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1.
Praxis (Bern 1994) ; 109(1): 27-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910758

RESUMO

GeoLaus, a Study on the Influence of Geo-Environmental Characteristics on Population Health Abstract. Geographic information on risk factors for health or disease is increasingly being used to understand the determinants of health. GeoLaus is a project initiated in 2015 that studies the impact of living spaces and socio-economic situation, on physical and mental health and on different lifestyle habits. This paper discusses and illustrates the use of spatial information in CoLaus to understand the determinants of obesity and daytime sleepiness. The first results of the GeoLaus study open new perspectives on population health.


Assuntos
Estilo de Vida , Saúde Mental , Obesidade , Geografia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
2.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 20(1): 154-169, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550072

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies are using landscape genomics to investigate local adaptation in wild and domestic populations. Implementation of this approach requires the sampling phase to consider the complexity of environmental settings and the burden of logistical constraints. These important aspects are often underestimated in the literature dedicated to sampling strategies. In this study, we computed simulated genomic data sets to run against actual environmental data in order to trial landscape genomics experiments under distinct sampling strategies. These strategies differed by design approach (to enhance environmental and/or geographical representativeness at study sites), number of sampling locations and sample sizes. We then evaluated how these elements affected statistical performances (power and false discoveries) under two antithetical demographic scenarios. Our results highlight the importance of selecting an appropriate sample size, which should be modified based on the demographic characteristics of the studied population. For species with limited dispersal, sample sizes above 200 units are generally sufficient to detect most adaptive signals, while in random mating populations this threshold should be increased to 400 units. Furthermore, we describe a design approach that maximizes both environmental and geographical representativeness of sampling sites and show how it systematically outperforms random or regular sampling schemes. Finally, we show that although having more sampling locations (between 40 and 50 sites) increase statistical power and reduce false discovery rate, similar results can be achieved with a moderate number of sites (20 sites). Overall, this study provides valuable guidelines for optimizing sampling strategies for landscape genomics experiments.

3.
Nutr Diabetes ; 9(1): 35, 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31727876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and obesity-related diseases represent a major public health concern. Recently, studies have substantiated the role of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) consumption in the development of these diseases. The fine identification of populations and areas in need for public health intervention remains challenging. This study investigates the existence of spatial clustering of SSB intake frequency (SSB-IF) and body mass index (BMI), and their potential spatial overlap in a population of adults of the state of Geneva using a fine-scale geospatial approach. METHODS: We used data on self-reported SSB-IF and measured BMI from residents aged between 20 and 74 years of the state of Geneva (Switzerland) that participated in the Bus Santé cross-sectional population-based study (n = 15,423). Getis-Ord Gi spatial indices were used to identify spatial clusters of SSB-IF and BMI in unadjusted models and models adjusted for individual covariates (education level, gender, age, nationality, and neighborhood-level median income). RESULTS: We identified a significant spatial clustering of BMI and SSB-IF. 13.2% (n = 2034) of the participants were within clusters of higher SSB-IF and 10.7% (n = 1651) were within clusters of lower SSB-IF. We identified overlapping clusters of SSB-IF and BMI in specific areas where 11.1% (n = 1719) of the participants resided. After adjustment, the identified clusters persisted and were only slightly attenuated indicating that additional neighborhood-level determinants influence the spatial distribution of SSB-IF and BMI. CONCLUSIONS: Our fine-scale spatial approach allowed to identify specific populations and areas presenting higher SSB-IF and highlighted the existence of an overlap between populations and areas of higher SSB-IF associated with higher BMI. These findings could guide policymakers to develop locally tailored interventions such as targeted prevention campaigns and pave the way for precision public health delivery.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10042, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296895

