue as a whole system. This study aims to unearth new knowledge concerning the dynamic behaviour of human subchondral bone and how energy is transferred through the cartilage-bone interface. METHODS: Dynamic mechanical analysis was used to determine the frequency-dependent (1-90 Hz) viscoelastic properties of the osteochondral unit (cartilage-bone system) as well as isolated cartilage and bone specimens extracted from human femoral heads obtained from patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery, with a mean age of 78 years (N = 5, n = 22). Bone mineral density (BMD) was also determined for samples using micro-computed tomography as a marker of tissue health. RESULTS: Cartilage storage and loss moduli along with bone storage modulus were found to increase logarithmically (p < 0.05) with frequency. The mean cartilage storage modulus was 34.4 ± 3.35 MPa and loss modulus was 6.17 ± 0.48 MPa (mean ± standard deviation). In contrast, bone loss modulus decreased logarithmically between 1 and 90 Hz (p < 0.05). The storage stiffness of the cartilage-bone-core was found to be frequency-dependent with a mean value of 1016 ± 54.0 N.mm- 1, while the loss stiffness was determined to be frequency-independent at 78.84 ± 2.48 N.mm- 1. Notably, a statistically significant (p < 0.05) linear correlation was found between the total energy dissipated from the isolated cartilage specimens, and the BMD of the isolated bone specimens at all frequencies except at 90 Hz (p = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: The viscoelastic properties of the cartilage-bone core were significantly different to the tissues in isolation (p < 0.05). Results from this study demonstrate that the functionality of these tissues arises because they operate as a unit. This is evidenced through the link between cartilage energy dissipated and bone BMD. The results may provide insights into the functionality of the osteochondral unit, which may offer further understanding of disease progression, such as osteoarthritis (OA). Furthermore, the results emphasise the importance of studying human tissue, as bovine models do not always display the same trends.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Cartilagem Articular/patologia , Cartilagem Articular/fisiologia , Elasticidade/fisiologia , Colo do Fêmur/patologia , Colo do Fêmur/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Viscosidade
17.
J Orthop ; 16(5): 434-439, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516213

RESUMO

The purpose was to evaluate the effect of Local infiltration analgesia (LIA) reagents in monotherapy and in combinations at clinical doses, on the viability and function of osteoblasts isolated from hip OA patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Human hip OA osteoblasts were exposed to LIA reagents including Bupivacaine, Lidocaine, Ropivacaine, Ketorolac and combinations with Adrenaline for 30 min. Osteoblast cellular viability and function was determined at 24 h and 7 days post-exposure. In conclusion, our data shows that LIA reagents, most notably Bupivacaine and its use in combination, are detrimental to human hip OA osteoblasts at concentrations advocated for clinical use.

18.
Spine Deform ; 7(4): 533-542, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202368

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: An observational descriptive study based on a single cohort of patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spinal facet osteoblasts at the curve apex display a different phenotype to osteoblasts from outside the curve in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Intrinsic differences in the phenotype of spinal facet bone tissue and in spinal osteoblasts have been implicated in the pathology of AIS. However, no study has compared the phenotype of facet osteoblasts at the curve apex compared with outside the curve in AIS patients. METHODS: Facet spinal tissue was collected perioperatively from three sites, the concave and convex side at the curve apex and from outside the curve (noncurve) from three AIS female patients aged 13-16 years. Spinal tissue was analyzed by micro-computed tomography to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular structure. Primary osteoblasts were cultured from concave, convex, and noncurve facet bone chips. The phenotype of osteoblasts was determined by assessment of cellular proliferation, cellular metabolism (alkaline phosphatase and Seahorse Analyzer), bone nodule mineralization (Alizarin red assay), and the mRNA expression of Wnt signaling genes (quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). RESULTS: Convex facet tissue exhibited greater BMD and trabecular thickness, compared with concave facet tissue. Osteoblasts at the convex side of the curve apex exhibited a significantly higher proliferative and metabolic phenotype and a greater capacity to form mineralized bone nodules, compared with concave osteoblasts. mRNA expression of SKP2 was significantly greater in both concave and convex osteoblasts, compared with noncurve osteoblasts. The expression of SFRP1 was significantly downregulated in convex osteoblasts, compared with either concave or noncurve. CONCLUSIONS: Intrinsic differences that affect osteoblast function are exhibited by spinal facet osteoblasts at the curve apex in AIS patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Prognostic.


