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1.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1148, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620984

RESUMO

Vertigo is the leading symptom of vestibular disorders and a major risk factor for falls. In a genome-wide association study of vertigo (Ncases = 48,072, Ncontrols = 894,541), we uncovered an association with six common sequence variants in individuals of European ancestry, including missense variants in ZNF91, OTOG, OTOGL, and TECTA, and a cis-eQTL for ARMC9. The association of variants in ZNF91, OTOGL, and OTOP1 was driven by an association with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Using previous reports of sequence variants associating with age-related hearing impairment and motion sickness, we found eight additional variants that associate with vertigo. Although disorders of the auditory and the vestibular system may co-occur, none of the six genome-wide significant vertigo variants were associated with hearing loss and only one was associated with age-related hearing impairment. Our results uncovered sequence variants associating with vertigo in a genome-wide association study and implicated genes with known roles in inner ear development, maintenance, and disease.

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1132, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34580418

RESUMO

Platelets play an important role in hemostasis and other aspects of vascular biology. We conducted a meta-analysis of platelet count GWAS using data on 536,974 Europeans and identified 577 independent associations. To search for mechanisms through which these variants affect platelets, we applied cis-expression quantitative trait locus, DEPICT and IPA analyses and assessed genetic sharing between platelet count and various traits using polygenic risk scoring. We found genetic sharing between platelet count and counts of other blood cells (except red blood cells), in addition to several other quantitative traits, including markers of cardiovascular, liver and kidney functions, height, and weight. Platelet count polygenic risk score was predictive of myeloproliferative neoplasms, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, hypertension, and benign prostate hyperplasia. Taken together, these results advance understanding of diverse aspects of platelet biology and how they affect biological processes in health and disease.

4.
Nat Genet ; 53(8): 1135-1142, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282336

RESUMO

Birth weight is a common measure of fetal growth that is associated with a range of health outcomes. It is directly affected by the fetal genome and indirectly by the maternal genome. We performed genome-wide association studies on birth weight in the genomes of the child and parents and further analyzed birth length and ponderal index, yielding a total of 243 fetal growth variants. We clustered those variants based on the effects of transmitted and nontransmitted alleles on birth weight. Out of 141 clustered variants, 22 were consistent with parent-of-origin-specific effects. We further used haplotype-specific polygenic risk scores to directly test the relationship between adult traits and birth weight. Our results indicate that the maternal genome contributes to increased birth weight through blood-glucose-raising alleles while blood-pressure-raising alleles reduce birth weight largely through the fetal genome.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Adulto , Glicemia/genética , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estatura/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Islândia , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
5.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 706, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108613

RESUMO

Age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) is the most common sensory disorder in older adults. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 121,934 ARHI cases and 591,699 controls from Iceland and the UK. We identified 21 novel sequence variants, of which 13 are rare, under either additive or recessive models. Of special interest are a missense variant in LOXHD1 (MAF = 1.96%) and a tandem duplication in FBF1 covering 4 exons (MAF = 0.22%) associating with ARHI (OR = 3.7 for homozygotes, P = 1.7 × 10-22 and OR = 4.2 for heterozygotes, P = 5.7 × 10-27, respectively). We constructed an ARHI genetic risk score (GRS) using common variants and showed that a common variant GRS can identify individuals at risk comparable to carriers of rare high penetrance variants. Furthermore, we found that ARHI and tinnitus share genetic causes. This study sheds a new light on the genetic architecture of ARHI, through several rare variants in both Mendelian deafness genes and genes not previously linked to hearing.


