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1.
Perfusion ; : 267659120914141, 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404019

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is a need for a universal risk-adjustment model that may be used regardless of the indication and nature of neonatal or paediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. The 'paediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prediction' model appeared to be a promising candidate but required external validation. METHODS: We performed a validation study using institutional database of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients (2008-2019). We used the published paediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prediction score calculator to derive estimated mortality based on the model in this cohort of patients in our institutional database. We used standardized mortality ratio, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test in 10 deciles to assess model performance. RESULTS: We analysed 154 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation episodes in 150 patients. About 53% of the patients were full term (age ⩽30 days and gestation at birth ⩾37 weeks) neonates. The commonest category of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support was cardiac (42%). The overall in-paediatric intensive care unit mortality was 37% (57/154) and the in-hospital mortality was 42% (64/154). Distribution of estimated mortality risk was similar to the derivation study. The calculated standardized mortality ratio was 0.81 based on the paediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prediction model of risk-adjustment. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.55 (0.45-0.64) and Hosmer-Lemeshow-test p value <0.001 was unable to support goodness-of-fit. CONCLUSION: This small single-centre study with a small number of events was unable to validate the paediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation prediction-model of risk-adjustment. Although this remains the most promising of all the available models, further validation in larger data sets and/or refinement may be required before widespread use.

2.
Laryngoscope ; 2020 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The objective was to explore the effect of the proneuronal transcription factor neurogenic differentiation 1 (Neurod1, ND1) on Schwann cells (SC) and schwannoma cell proliferation. METHODS: Using a variety of transgenic mouse lines, we investigated how expression of Neurod1 effects medulloblastoma (MB) growth, schwannoma tumor progression, vestibular function, and SC cell proliferation. Primary human vestibular schwannoma (VS) cell cultures were transduced with adenoviral vectors expressing Neurod1. Cell proliferation was assessed by 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) uptake. STUDY DESIGN: Basic science investigation. RESULTS: Expression of Neurod1 reduced the growth of slow-growing but not fast-growing MB models. Gene transfer of Neurod1 in human schwannoma cultures significantly reduced cell proliferation in dose-dependent way. Deletion of the neurofibromatosis type 2 (Nf2) tumor-suppressor gene via Cre expression in SCs led to increased intraganglionic SC proliferation and mildly reduced vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEP) responses compared to age-matched wild-type littermates. The effect of Neurod1-induced expression on intraganglionic SC proliferation in animals lacking Nf2 was mild and highly variable. Sciatic nerve axotomy significantly increased SC proliferation in wild-type and Nf2-null animals, and expression of Neurod1 reduced the proliferative capacity of both wild-type and Nf2-null SCs following nerve injury. CONCLUSION: Expression of Neurod1 reduces slow-growing MB progression and reduces human SC proliferation in primary VS cultures. In a genetic mouse model of schwannomas, we find some effects of Neurod1 expression; however, the high variability indicates that more tightly regulated Neurod1 expression levels that mimic our in vitro data are needed to fully validate Neurod1 effects on schwannoma progression. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: NA Laryngoscope, 2020.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450210

RESUMO

In the setting of transposition, recognition of the variability in the morphology of the outflow tracts and the arterial trunks is essential for surgical repair. Presence of a unifying system for classification would minimize the risk of misunderstanding. We examined an archive of 142 unrepaired hearts with transposition, defined as the combination of concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculo-arterial connections, combined with the clinical records of 727 patients undergoing the arterial switch procedures. In the setting of usual atrial arrangement, we found the aortic root in leftward or posterior location in up to 5% of our cohorts, making the common term 'd-transposition' ambiguous. Variability in the relationship of the trunks was commoner in the setting of deficient ventricular septation, especially when the trunks were side-by-side (14% vs 5.5% when the ventricular septum was intact). Bilateral infundibulums were present in 14% of cases, and bilaterally deficient infundibulums in 3.5%. Both of these findings were more common with deficient ventricular septation. Fibrous continuity between the tricuspid and pulmonary valves was not always seen with perimembranous defects, particularly when there were bilateral infundibulums. Fibrous continuity between the leaflets of the tricuspid and mitral valves, in contrast, proved a unifying characteristic of the perimembranous defect. The combination of concordant atrioventricular and discordant ventriculo-arterial connections is best described simply as 'transposition', with precision provided when details are given of atrial arrangement and the relationships of the arterial trunks.