Assuntos
Osteoblastos , Escoliose/fisiopatologia , Coluna Vertebral/citologia , Coluna Vertebral/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Osteoblastos/citologia , Osteoblastos/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Escoliose/diagnóstico por imagem , Escoliose/metabolismo , Escoliose/cirurgia , Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Coluna Vertebral/metabolismo , Via de Sinalização Wnt/fisiologia , Microtomografia por Raio-X
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119130

RESUMO

Osteoblast-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) are a collection of secreted (sEVs) and matrix-bound nanoparticles that function as foci for mineral nucleation and accumulation. Due to the fact sEVs can be isolated directly from the culture medium of mineralizing osteoblasts, there is growing interest their application regenerative medicine. However, at present therapeutic advancements are hindered by a lack of understanding of their precise temporal contribution to matrix mineralization. This study advances current knowledge by temporally aligning sEV profile and protein content with mineralization status. sEVs were isolated from mineralizing primary osteoblasts over a period of 1, 2, and 3 weeks. Bimodal particle distributions were observed (weeks 1 and 3: 44 and 164 nm; week 2: 59 and 220 nm), indicating a heterogeneous population with dimensions characteristic of exosome- (44 and 59 nm) and microvesicle-like (164 and 220 nm) particles. Proteomic characterization by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) revealed a declining correlation in EV-localized proteins as mineralization advanced, with Pearson correlation-coefficients of 0.79 (week 1 vs. 2), 0.6 (2 vs. 3) and 0.46 (1 vs. 3), respectively. Principal component analysis (PCA) further highlighted a time-dependent divergence in protein content as mineralization advanced. The most significant variations were observed at week 3, with a significant (p < 0.05) decline in particle concentration, visual evidence of EV rupture and enhanced mineralization. A total of 116 vesicle-localized proteins were significantly upregulated at week 3 (56% non-specifically, 19% relative to week 1, 25% relative to week 2). Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these proteins highlighted overrepresentation of genes associated with matrix organization. Of note, increased presence of phospholipid-binding and calcium channeling annexin proteins (A2, A5, and A6) indicative of progressive variations in the nucleational capacity of vesicles, as well as interaction with the surrounding ECM. We demonstrate sEV-mediated mineralization is dynamic process with variations in vesicle morphology and protein content having a potential influence on developmental changes matrix organization. These findings have implications for the selection and application of EVs for regenerative applications.

20.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 6, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906880

RESUMO

It is often desirable to characterise the morphology of myogenic cultures. To achieve this, the surface area of myotubes is often quantified, along with the nuclear fusion index (NFI). Existing methods of such quantification are time-consuming and subject to error-prone human input. We have developed MyoCount, an open-source program that runs via the freely available MATLAB Runtime and quantifies myotube surface area and NFI. MyoCount allows the user to adjust its parameters to account for differences in image quality, magnification and the colour channels used in generating the image. MyoCount measures of myotube surface area and NFI were compared to the mean of measures performed by two blinded investigators using ImageJ software (surface area R 2 = 0.89, NFI R 2 =0.87). For NFI, the mean coefficient of variation (CV) between two investigators (17.6 ± 2.3%) was significantly higher than that between the investigator mean and MyoCount (13.5 ± 1.4%). For measurements of myotube area, the CV did not differ between both analysis methods. Given these results and the advantages of applying the same image analysis method uniformly across all images in an experiment, we suggest that MyoCount will be a useful research tool and we publish its source code and instructions for its use alongside this article.

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