RESUMO

In developing countries, the waterborne transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV), caused by HEV genotypes 1 (HEV-1) and 2 (HEV-2), leads to the onset of large recurrent outbreaks. HEV infections are of particular concern among pregnant women, due to very high mortality rates (up to 70%). Unfortunately, good understanding of the factors that trigger the occurrence of HEV epidemics is currently lacking; therefore, anticipating the onset of an outbreak is yet not possible. In order to map the geographical regions at higher risk of HEV epidemics and the conditions most favorable for the transmission of the virus, we compiled a dataset of HEV waterborne outbreaks and used it to obtain models of geographical suitability for HEV across the planet. The main three variables that best predict the geographical distribution of HEV outbreaks at global scale are population density, annual potential evapotranspiration and precipitation seasonality. At a regional scale, the temporal occurrence of HEV outbreaks in the Ganges watershed is negatively correlated with the discharge of the river (r = -0.77). Combined, our findings suggest that ultimately, population density and water balance are main parameters influencing the occurrence of HEV-1 and HEV-2 outbreaks. This study expands the current understanding of the combination of factors shaping the biogeography and seasonality of waterborne viral pathogens such as HEV-1 and HEV-2, and contributes to developing novel concepts for the prediction and control of human waterborne viruses in the near future.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8790, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217447

RESUMO

Living in deprived neighbourhoods may have biological consequences, but few studies have assessed this empirically. We examined the association between neighbourhood deprivation and allostatic load, a biological marker of wear and tear, taking into account individual's socioeconomic position. We analysed data from three cohort studies (CoLaus-Switzerland; EPIPorto-Portugal; Whitehall II-UK) comprising 16,364 participants. We defined allostatic load using ten biomarkers of dysregulated metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory systems (body mass index; waist circumference; total, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; glucose; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; C-reactive protein). Mixed Poisson regression models were fitted to examine associations with neighbourhood deprivation (in quintiles, Q1-least deprived as reference). After adjustment for confounding variables, participants living in the most deprived quintile had 1.13 times higher allostatic load than those living in the least deprived quintile (Relative Risk, RR, for Q2 RR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03-1.09; Q3 = 1.06, 1.03-1.10; Q4 = 1.09, 1.06-1.12; Q5 = 1.13, 1.09-1.16). This association was partially modified by individual's socioeconomic position, such that the relative risk was higher in participants with low socioeconomic position (Q5 vs Q1 1.16, 1.11-1.22) than those with high socioeconomic position (Q5 vs Q1 1.07, 1.01-1.13). Neighbourhood deprivation is associated with biological wear and tear, suggesting that neighbourhood-level interventions may yield health gains.

6.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(5): 1355-1365, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136078

RESUMO

samßada is a genome-environment association software, designed to search for signatures of local adaptation. However, pre- and postprocessing of data can be labour-intensive, preventing wider uptake of the method. We have now developed R.SamBada, an r-package providing a pipeline for landscape genomic analysis based on samßada, spanning from the retrieval of environmental conditions at sampling locations to gene annotation using the Ensembl genome browser. As a result, R.SamBada standardizes the landscape genomics pipeline and eases the search for candidate genes of local adaptation, enhancing reproducibility of landscape genomic studies. The efficiency and power of the pipeline is illustrated using two examples: sheep populations from Morocco with no evident population structure and Lidia cattle from Spain displaying population substructuring. In both cases, R.SamBada enabled rapid identification and interpretation of candidate genes, which are further discussed in the light of local adaptation. The package is available in the r CRAN package repository and on GitHub (github.com/SolangeD/R.SamBada).