4.
Respir Med ; 167: 105979, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421545

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COPD exacerbation phenotypes have been defined in research populations by predominantly infective or inflammatory aetiology. We sought to characterise this in patients admitted to our centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case-notes of consecutive patients discharged alive after treatment for acute COPD exacerbations between December 2012 and January 2017 were analysed. Data were collected on treatment, length of stay, C-reactive protein (CRP), eosinophil count and bacterial sputum culture positivity for potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPM). RESULTS: 1029 exacerbations were included. There was an inverse correlation between CRP and eosinophil count (rho = -0.277, p < 0.01). The proportion of eosinophilic exacerbations (eosinophils ≥0.3 × 109/L) was low (157, 15%). Median length of stay was longer in patients with a CRP >100 mg/L (4d [3,8] vs 4d [2,7], p < 0.01) or when given antibiotics (4d [2,8] vs 3d [1,6], p < 0.001) and shorter if receiving corticosteroids (4d [2,6] vs 6d [3,7], p < 0.001). Being sputum culture positive on first exacerbation was associated with sputum culture positivity in subsequent exacerbations. Patients with PPM in sputum culture had a significantly higher median CRP than culture negative patients (38 mg/L [18.75, 57] v 18 mg/L [8.5,45.5] p < 0.05). Length of stay, eosinophil count and CRP were significantly correlated between exacerbation pairs. CONCLUSIONS: This real-world population found eosinophilic and high CRP exacerbations to be distinct and significantly stereotyped within individual patients across recurrent exacerbations. High CRP exacerbations are associated with greater healthcare utilisation and chance of sputum positivity with PPM. Eosinophilic exacerbations were associated with lower rate of readmission. Phenotype-driven treatment warrants further investigation in this population.

5.
Hear Res ; 390: 107951, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32244147

RESUMO

The retinoblastoma family of pocket proteins (pRBs), composed of Rb1, p107, and p130 are negative regulators of cell-cycle progression. The deletion of any individual pRB in the auditory system triggers hair cells' (HCs) and supporting cells' (SCs) proliferation to different extents. Nevertheless, accessing their combined role in the inner ear through conditional or complete knockout methods is limited by the early mortality of the triple knockout. In quiescent cells, hyperphosphorylation and inactivation of the pRBs are maintained through the activity of the Cyclin-D1-cdk4/6 complex. Cyclin D1 (CycD1) is expressed in the embryonic and neonatal inner ear. In the mature organ of Corti (OC), CycD1 expression is significantly downregulated, paralleling the OC mitotic quiescence. Earlier studies showed that CycD1 overexpression leads to cell-cycle reactivation in cultures of inner ear explants. Here, we characterize a Cre-activated, Doxycycline (Dox)-controlled, conditional CycD1 overexpression model, which when bred to a tetracycline-controlled transcriptional activator and the Atoh1-cre mouse lines, allow for transient CycD1 overexpression and pRBs' downregulation in the inner ear in a reversible fashion. Analyses of postnatal mice's inner ears at various time points revealed the presence of supernumerary cells throughout the length of the cochlea and in the vestibular end-organs. Notably, most supernumerary cells were observed in the inner hair cells' (IHCs) region, expressed myosin VIIa (M7a), and showed no signs of apoptosis at any of the time points analyzed. Auditory and vestibular phenotypes were similar between the different genotypes and treatment groups. The fact that no significant differences were observed in auditory and vestibular function supports the notion that the supernumerary cells detected in the adult mice cochlea and macular end-organs may not impair auditory functions.

6.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 21(1): 140, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126992