Assuntos
Perda Auditiva/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Feminino , Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
6.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 758, 2021 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145379

RESUMO

Predicting all-cause mortality risk is challenging and requires extensive medical data. Recently, large-scale proteomics datasets have proven useful for predicting health-related outcomes. Here, we use measurements of levels of 4,684 plasma proteins in 22,913 Icelanders to develop all-cause mortality predictors both for short- and long-term risk. The participants were 18-101 years old with a mean follow up of 13.7 (sd. 4.7) years. During the study period, 7,061 participants died. Our proposed predictor outperformed, in survival prediction, a predictor based on conventional mortality risk factors. We could identify the 5% at highest risk in a group of 60-80 years old, where 88% died within ten years and 5% at the lowest risk where only 1% died. Furthermore, the predicted risk of death correlates with measures of frailty in an independent dataset. Our results show that the plasma proteome can be used to assess general health and estimate the risk of death.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/análise , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Proteômica/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Risco , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3633, 2021 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34131116

RESUMO

A pressing concern in the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic and other viral outbreaks, is the extent to which the containment measures are halting the viral spread. A straightforward way to assess this is to tally the active cases and the recovered ones throughout the epidemic. Here, we show how epidemic control can be assessed with molecular information during a well characterized epidemic in Iceland. We demonstrate how the viral concentration decreased in those newly diagnosed as the epidemic transitioned from exponential growth phase to containment phase. The viral concentration in the cases identified in population screening decreased faster than in those symptomatic and considered at high risk and that were targeted by the healthcare system. The viral concentration persists in recovering individuals as we found that half of the cases are still positive after two weeks. We demonstrate that accumulation of mutations in SARS-CoV-2 genome can be exploited to track the rate of new viral generations throughout the different phases of the epidemic, where the accumulation of mutations decreases as the transmission rate decreases in the containment phase. Overall, the molecular signatures of SARS-CoV-2 infections contain valuable epidemiological information that can be used to assess the effectiveness of containment measures.


Assuntos
Benchmarking/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Epidemias , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mutação , RNA Viral
8.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33982893

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Biomarkers for diagnosis and progression of osteoarthritis (OA) are lacking. This study was undertaken to identify circulating biomarkers for OA that could predict disease occurrence and/or progression to joint replacement. METHODS: Using the SomaScan platform, we measured 4,792 proteins in plasma from 37,278 individuals, of whom 12,178 individuals had OA and 2,524 had undergone joint replacement. We performed a case-control study for identification of potential protein biomarkers for hip, knee, and/or hand OA, and a prospective study for identification of biomarkers for joint replacement. RESULTS: Among the large panel of plasma proteins assessed, cartilage acidic protein 1 (CRTAC1) was the most strongly associated with both OA diagnosis (odds ratio 1.46 [95% confidence interval 1.41-1.52] for knee OA, odds ratio 1.36 [95% confidence interval 1.29-1.43] for hip OA, and odds ratio 1.33 [95% confidence interval 1.26-1.40] for hand OA) and progression to joint replacement (hazard ratio 1.40 [95% confidence interval 1.30-1.51] for knee replacement and hazard ratio 1.31 [95% confidence interval 1.19-1.45] for hip replacement). Patients with OA who were in the highest quintile of risk of joint replacement, based on known risk factors (i.e., age, sex, and body mass index) and plasma CRTAC1 level, were 16 times more likely to undergo knee replacement within 5 years of plasma sample collection than those in the lowest quintile, and 6.5 times more likely to undergo hip replacement. CRTAC1 was not associated with other types of inflammatory arthritis. A specific protein profile was identified in those patients who had undergone joint replacement prior to plasma sample collection. CONCLUSION: Through a hypothesis-free approach, we identified CRTAC1 in plasma as a novel promising candidate biomarker for OA that is both associated with occurrence of OA and predictive of progression to joint replacement. This biomarker might also be useful in the selection of suitable patients for clinical trial enrollment.

