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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(41): 20635-20643, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548399

RESUMO

SerpinB1, a protease inhibitor and neutrophil survival factor, was recently linked with IL-17-expressing T cells. Here, we show that serpinB1 (Sb1) is dramatically induced in a subset of effector CD4 cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Despite normal T cell priming, Sb1 -/- mice are resistant to EAE with a paucity of T helper (TH) cells that produce two or more of the cytokines, IFNγ, GM-CSF, and IL-17. These multiple cytokine-producing CD4 cells proliferate extremely rapidly; highly express the cytolytic granule proteins perforin-A, granzyme C (GzmC), and GzmA and surface receptors IL-23R, IL-7Rα, and IL-1R1; and can be identified by the surface marker CXCR6. In Sb1 -/- mice, CXCR6+ TH cells are generated but fail to expand due to enhanced granule protease-mediated mitochondrial damage leading to suicidal cell death. Finally, anti-CXCR6 antibody treatment, like Sb1 deletion, dramatically reverts EAE, strongly indicating that the CXCR6+ T cells are the drivers of encephalitis.

3.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 902-914, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209404

RESUMO

Lupus nephritis is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease for which the current treatment is ineffective and often toxic. To develop mechanistic hypotheses of disease, we analyzed kidney samples from patients with lupus nephritis and from healthy control subjects using single-cell RNA sequencing. Our analysis revealed 21 subsets of leukocytes active in disease, including multiple populations of myeloid cells, T cells, natural killer cells and B cells that demonstrated both pro-inflammatory responses and inflammation-resolving responses. We found evidence of local activation of B cells correlated with an age-associated B-cell signature and evidence of progressive stages of monocyte differentiation within the kidney. A clear interferon response was observed in most cells. Two chemokine receptors, CXCR4 and CX3CR1, were broadly expressed, implying a potentially central role in cell trafficking. Gene expression of immune cells in urine and kidney was highly correlated, which would suggest that urine might serve as a surrogate for kidney biopsies.


Assuntos
Rim/imunologia , Nefrite Lúpica/imunologia , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Análise por Conglomerados , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Interferons/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/genética , Nefrite Lúpica/metabolismo , Nefrite Lúpica/patologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
4.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 928-942, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061532

RESUMO

To define the cell populations that drive joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we applied single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq), mass cytometry, bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and flow cytometry to T cells, B cells, monocytes, and fibroblasts from 51 samples of synovial tissue from patients with RA or osteoarthritis (OA). Utilizing an integrated strategy based on canonical correlation analysis of 5,265 scRNA-seq profiles, we identified 18 unique cell populations. Combining mass cytometry and transcriptomics revealed cell states expanded in RA synovia: THY1(CD90)+HLA-DRAhi sublining fibroblasts, IL1B+ pro-inflammatory monocytes, ITGAX+TBX21+ autoimmune-associated B cells and PDCD1+ peripheral helper T (TPH) cells and follicular helper T (TFH) cells. We defined distinct subsets of CD8+ T cells characterized by GZMK+, GZMB+, and GNLY+ phenotypes. We mapped inflammatory mediators to their source cell populations; for example, we attributed IL6 expression to THY1+HLA-DRAhi fibroblasts and IL1B production to pro-inflammatory monocytes. These populations are potentially key mediators of RA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Membrana Sinovial/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Artrite Reumatoide/patologia , Autoimunidade/genética , Biomarcadores , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/imunologia , Humanos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Membrana Sinovial/patologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fluxo de Trabalho
5.
Blood ; 133(6): 605-614, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30429159