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Exposição Ambiental , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Bovinos , Marrocos , Ovinos , Software , Espanha
7.
Mol Ecol Resour ; 19(3): 773-787, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636378

RESUMO

Advances in high-throughput sequencing have promoted the collection of reference genomes and genome-wide diversity. However, the assessment of genomic variation among populations has hitherto mainly been surveyed through single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and largely ignored the often major fraction of genomes represented by transposable elements (TEs). Despite accumulating evidence supporting the evolutionary significance of TEs, comprehensive surveys remain scarce. Here, we sequenced the full genomes of 304 individuals of Arabis alpina sampled from four nearby natural populations to genotype SNPs as well as polymorphic long terminal repeat retrotransposons (polymorphic TEs; i.e., presence/absence of TE insertions at specific loci). We identified 291,396 SNPs and 20,548 polymorphic TEs, comparing their contributions to genomic diversity and divergence across populations. Few SNPs were shared among populations and overall showed high population-specific variation, whereas most polymorphic TEs segregated among populations. The genomic context of these two classes of variants further highlighted candidate adaptive loci having a putative impact on functional genes. In particular, 4.96% of the SNPs were identified as nonsynonymous or affecting start/stop codons. In contrast, 43% of the polymorphic TEs were present next to Arabis genes enriched in functional categories related to the regulation of reproduction and responses to biotic as well as abiotic stresses. This unprecedented data set, mapping variation gained from SNPs and complementary polymorphic TEs within and among populations, will serve as a rich resource for addressing microevolutionary processes shaping genome variation.


Assuntos
Arabis/classificação , Arabis/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Retroelementos , Biologia Computacional , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Genet Sel Evol ; 50(1): 57, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since goat was domesticated 10,000 years ago, many factors have contributed to the differentiation of goat breeds and these are classified mainly into two types: (i) adaptation to different breeding systems and/or purposes and (ii) adaptation to different environments. As a result, approximately 600 goat breeds have developed worldwide; they differ considerably from one another in terms of phenotypic characteristics and are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions. In this work, we analyzed the AdaptMap goat dataset, which is composed of data from more than 3000 animals collected worldwide and genotyped with the CaprineSNP50 BeadChip. These animals were partitioned into groups based on geographical area, production uses, available records on solid coat color and environmental variables including the sampling geographical coordinates, to investigate the role of natural and/or artificial selection in shaping the genome of goat breeds. RESULTS: Several signatures of selection on different chromosomal regions were detected across the different breeds, sub-geographical clusters, phenotypic and climatic groups. These regions contain genes that are involved in important biological processes, such as milk-, meat- or fiber-related production, coat color, glucose pathway, oxidative stress response, size, and circadian clock differences. Our results confirm previous findings in other species on adaptation to extreme environments and human purposes and provide new genes that could explain some of the differences between goat breeds according to their geographical distribution and adaptation to different environments. CONCLUSIONS: These analyses of signatures of selection provide a comprehensive first picture of the global domestication process and adaptation of goat breeds and highlight possible genes that may have contributed to the differentiation of this species worldwide.


Assuntos
Aclimatação , Domesticação , Cabras/genética , Seleção Genética , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Variação Genética , Genoma , Genótipo , Cabras/fisiologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
10.
Genet Sel Evol ; 50(1): 58, 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449284

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Goat populations that are characterized within the AdaptMap project cover a large part of the worldwide distribution of this species and provide the opportunity to assess their diversity at a global scale. We analysed genome-wide 50 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from 144 populations to describe the global patterns of molecular variation, compare them to those observed in other livestock species, and identify the drivers that led to the current distribution of goats. RESULTS: A high degree of genetic variability exists among the goat populations studied. Our results highlight a strong partitioning of molecular diversity between and within continents. Three major gene pools correspond to goats from Europe, Africa and West Asia. Dissection of sub-structures disclosed regional gene pools, which reflect the main post-domestication migration routes. We also identified several exchanges, mainly in African populations, and which often involve admixed and cosmopolitan breeds. Extensive gene flow has taken place within specific areas (e.g., south Europe, Morocco and Mali-Burkina Faso-Nigeria), whereas elsewhere isolation due to geographical barriers (e.g., seas or mountains) or human management has decreased local gene flows. CONCLUSIONS: After domestication in the Fertile Crescent in the early Neolithic era (ca. 12,000 YBP), domestic goats that already carried differentiated gene pools spread to Europe, Africa and Asia. The spread of these populations determined the major genomic background of the continental populations, which currently have a more marked subdivision than that observed in other ruminant livestock species. Subsequently, further diversification occurred at the regional level due to geographical and reproductive isolation, which was accompanied by additional migrations and/or importations, the traces of which are still detectable today. The effects of breed formation were clearly detected, particularly in Central and North Europe. Overall, our results highlight a remarkable diversity that occurs at the global scale and is locally partitioned and often affected by introgression from cosmopolitan breeds. These findings support the importance of long-term preservation of goat diversity, and provide a useful framework for investigating adaptive introgression, directing genetic improvement and choosing breeding targets.