9.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 156, 2021 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536631

RESUMO

Iron is essential for many biological functions and iron deficiency and overload have major health implications. We performed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies from Iceland, the UK and Denmark of blood levels of ferritin (N = 246,139), total iron binding capacity (N = 135,430), iron (N = 163,511) and transferrin saturation (N = 131,471). We found 62 independent sequence variants associating with iron homeostasis parameters at 56 loci, including 46 novel loci. Variants at DUOX2, F5, SLC11A2 and TMPRSS6 associate with iron deficiency anemia, while variants at TF, HFE, TFR2 and TMPRSS6 associate with iron overload. A HBS1L-MYB intergenic region variant associates both with increased risk of iron overload and reduced risk of iron deficiency anemia. The DUOX2 missense variant is present in 14% of the population, associates with all iron homeostasis biomarkers, and increases the risk of iron deficiency anemia by 29%. The associations implicate proteins contributing to the main physiological processes involved in iron homeostasis: iron sensing and storage, inflammation, absorption of iron from the gut, iron recycling, erythropoiesis and bleeding/menstruation.


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/genética , Loci Gênicos , Variação Genética , Sobrecarga de Ferro/genética , Ferro/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dinamarca , Ferritinas/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Homeostase , Humanos , Islândia , Sobrecarga de Ferro/sangue , Sobrecarga de Ferro/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transferrina/metabolismo , Reino Unido
10.
Laeknabladid ; 107(3): 119, 2021 03.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33625376
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4188, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602968

RESUMO

Bell's palsy is the most common cause of unilateral facial paralysis and is defined as an idiopathic and acute inability to control movements of the facial muscles on the affected side. While the pathogenesis remains unknown, previous studies have implicated post-viral inflammation and resulting compression of the facial nerve. Reported heritability estimates of 4-14% suggest a genetic component in the etiology and an autosomal dominant inheritance has been proposed. Here, we report findings from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies uncovering the first unequivocal association with Bell's palsy (rs9357446-A; P = 6.79 × 10-23, OR = 1.23; Ncases = 4714, Ncontrols = 1,011,520). The variant also confers risk of intervertebral disc disorders (P = 2.99 × 10-11, OR = 1.04) suggesting a common pathogenesis in part or a true pleiotropy.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 42(20): 1959-1971, 2021 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33580673

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to use human genetics to investigate the pathogenesis of sick sinus syndrome (SSS) and the role of risk factors in its development. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide association study of 6469 SSS cases and 1 000 187 controls from deCODE genetics, the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, UK Biobank, and the HUNT study. Variants at six loci associated with SSS, a reported missense variant in MYH6, known atrial fibrillation (AF)/electrocardiogram variants at PITX2, ZFHX3, TTN/CCDC141, and SCN10A and a low-frequency (MAF = 1.1-1.8%) missense variant, p.Gly62Cys in KRT8 encoding the intermediate filament protein keratin 8. A full genotypic model best described the p.Gly62Cys association (P = 1.6 × 10-20), with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.44 for heterozygotes and a disproportionally large OR of 13.99 for homozygotes. All the SSS variants increased the risk of pacemaker implantation. Their association with AF varied and p.Gly62Cys was the only variant not associating with any other arrhythmia or cardiovascular disease. We tested 17 exposure phenotypes in polygenic score (PGS) and Mendelian randomization analyses. Only two associated with the risk of SSS in Mendelian randomization, AF, and lower heart rate, suggesting causality. Powerful PGS analyses provided convincing evidence against causal associations for body mass index, cholesterol, triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: We report the associations of variants at six loci with SSS, including a missense variant in KRT8 that confers high risk in homozygotes and points to a mechanism specific to SSS development. Mendelian randomization supports a causal role for AF in the development of SSS.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Marca-Passo Artificial , Fibrilação Atrial/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Canal de Sódio Disparado por Voltagem NAV1.8 , Síndrome do Nó Sinusal/genética
13.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 27-34, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414551