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Personalised Knee Improvement Programme (P-KIP) was developed based on previously published work, with the hypothesis that surgeons would refer patients to a well-structured conservative management intervention instead of for arthroscopy (de-implementation of arthroscopy by substitution with P-KIP). This meets NICE guidelines and international recommendations but such programmes are not widely used in the UK. Our aim was to determine whether P-KIP would reduce the number of arthroscopies performed for knee osteoarthritis. METHODS: P-KIP is a conservative care pathway including a group education session followed by individually tailored one-to-one dietician and physiotherapy sessions. Virtual clinic follow-up is conducted three to 6 months after completion of the programme. The service began in July 2015. The number of arthroscopies saved, measured from hospital level coding data, is the primary outcome measure. Interrupted time series analysis of coding data was conducted. As a quality assurance process, patient reported outcome measures (Oxford Knee Score; Euroqol 5D) were collected at baseline and at follow up. RESULTS: Time series analysis demonstrates that the programme saved 15.4 arthroscopies a month (95% confidence interval 9-21; p < 0.001), equating to 184 arthroscopies a year in a single hospital. The PROMs data demonstrated improvements in patient reported outcome scores consistent with previous published reports of conservative interventions in similar patient populations. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that P-KIP reduces the number of arthroscopies performed, and patients who took part in P-KIP had an improvement in their knee and general health outcomes. P-KIP has the potential to deliver efficiency savings and relive pressure on operative lists, however replication in other sites is required.

7.
Br J Anaesth ; 124(5): 535-543, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32147104

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated high-sensitivity troponin (hsTnT) after noncardiac surgery is associated with higher mortality, but the temporal relationship between early elevated troponin and the later development of noncardiac morbidity remains unclear. METHODS: Prospective observational study of patients aged ≥45 yr undergoing major noncardiac surgery at four UK hospitals (two masked to hsTnT). The exposure of interest was early elevated troponin, as defined by hsTnT >99th centile (≥15 ng L-1) within 24 h after surgery. The primary outcome was morbidity 72 h after surgery, defined by the Postoperative Morbidity Survey (POMS). Secondary outcomes were time to become morbidity-free and Clavien-Dindo ≥grade 3 complications. RESULTS: Early elevated troponin (median 21 ng L-1 [16-32]) occurred in 992 of 4335 (22.9%) patients undergoing elective noncardiac surgery (mean [standard deviation, sd] age, 65 [11] yr; 2385 [54.9%] male). Noncardiac morbidity was more frequent in 494/992 (49.8%) patients with early elevated troponin compared with 1127/3343 (33.7%) patients with hsTnT <99th centile (odds ratio [OR]=1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-2.25). Patients with early elevated troponin had a higher risk of proven/suspected infectious morbidity (OR=1.54; 95% CI, 1.24-1.91) and critical care utilisation (OR=2.05; 95% CI, 1.73-2.43). Clavien-Dindo ≥grade 3 complications occurred in 167/992 (16.8%) patients with early elevated troponin, compared with 319/3343 (9.5%) patients with hsTnT <99th centile (OR=1.78; 95% CI, 1.48-2.14). Absence of early elevated troponin was associated with morbidity-free recovery (OR=0.44; 95% CI, 0.39-0.51). CONCLUSIONS: Early elevated troponin within 24 h of elective noncardiac surgery precedes the subsequent development of noncardiac organ dysfunction and may help stratify levels of postoperative care in real time.


Assuntos
Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Troponina T/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Estudos Prospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
Neuroimage ; 211: 116606, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032739

RESUMO

To enable application of non-Gaussian diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) techniques in large-scale clinical trials and facilitate translation to clinical practice there is a requirement for fast, high contrast, techniques that are sensitive to changes in tissue structure which provide diagnostic signatures at the early stages of disease. Here we describe a new way to compress the acquisition of multi-shell b-value diffusion data, Quasi-Diffusion MRI (QDI), which provides a probe of subvoxel tissue complexity using short acquisition times (1-4 â€‹min). We also describe a coherent framework for multi-directional diffusion gradient acquisition and data processing that allows computation of rotationally invariant quasi-diffusion tensor imaging (QDTI) maps. QDI is a quantitative technique that is based on a special case of the Continuous Time Random Walk model of diffusion dynamics and assumes the presence of non-Gaussian diffusion properties within tissue microstructure. QDI parameterises the diffusion signal attenuation according to the rate of decay (i.e. diffusion coefficient, D in mm2 s-1) and the shape of the power law tail (i.e. the fractional exponent, α). QDI provides analogous tissue contrast to Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) by calculation of normalised entropy of the parameterised diffusion signal decay curve, Hn, but does so without the limitations of a maximum b-value. We show that QDI generates images with superior tissue contrast to conventional diffusion imaging within clinically acceptable acquisition times of between 84 and 228 â€‹s. We show that QDI provides clinically meaningful images in cerebral small vessel disease and brain tumour case studies. Our initial findings suggest that QDI may be added to routine conventional dMRI acquisitions allowing simple application in clinical trials and translation to the clinical arena.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32061889