Assuntos
Migração Animal , Domesticação , Fluxo Gênico , Cabras/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , África , Animais , Ásia , Cruzamento , Europa (Continente) , Variação Genética , Genoma , Genótipo , Cabras/fisiologia , Filogeografia
11.
Cancer Med ; 7(12): 6299-6307, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30362262

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Local physical and social environment has a defining influence on individual behavior and health-related outcomes. However, it remains undetermined if its impact is independent of individual socioeconomic status. In this study, we evaluated the spatial distribution of mammography adherence in the state of Geneva (Switzerland) using individual-level data and assessed its independence from socioeconomic status (SES). METHODS: Georeferenced individual-level data from the population-based cross-sectional Bus Santé study (n = 5002) were used to calculate local indicators of spatial association (LISA) and investigate the spatial dependence of mammography adherence. Spatial clusters are reported without adjustment; adjusted for neighborhood income and individual educational attainment; and demographic factors (age and Swiss nationality). The association between adjusted clusters and the proximity to the nearest screening center was also evaluated. RESULTS: Mammography adherence was not randomly distributed throughout Geneva with clusters geographically coinciding with known SES distributions. After adjustment for SES indicators, clusters were reduced to 56.2% of their original size (n = 1033). Adjustment for age and nationality further reduced the number of individuals exhibiting spatially dependent behavior (36.5% of the initial size). The identified SES-independent hot spots and cold spots of mammography adherence were not explained by proximity to the nearest screening center. CONCLUSIONS: SES and demographic factors play an important role in shaping the spatial distribution of mammography adherence. However, the spatial clusters persisted after confounder adjustment indicating that additional neighborhood-level determinants could influence mammography adherence and be the object of targeted public health interventions.


Assuntos
Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação do Paciente , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Classe Social , Análise Espacial , Suíça
12.
Front Genet ; 9: 385, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333851

RESUMO

East Coast fever (ECF) is a fatal sickness affecting cattle populations of eastern, central, and southern Africa. The disease is transmitted by the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and caused by the protozoan Theileria parva parva, which invades host lymphocytes and promotes their clonal expansion. Importantly, indigenous cattle show tolerance to infection in ECF-endemically stable areas. Here, the putative genetic bases underlying ECF-tolerance were investigated using molecular data and epidemiological information from 823 indigenous cattle from Uganda. Vector distribution and host infection risk were estimated over the study area and subsequently tested as triggers of local adaptation by means of landscape genomics analysis. We identified 41 and seven candidate adaptive loci for tick resistance and infection tolerance, respectively. Among the genes associated with the candidate adaptive loci are PRKG1 and SLA2. PRKG1 was already described as associated with tick resistance in indigenous South African cattle, due to its role into inflammatory response. SLA2 is part of the regulatory pathways involved into lymphocytes' proliferation. Additionally, local ancestry analysis suggested the zebuine origin of the genomic region candidate for tick resistance.