RESUMO

Despite the important role that monozygotic twins have played in genetics research, little is known about their genomic differences. Here we show that monozygotic twins differ on average by 5.2 early developmental mutations and that approximately 15% of monozygotic twins have a substantial number of these early developmental mutations specific to one of them. Using the parents and offspring of twins, we identified pre-twinning mutations. We observed instances where a twin was formed from a single cell lineage in the pre-twinning cell mass and instances where a twin was formed from several cell lineages. CpG>TpG mutations increased in frequency with embryonic development, coinciding with an increase in DNA methylation. Our results indicate that allocations of cells during development shapes genomic differences between monozygotic twins.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Mosaicismo , Mutação/genética , Zigoto/metabolismo
14.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 14(1): e003029, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the LDL (low-density lipoprotein) receptor gene (LDLR) cause elevated levels of LDL cholesterol and premature cardiovascular disease. To date, a gain-of-function mutation in LDLR with a large effect on LDL cholesterol levels has not been described. Here, we searched for sequence variants in LDLR that have a large effect on LDL cholesterol levels. METHODS: We analyzed whole-genome sequencing data from 43 202 Icelanders. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms and structural variants including deletions, insertions, and duplications were genotyped using whole-genome sequencing-based data. LDL cholesterol associations were carried out in a sample of >100 000 Icelanders with genetic information (imputed or whole-genome sequencing). Molecular analyses were performed using RNA sequencing and protein expression assays in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes. RESULTS: We discovered a 2.5-kb deletion (del2.5) overlapping the 3' untranslated region of LDLR in 7 heterozygous carriers from a single family. Mean level of LDL cholesterol was 74% lower in del2.5 carriers than in 101 851 noncarriers, a difference of 2.48 mmol/L (96 mg/dL; P=8.4×10-8). Del2.5 results in production of an alternative mRNA isoform with a truncated 3' untranslated region. The truncation leads to a loss of target sites for microRNAs known to repress translation of LDLR. In Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphocytes derived from del2.5 carriers, expression of alternative mRNA isoform was 1.84-fold higher than the wild-type isoform (P=0.0013), and there was 1.79-fold higher surface expression of the LDL receptor than in noncarriers (P=0.0086). We did not find a highly penetrant detrimental impact of lifelong very low levels of LDL cholesterol due to del2.5 on health of the carriers. CONCLUSIONS: Del2.5 is the first reported gain-of-function mutation in LDLR causing a large reduction in LDL cholesterol. These data point to a role for alternative polyadenylation of LDLR mRNA as a potent regulator of LDL receptor expression in humans.

15.
Front Immunol ; 11: 527310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193301

RESUMO

Adjuvants enhance magnitude and duration of immune responses induced by vaccines. In this study we assessed in neonatal mice if and how the adjuvant LT-K63 given with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, Pnc1-TT, could affect the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF-R) superfamily members, known to be involved in the initiation and maintenance of antibody responses; B cell activating factor receptor (BAFF-R) and B cell maturation antigen (BCMA) and their ligands, BAFF, and a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL). Initially we assessed the maturation status of different B cell populations and their expression of BAFF-R and BCMA. Neonatal mice had dramatically fewer B cells than adult mice and the composition of different subsets within the B cell pool differed greatly. Proportionally newly formed B cells were most abundant, but they had diminished BAFF-R expression which could explain low proportions of marginal zone and follicular B cells observed. Limited BCMA expression was also detected in neonatal pre-plasmablasts/plasmablasts. LT-K63 enhanced vaccine-induced BAFF-R expression in splenic marginal zone, follicular and newly formed B cells, leading to increased plasmablast/plasma cells, and their enhanced expression of BCMA in spleen and bone marrow. Additionally, the induction of BAFF and APRIL expression occurred early in neonatal mice immunized with Pnc1-TT either with or without LT-K63. However, BAFF+ and APRIL+ cells in spleens were maintained at a higher level in mice that received the adjuvant. Furthermore, the early increase of APRIL+ cells in bone marrow was more profound in mice immunized with vaccine and adjuvant. Finally, we assessed, for the first time in neonatal mice, accessory cells of the plasma cell niche in bone marrow and their secretion of APRIL. We found that LT-K63 enhanced the frequency and APRIL expression of eosinophils, macrophages, and megakaryocytes, which likely contributed to plasma cell survival, even though APRIL+ cells showed a fast decline. All this was associated with enhanced, sustained vaccine-specific antibody-secreting cells in bone marrow and persisting vaccine-specific serum antibodies. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms behind the adjuvanticity of LT-K63 and identifies molecular pathways that should be triggered by vaccine adjuvants to induce sustained humoral immunity in early life.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Toxinas Bacterianas/farmacologia , Enterotoxinas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/farmacologia , Imunidade Humoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Linfócitos B/citologia , Camundongos
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5976, 2020 11 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33239696