RESUMO

More than 1 million apheresis platelet collections are performed annually in the United States. After 2 healthy plateletpheresis donors were incidentally found to have low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts, we investigated whether plateletpheresis causes lymphopenia. We conducted a cross-sectional single-center study of platelet donors undergoing plateletpheresis with the Trima Accel, which removes leukocytes continuously with its leukoreduction system chamber. We recruited 3 groups of platelet donors based on the total number of plateletpheresis sessions in the prior 365 days: 1 or 2, 3 to 19, or 20 to 24. CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts were <200 cells per microliter in 0/20, 2/20, and 6/20 donors, respectively (P = .019), and CD8+ T-lymphocyte counts were low in 0/20, 4/20, and 11/20 donors, respectively (P < .001). The leukoreduction system chamber's lymphocyte-extraction efficiency was ∼15% to 20% for all groups. Immunophenotyping showed decreases in naive CD4+ T-lymphocyte and T helper 17 (Th17) cell percentages, increases in CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory, Th1, and regulatory T cell percentages, and stable naive CD8+ and Th2 percentages across groups. T-cell receptor repertoire analyses showed similar clonal diversity in all groups. Donor screening questionnaires supported the good health of the donors, who tested negative at each donation for multiple pathogens, including HIV. Frequent plateletpheresis utilizing a leukoreduction system chamber is associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell lymphopenia in healthy platelet donors. The mechanism may be repeated extraction of these cells during plateletpheresis. The cytopenias do not appear to be harmful.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Plaquetas/citologia , Linfopenia/etiologia , Plaquetoferese/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(45): E4232-7, 2013 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24145414

RESUMO

Mouse natural killer (NK) cells acquire effector function by an education process termed "licensing" mediated by inhibitory Ly49 receptors which recognize self-MHC class I. Ly49 receptors can bind to MHC class I on targets (in trans) and also to MHC class I on the NK-cell surface (in cis). Which of these interactions regulates NK-cell licensing is not yet clear. Moreover, there are no clear phenotypic differences between licensed and unlicensed NK cells, perhaps because of the previously limited ability to study NK cells with synchronized licensing. Here, we produced MHC class I-deficient mice with inducible MHC class I consisting of a single-chain trimer (SCT), ovalbumin peptide-ß2 microgloblin-H2K(b) (SCT-K(b)). Only NK cells with a Ly49 receptor with specificity for SCT-K(b) were licensed after MHC class I induction. NK cells were localized consistently in red pulp of the spleen during induced NK-cell licensing, and there were no differences in maturation or activation markers on recently licensed NK cells. Although MHC class I-deficient NK cells were licensed in hosts following SCT-K(b) induction, NK cells were not licensed after induced SCT-K(b) expression on NK cells themselves in MHC class I-deficient hosts. Furthermore, hematopoietic cells with induced SCT-K(b) licensed NK cells more efficiently than stromal cells. These data indicate that trans interaction with MHC class I on hematopoietic cells regulates NK-cell licensing, which is not associated with other obvious phenotypic changes.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Subfamília A de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Transferência Adotiva , Animais , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/imunologia , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Imuno-Histoquímica , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo
7.
Blood ; 121(2): 286-97, 2013 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23175687

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells have important functions in cancer immunosurveillance, BM allograft rejection, fighting infections, tissue homeostasis, and reproduction. NK cell-based therapies are promising treatments for blood cancers. Overcoming their currently limited efficacy requires a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling NK cell development and dampening their effector functions. NK cells recognize the loss of self-antigens or up-regulation of stress-induced ligands on pathogen-infected or tumor cells through invariant NK cell receptors (NKRs), and then kill such stressed cells. Two second-messenger pathways downstream of NKRs are required for NK cell maturation and effector responses: PIP(3) generation by PI3K and generation of diacylglycerol and IP(3) by phospholipase-Cγ (PLCγ). In the present study, we identify a novel role for the phosphorylated IP(3) metabolite inositol (1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate (IP(4)) in NK cells. IP(4) promotes NK cell terminal differentiation and acquisition of a mature NKR repertoire. However, in mature NK cells, IP(4) limits NKR-induced IFNγ secretion, granule exocytosis, and target-cell killing, in part by inhibiting the PIP(3) effector-kinase Akt. This identifies IP(4) as an important novel regulator of NK cell development and function and expands our understanding of the therapeutically important mechanisms dampening NK cell responses. Our results further suggest that PI3K regulation by soluble IP(4) is a broadly important signaling paradigm.