RESUMO

To examine the role and outcomes of all interventions for aortic stenosis in children, with focus on freedom from reintervention and the aim to minimise prosthetic aortic valve replacement (pAVR) during childhood. Retrospective analysis of 194 consecutive children who underwent any aortic valve intervention for a biventricular repair strategy at a single institution between 1995 and 2017. Data were obtained from hospital records and follow-up was 100% complete. Over a 22-year period, 194 children underwent total 313 aortic valve procedures: Primary interventions were surgical valvotomy (SV)/surgical repair (SR) in 94 (48.5%), balloon valvuloplasty (BV) in 60 (30.9%), pAVR in 8 (4.1%) and Ross/Ross-Konno procedure in 32 (16.5%). Median age at first intervention was 1.1 years (interquartile range [IQR] 0.1-9.4) and varied with type of intervention: SV/SR were most common in neonates (33, 75%) and infants (35, 68%), whilst BV was most frequent in older children (42, 42%). Operative survival was 99% (2 early deaths, both in neonates with critical aortic stenosis and poor left ventricular function) and 15-year survival was 95%. A Ross procedure was performed in 79 (40.7%) patients over the 15-year study period, 1 of whom required late pAVR for autograft failure. Freedom from any reintervention after SV/SR and BV was 41% and 40% at 10 years, compared to 90% at 10 years with the Ross procedure (P < 0.001). Among neonatal SV/SR and BV, 98% required reintervention during childhood with no difference between groups. Valve morphology did not influence freedom from ultimate valve replacement. In patients who went on to have a Ross procedure, median time from initial intervention to Ross was 2.8 years (IQR 0.1-11.9) in neonates and 6.0 years (IQR 3.1-7.5) in all other age groups. Overall freedom from pAVR was 97% at 10 years and was similar in the SV/SR and BV groups. A strategy of simple valve repair and primary Ross procedure provides excellent survival and good freedom from pAVR. However, reintervention rates after simple interventions for congenital AS are high, especially in younger age groups. The Ross procedure offers the best freedom from reintervention of any technique and wider use of primary Ross in younger age groups should be considered.

11.
Diabetes Care ; 43(5): 1070-1076, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32108022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Suboptimal adherence to insulin treatment is a main issue in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. However, to date, there are no available data on adherence to adjunct noninsulin medications in this population. Our aim was to assess adherence to ACE inhibitors and statins and explore potential determinants in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 443 adolescents with type 1 diabetes recruited into the Adolescent Type 1 Diabetes Cardio-Renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT) and exposed to treatment with two oral drugs-an ACE inhibitor and a statin-as well as combinations of both or placebo for 2-4 years. Adherence was assessed every 3 months with the Medication Event Monitoring System (MEMS) and pill count. RESULTS: Median adherence during the trial was 80.2% (interquartile range 63.6-91.8) based on MEMS and 85.7% (72.4-92.9) for pill count. Adherence based on MEMS and pill count dropped from 92.9% and 96.3%, respectively, at the first visit to 76.3% and 79.0% at the end of the trial. The percentage of study participants with adherence ≥75% declined from 84% to 53%. A good correlation was found between adherence based on MEMS and pill count (r = 0.82, P < 0.001). Factors associated with adherence were age, glycemic control, and country. CONCLUSIONS: We report an overall good adherence to ACE inhibitors and statins during a clinical trial, although there was a clear decline in adherence over time. Older age and suboptimal glycemic control at baseline predicted lower adherence during the trial, and, predictably, reduced adherence was more prevalent in subjects who subsequently dropped out.

12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(2)2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32060115

RESUMO

A 41-year-old woman was admitted with progressive paraesthesia and weakness and was diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Following an initial period of recovery with intravenous immunoglobulin treatment, she developed acute chest pain associated with electrocardiographic changes. Investigations excluded acute coronary syndrome and instead confirmed a diagnosis of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which was treated medically. The patient made an excellent neurological and cardiac recovery. Here we discuss the rarely described association between these two conditions and suggest that patients admitted with Guillain-Barré syndrome may benefit from routine screening with echocardiography.