14.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 221(6): 951-957, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861399

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Daytime sleepiness is highly prevalent in the general adult population and has been linked to an increased risk of workplace and vehicle accidents, lower professional performance and poorer health. Despite the established relationship between noise and daytime sleepiness, little research has explored the individual-level spatial distribution of noise-related sleep disturbances. We assessed the spatial dependence of daytime sleepiness and tested whether clusters of individuals exhibiting higher daytime sleepiness were characterized by higher nocturnal noise levels than other clusters. DESIGN AND METHODS: Population-based cross-sectional study, in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland. Sleepiness was measured using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) for 3697 georeferenced individuals from the CoLaus|PsyCoLaus cohort (period = 2009-2012). We used the sonBASE georeferenced database produced by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment to characterize nighttime road traffic noise exposure throughout the city. We used the GeoDa software program to calculate the Getis-Ord Gi* statistics for unadjusted and adjusted ESS in order to detect spatial clusters of high and low ESS values. Modeled nighttime noise exposure from road and rail traffic was compared across ESS clusters. RESULTS: Daytime sleepiness was not randomly distributed and showed a significant spatial dependence. The median nighttime traffic noise exposure was significantly different across the three ESS Getis cluster classes (p < 0.001). The mean nighttime noise exposure in the high ESS cluster class was 47.6, dB(A) 5.2 dB(A) higher than in low clusters (p < 0.001) and 2.1 dB(A) higher than in the neutral class (p < 0.001). These associations were independent of major potential confounders including body mass index and neighborhood income level. CONCLUSIONS: Clusters of higher daytime sleepiness in adults are associated with higher median nighttime noise levels. The identification of these clusters can guide tailored public health interventions.


Assuntos
Ruído , Sonolência , Adulto , Idoso , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Espacial , Suíça
15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 813, 2018 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29511174

RESUMO

The evolutionary basis of domestication has been a longstanding question and its genetic architecture is becoming more tractable as more domestic species become genome-enabled. Before becoming established worldwide, sheep and goats were domesticated in the fertile crescent 10,500 years before present (YBP) where their wild relatives remain. Here we sequence the genomes of wild Asiatic mouflon and Bezoar ibex in the sheep and goat domestication center and compare their genomes with that of domestics from local, traditional, and improved breeds. Among the genomic regions carrying selective sweeps differentiating domestic breeds from wild populations, which are associated among others to genes involved in nervous system, immunity and productivity traits, 20 are common to Capra and Ovis. The patterns of selection vary between species, suggesting that while common targets of selection related to domestication and improvement exist, different solutions have arisen to achieve similar phenotypic end-points within these closely related livestock species.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Domesticação , Genoma , Cabras/genética , Carneiro Doméstico/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Variação Genética/genética , Genômica , Haplótipos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Seleção Genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
16.
Ecol Evol ; 8(3): 1794-1806, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29435254

RESUMO

Plant species are known to adapt locally to their environment, particularly in mountainous areas where conditions can vary drastically over short distances. The climate of such landscapes being largely influenced by topography, using fine-scale models to evaluate environmental heterogeneity may help detecting adaptation to micro-habitats. Here, we applied a multiscale landscape genomic approach to detect evidence of local adaptation in the alpine plant Biscutella laevigata. The two gene pools identified, experiencing limited gene flow along a 1-km ridge, were different in regard to several habitat features derived from a very high resolution (VHR) digital elevation model (DEM). A correlative approach detected signatures of selection along environmental gradients such as altitude, wind exposure, and solar radiation, indicating adaptive pressures likely driven by fine-scale topography. Using a large panel of DEM-derived variables as ecologically relevant proxies, our results highlighted the critical role of spatial resolution. These high-resolution multiscale variables indeed indicate that the robustness of associations between genetic loci and environmental features depends on spatial parameters that are poorly documented. We argue that the scale issue is critical in landscape genomics and that multiscale ecological variables are key to improve our understanding of local adaptation in highly heterogeneous landscapes.