Assuntos
Fosfatos de Inositol/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Animais , Fosfatos de Inositol/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/imunologia , Receptores Citoplasmáticos e Nucleares/metabolismo
8.
J Immunol ; 184(7): 3424-32, 2010 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20194719

RESUMO

NK cells are innate immune lymphocytes that can react to cells lacking self-MHC class I. However, NK cells that cannot engage self-MHC through an inhibitory receptor are resistant to stimulation through their activation receptors. To become licensed (i.e., functionally competent to be triggered through its activation receptors), an NK cell must engage host MHC class I via a MHC class I-specific inhibitory receptor, such as a member of the murine Ly49 family. To explore potential determinants of NK cell licensing on a single Ly49 receptor, we have investigated the relative licensing impacts of the b, d, k, q, r, and s H2 haplotypes on Ly49A(+) NK cells. The results indicate that licensing is essentially analog but is saturated by moderate-binding MHC class I ligands. Interestingly, licensing exhibited a strong inverse correlation with a measure of cis engagement of Ly49A. Finally, licensing of Ly49A(+) NK cells was found to be less sensitive to MHC class I engagement than Ly49A-mediated effector inhibition, suggesting that licensing establishes a margin of safety against NK cell autoreactivity.


Assuntos
Citotoxicidade Imunológica/imunologia , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Subfamília A de Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Alelos , Animais , Separação Celular , Citometria de Fluxo , Haplótipos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos
9.
Methods Mol Biol ; 612: 39-49, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20033633

RESUMO

Natural killer (NK) cells express receptors to detect and kill target cells based on expression of target cell surface molecules. Through a process termed NK cell licensing, only NK cells that express inhibitory receptors (e.g., Ly49 receptors in the mouse) for self-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules become functionally competent to be triggered through their activation receptors. To determine the licensing status of particular Ly49(+) murine NK cell subsets, splenocytes are stimulated with plate-bound anti-NK1.1 monoclonal antibody in the presence of brefeldin A and then assessed for NK cell activation on a single-cell basis using intracellular cytokine interferon-gamma staining and flow cytometry.


Assuntos
Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citometria de Fluxo , Imunofluorescência , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Espaço Intracelular/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Camundongos , Baço/citologia , Coloração e Rotulagem , Suspensões
10.
Adv Immunol ; 101: 27-79, 2009.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19231592

RESUMO

Armed with potent cytotoxic and immunostimulatory effector functions, natural killer (NK) cells have the potential to cause significant damage to normal self cells unless controlled by self-tolerance mechanisms. NK cells identify and attack target cells based on integration of signals from activation and inhibitory receptors, whose ligands exhibit complex expression and/or binding patterns. Preservation of NK cell self-tolerance must therefore go beyond mere engagement of inhibitory receptors during effector functions. Herein, we review recent work that has uncovered a number of mechanisms to ensure self-tolerance of NK cells. For example, licensing of NK cells allows only NK cells that can engage self-MHC to become functionally competent, or licensed. The molecular mechanism of this phenomenon appears to require signaling by receptors that were originally identified in effector inhibition. However, the nature of the signaling event has not yet been defined, but new interpretations of several published experiments provide valuable clues. In addition, several other cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms of NK cell tolerance are discussed, including activation receptor cooperation and synergy, cytokine stimulation, and the opposing roles of accessory and regulatory cells. Finally, NK cell tolerance is discussed as it relates to the clinic, such as KIR-HLA disease associations, tumor immunotherapy, and fetal tolerance.


Assuntos
Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/imunologia , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/imunologia , Receptores Semelhantes a Lectina de Células NK/metabolismo , Receptores de Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo
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