13.
Diabetologia ; 63(4): 853-863, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942669

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Approximately 25% of people with type 1 diabetes have suppressed counterregulatory hormonal and symptomatic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia, which renders them at increased risk of severe, disabling hypoglycaemia. This is called impaired awareness of hypoglycaemia (IAH), the cause of which is unknown. We recently proposed that IAH develops through habituation, a form of adaptive memory to preceding hypoglycaemia. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated restoration of defective counterregulatory hormonal responses to hypoglycaemia (referred to as dishabituation) in a rodent model of IAH following introduction of a novel stress stimulus (high intensity training [HIT]). In this proof-of-concept study we sought to further test this hypothesis by examining whether a single episode of HIT would amplify counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycaemia in people with type 1 diabetes who had IAH (assessed by Gold score ≥4, modified Clarke score ≥4 or Dose Adjustment For Normal Eating (DAFNE) hypoglycaemia awareness rating 2 or 3). The primary outcome was the difference in adrenaline response to hypoglycaemia following both a single episode of HIT and rest. METHODS: In this randomised, crossover study 12 participants aged between 18 and 55 years with type 1 diabetes for ≥5 years and an HbA1c <75 mmol/mol (9%) were recruited. Individuals were randomised using computer generated block randomisation to start with one episode of HIT (4 × 30 s cycle sprints [2 min recovery] at 150% of maximum wattage achieved during [Formula: see text] assessment) or rest (control). The following day they underwent a 90 min hyperinsulinaemic-hypoglycaemic clamp study at 2.5 mmol/l with measurement of hormonal counterregulatory response, symptom scores and cognitive testing (four-choice reaction time and digit symbol substitution test). Each intervention and subsequent clamp study was separated by at least 2 weeks. The participants and investigators were not blinded to the intervention or measurements during the study. The investigators were blinded to the primary outcome and blood analysis results. RESULTS: All participants (six male and six female, age 19-54 years, median [IQR] duration of type 1 diabetes 24.5 [17.3-29.0] years, mean [SEM] HbA1c 56 [3.67] mmol/mol; 7.3% [0.34%]) completed the study (both interventions and two clamps). In comparison with the rest study, a single episode of HIT led to a 29% increase in the adrenaline (epinephrine) response (mean [SEM]) (2286.5 [343.1] vs 2953.8 [384.9] pmol/l); a significant increase in total symptom scores (Edinburgh Hypoglycaemia Symptom Scale: 24.25 [2.960 vs 27.5 [3.9]; p<0.05), and a significant prolongation of four-choice reaction time (591.8 [22.5] vs 659.9 [39.86] ms; p<0.01] during equivalent hypoglycaemia induced the following day. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that IAH develops in people with type 1 diabetes as a habituated response and that introduction of a novel stressor can restore, at least partially, the adapted counterregulatory hormonal, symptomatic and cognitive responses to hypoglycaemia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN15236211.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31993631

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of prenatal alcohol exposure effects generally only include conventional observational studies. However, estimates from such studies are prone to confounding and other biases. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the evidence on the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational designs using alternative analytical approaches to improve causal inference. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline, Embase, Web of Science, PsychINFO from inception to 21 June 2018. Manual searches of reference lists of retrieved papers. SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs of interventions to stop/reduce drinking in pregnancy and observational studies using alternative analytical methods (quasi-experimental studies e.g. Mendelian randomization and natural experiments, negative control comparisons) to determine the causal effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on pregnancy and longer-term offspring outcomes in human studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: One reviewer extracted data and another checked extracted data. Risk of bias was assessed using customized risk of bias tools. A narrative synthesis of findings was carried out and a meta-analysis for one outcome. MAIN RESULTS: Twenty-three studies were included, representing five types of study design, including 1 RCT, 9 Mendelian randomization and 7 natural experiment studies, and reporting on over 30 outcomes. One study design-outcome combination included enough independent results to meta-analyse. Based on evidence from several studies, we found a likely causal detrimental role of prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive outcomes, and weaker evidence for a role in low birthweight. CONCLUSION: None of the included studies was judged to be at low risk of bias in all domains, results should therefore be interpreted with caution. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: This study is registered with PROSPERO, registration number CRD42015015941.