RESUMO

Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, affecting both maternal and fetal health. In genome-wide association meta-analysis of European and Central Asian mothers, we identify sequence variants that associate with preeclampsia in the maternal genome at ZNF831/20q13 and FTO/16q12. These are previously established variants for blood pressure (BP) and the FTO variant has also been associated with body mass index (BMI). Further analysis of BP variants establishes that variants at MECOM/3q26, FGF5/4q21 and SH2B3/12q24 also associate with preeclampsia through the maternal genome. We further show that a polygenic risk score for hypertension associates with preeclampsia. However, comparison with gestational hypertension indicates that additional factors modify the risk of preeclampsia.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Pré-Eclâmpsia/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Ásia Central/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fator 5 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Proteína do Locus do Complexo MDS1 e EVI1/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Curr Biol ; 30(23): 4643-4653.e3, 2020 12 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035477

RESUMO

Olfactory receptor (OR) genes in humans form a special class characterized by unusually high DNA sequence diversity, which should give rise to differences in perception and behavior. In the largest genome-wide association study to date based on olfactory testing, we investigated odor perception and naming with smell tasks performed by 9,122 Icelanders, with replication in a separate sample of 2,204 individuals. We discovered an association between a low-frequency missense variant in TAAR5 and reduced intensity rating of fish odor containing trimethylamine (p.Ser95Pro, pcombined = 5.6 × 10-15). We demonstrate that TAAR5 genotype affects aversion to fish odor, reflected by linguistic descriptions of the odor and pleasantness ratings. We also discovered common sequence variants in two canonical olfactory receptor loci that associate with increased intensity and naming of licorice odor (trans-anethole: lead variant p.Lys233Asn in OR6C70, pcombined = 8.8 × 10-16 and pcombined = 1.4 × 10-9) and enhanced naming of cinnamon (trans-cinnamaldehyde; intergenic variant rs317787-T, pcombined = 5.0 × 10-17). Together, our results show that TAAR5 genotype variation influences human odor responses and highlight that sequence diversity in canonical OR genes can lead to enhanced olfactory ability, in contrast to the view that greater tolerance for mutations in the human OR repertoire leads to diminished function.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(39): 24443-24449, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900928

RESUMO

Polysaccharide-protein conjugates have been developed to overcome the T-independent response, hyporesponsiveness to repeated vaccination, and poor immunogenicity in infants of polysaccharides. To address the impact of polysaccharide length, typhoid conjugates made with short- and long-chain fractions of Vi polysaccharide with average sizes of 9.5, 22.8, 42.7, 82.0, and 165 kDa were compared. Long-chain-conjugated Vi (165 kDa) induced a response in both wild-type and T cell-deficient mice, suggesting that it maintains a T-independent response. In marked contrast, short-chain Vi (9.5 to 42.7 kDa) conjugates induced a response in wild-type mice but not in T cell-deficient mice, suggesting that the response is dependent on T cell help. Mechanistically, this was explained in neonatal mice, in which long-chain, but not short-chain, Vi conjugate induced late apoptosis of Vi-specific B cells in spleen and early depletion of Vi-specific B cells in bone marrow, resulting in hyporesponsiveness and lack of long-term persistence of Vi-specific IgG in serum and IgG+ antibody-secreting cells in bone marrow. We conclude that while conjugation of long-chain Vi generates T-dependent antigens, the conjugates also retain T-independent properties, leading to detrimental effects on immune responses. The data reported here may explain some inconsistencies observed in clinical trials and help guide the design of effective conjugate vaccines.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra Salmonella/administração & dosagem , Salmonella typhi/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Febre Tifoide/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/genética , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/imunologia , Vacinas contra Salmonella/genética , Vacinas contra Salmonella/imunologia , Salmonella typhi/genética , Febre Tifoide/microbiologia , Febre Tifoide/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Conjugadas/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Conjugadas/genética , Vacinas Conjugadas/imunologia
19.
Eur Heart J ; 41(28): 2618-2628, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702746