16.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940310

RESUMO

About 62,000 dead or dying common murres (Uria aalge), the trophically dominant fish-eating seabird of the North Pacific, washed ashore between summer 2015 and spring 2016 on beaches from California to Alaska. Most birds were severely emaciated and, so far, no evidence for anything other than starvation was found to explain this mass mortality. Three-quarters of murres were found in the Gulf of Alaska and the remainder along the West Coast. Studies show that only a fraction of birds that die at sea typically wash ashore, and we estimate that total mortality approached 1 million birds. About two-thirds of murres killed were adults, a substantial blow to breeding populations. Additionally, 22 complete reproductive failures were observed at multiple colonies region-wide during (2015) and after (2016-2017) the mass mortality event. Die-offs and breeding failures occur sporadically in murres, but the magnitude, duration and spatial extent of this die-off, associated with multi-colony and multi-year reproductive failures, is unprecedented and astonishing. These events co-occurred with the most powerful marine heatwave on record that persisted through 2014-2016 and created an enormous volume of ocean water (the "Blob") from California to Alaska with temperatures that exceeded average by 2-3 standard deviations. Other studies indicate that this prolonged heatwave reduced phytoplankton biomass and restructured zooplankton communities in favor of lower-calorie species, while it simultaneously increased metabolically driven food demands of ectothermic forage fish. In response, forage fish quality and quantity diminished. Similarly, large ectothermic groundfish were thought to have increased their demand for forage fish, resulting in greater top-predator demands for diminished forage fish resources. We hypothesize that these bottom-up and top-down forces created an "ectothermic vise" on forage species leading to their system-wide scarcity and resulting in mass mortality of murres and many other fish, bird and mammal species in the region during 2014-2017.


Assuntos
Charadriiformes/fisiologia , Clima , Temperatura Alta , Mortalidade , Reprodução , Animais , Oceano Pacífico
19.
Pediatr Obes ; 15(2): e12582, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691541

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BMI fluctuations during puberty are common. Data on individual change in BMI from childhood to young adulthood are limited in youth with type 1 diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To compare longitudinal trajectories of body mass index z score (BMIz) from childhood to adolescence across three registries spanning five countries. METHODS: Data sources: T1DX (USA), DPV (Germany/Austria/Luxembourg) and ADDN (Australia). The analysis included 11,513 youth with type 1 diabetes, duration >1 year, at least one BMI measure at baseline (age 8-10 years) and >5 aggregated BMI measures by year of age during follow-up until age 17 years. BMIz was calculated based on WHO charts. Latent class growth modelling was used to identify subgroups following a similar trajectory of BMIz over time. RESULTS: Five distinct trajectories of BMIz were present in the T1DX and ADDN cohorts, while six trajectories were identified in the DPV cohort. Boys followed more often a low/near-normal pattern while elevated BMIz curves were more likely in girls (ADDN; DPV). For T1DX cohort, no sex differences were observed. Comparing the reference group (BMIz ~0) with the other groups during puberty, higher BMIz was significantly associated with older age at T1D onset, racial/ethnic minority and elevated HbA1c (all p<0.05). CONCLUSION: This multinational study presents unique BMIz trajectories in youth with T1D across three continents. The prevalence of overweight and the longitudinal persistence of overweight support the need for close monitoring of weight and nutrition in this population. The international and individual differences likely result from diverse genetic, environmental and therapeutic factors.

20.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 57(1): 21-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331191

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a relationship exists between the aesthetic scores given to photographic records of the nasolabial region of patients with repaired unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) and the 5-Year Olds' Index scores of study models for the same participants. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: University of Bristol Dental Hospital, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with nonsyndromic UCLP previously enrolled in the Cleft Care UK (CCUK) Study. METHODS: The CCUK participants, who had both study models and photographs (frontal and worm's eye view), were identified and their records retrieved. These were rated by 2 consultants and 2 senior registrars in orthodontics. The 5-Year Olds' Index was used to score the study models, and at a separate sitting, a 5-point Likert scale was used to score the cropped frontal and worm's eye view photographs of the same children. The results were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients and Cohen κ. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between the aesthetic scores of the photographic views and the concordant 5-Year Olds' Index scores of the study models. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient scores showed very poor agreement between the photographic views and their concordant study models. The level of inter- and intra-rater reliability was strongest when scoring the study models. CONCLUSIONS: There was no agreement between the scores given to various photographic views and their corresponding study models. Scoring the study models using the 5-Year Olds' Index was the most reliable outcome measure for this age-group.

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