RESUMO

AIMS: To explore whether variability in dietary cholesterol and phytosterol absorption impacts the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) using as instruments sequence variants in the ABCG5/8 genes, key regulators of intestinal absorption of dietary sterols. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined the effects of ABCG5/8 variants on non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol (N up to 610 532) and phytosterol levels (N = 3039) and the risk of CAD in Iceland, Denmark, and the UK Biobank (105 490 cases and 844 025 controls). We used genetic scores for non-HDL cholesterol to determine whether ABCG5/8 variants confer greater risk of CAD than predicted by their effect on non-HDL cholesterol. We identified nine rare ABCG5/8 coding variants with substantial impact on non-HDL cholesterol. Carriers have elevated phytosterol levels and are at increased risk of CAD. Consistent with impact on ABCG5/8 transporter function in hepatocytes, eight rare ABCG5/8 variants associate with gallstones. A genetic score of ABCG5/8 variants predicting 1 mmol/L increase in non-HDL cholesterol associates with two-fold increase in CAD risk [odds ratio (OR) = 2.01, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.75-2.31, P = 9.8 × 10-23] compared with a 54% increase in CAD risk (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.49-1.59, P = 1.1 × 10-154) associated with a score of other non-HDL cholesterol variants predicting the same increase in non-HDL cholesterol (P for difference in effects = 2.4 × 10-4). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in cholesterol absorption affects levels of circulating non-HDL cholesterol and risk of CAD. Our results indicate that both dietary cholesterol and phytosterols contribute directly to atherogenesis.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Fitosteróis , Membro 5 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Humanos , Islândia , Esteróis
20.
Nature ; 584(7822): 619-623, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581359

RESUMO

Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common autoimmune disease and is highly heritable1. Here, by using a genome-wide association study of 30,234 cases and 725,172 controls from Iceland and the UK Biobank, we find 99 sequence variants at 93 loci, of which 84 variants are previously unreported2-7. A low-frequency (1.36%) intronic variant in FLT3 (rs76428106-C) has the largest effect on risk of autoimmune thyroid disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.46, P = 2.37 × 10-24). rs76428106-C is also associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (OR = 1.90, P = 6.46 × 10-4), rheumatoid factor and/or anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis (OR = 1.41, P = 4.31 × 10-4) and coeliac disease (OR = 1.62, P = 1.20 × 10-4). FLT3 encodes fms-related tyrosine kinase 3, a receptor that regulates haematopoietic progenitor and dendritic cells. RNA sequencing revealed that rs76428106-C generates a cryptic splice site, which introduces a stop codon in 30% of transcripts that are predicted to encode a truncated protein, which lacks its tyrosine kinase domains. Each copy of rs76428106-C doubles the plasma levels of the FTL3 ligand. Activating somatic mutations in FLT3 are associated with acute myeloid leukaemia8 with a poor prognosis and rs76428106-C also predisposes individuals to acute myeloid leukaemia (OR = 1.90, P = 5.40 × 10-3). Thus, a predicted loss-of-function germline mutation in FLT3 causes a reduction in full-length FLT3, with a compensatory increase in the levels of its ligand and an increased disease risk, similar to that of a gain-of-function mutation.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Ligantes , Mutação , Tireoidite Autoimune/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/genética , Tirosina Quinase 3 Semelhante a fms/metabolismo , Alelos , Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Islândia , Íntrons/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda , Mutação com Perda de Função , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Reino Unido
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