17.
Tob Control ; 27(6): 663-669, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29374093

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking bans were suggested to reduce smoking prevalence and increase quit ratio but their equity impact remains unclear. We aimed to characterise the socioeconomic status (SES)-related inequalities in smoking prevalence and quit ratio before and after the implementation of a public smoking ban. METHODS: We included data from 17 544 participants in the population-based cross-sectional Bus Santé study in Geneva, Switzerland, between 1995 and 2014. We considered educational attainment (primary, secondary and tertiary) as a SES indicator. Outcomes were smoking prevalence (proportion of current smokers) and quit ratio (ex-smokers to ever-smokers ratio). We used segmented linear regression to assess the overall impact of smoking ban on outcome trends. We calculated the relative (RII) and slope (SII, absolute difference) indexes of inequality, quantifying disparities between educational groups in outcomes overall (1995-2014), before and after ban implementation (November 2009). RESULTS: Least educated participants displayed higher smoking prevalence (RII=2.04, P<0.001; SII=0.15, P<0.001) and lower quit ratio (RII=0.73, P<0.001; SII=-0.18, P<0.001). As in other studies, smoking ban implementation coincided with a temporary reduction of smoking prevalence (P=0.003) and increase in quit ratio (P=0.02), with a progressive return to preban levels. Inequalities increased (P<0.05) in relative terms for smoking prevalence (RIIbefore=1.84, P<0.001 and RIIafter=3.01, P<0.001) and absolute terms for both outcomes (smoking prevalence: SIIbefore=0.14, P<0.001 and SIIafter=0.19, P<0.001; quit ratio: SIIbefore=-0.15, P<0.001 and SIIafter=-0.27, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a public smoking ban coincided with a short-lived decrease in smoking prevalence and increase in quit ratio but also with a widening in SES inequalities in smoking-related outcomes.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo/tendências , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Suíça/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Ecol Evol ; 7(22): 9544-9556, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187988

RESUMO

Samples of 191 animals from 18 different Brazilian locally adapted swine genetic groups were genotyped using Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip in order to identify selection signatures related to the monthly variation of Brazilian environmental variables. Using BayeScan software, 71 SNP markers were identified as FST outliers and 60 genotypes (58 markers) were found by Samßada software in 371 logistic models correlated with 112 environmental variables. Five markers were identified in both methods, with a Kappa value of 0.073 (95% CI: 0.011-0.134). The frequency of these markers indicated a clear north-south country division that reflects Brazilian environmental differences in temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation. Global spatial territory correlation for environmental variables corroborates this finding (average Moran's I = 0.89, range from 0.55 to 0.97). The distribution of alleles over the territory was not strongly correlated with the breed/genetic groups. These results are congruent with previous mtDNA studies and should be used to direct germplasm collection for the National gene bank.

19.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0176362, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28453561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2007, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) initiated the Global plan of action for Farm Animal Genetic Resources (FAnGR). The main goal of this plan is to reduce further loss of genetic diversity in farm animals, so as to protect and promote the diversity of farm animal resources. An important step to reach this goal is to monitor and prioritize endangered breeds in the context of conservation programs. METHODOLOGY/WEB PORTAL IMPLEMENTATION: The GENMON WebGIS platform is able to monitor FAnGR and to evaluate the degree of endangerment of livestock breeds. The system takes into account pedigree and introgression information, the geographical concentration of animals, the cryo-conservation plan and the sustainability of breeding activities based on socio-economic data as well as present and future land use conditions. A multi-criteria decision tool supports the aggregation of the multi-thematic indices mentioned above using the MACBETH method, which is based on a weighted average using satisfaction thresholds. GENMON is a monitoring tool to reach subjective decisions made by a government agency. It relies on open source software and is available at http://lasigsrv2.epfl.ch/genmon-ch. RESULTS/SIGNIFICANCE: GENMON allows users to upload pedigree-information (animal ID, parents, birthdate, sex, location and introgression) from a specific livestock breed and to define species and/or region-specific weighting parameters and thresholds. The program then completes a pedigree analysis and derives several indices that are used to calculate an integrated score of conservation prioritization for the breeds under investigation. The score can be visualized on a geographic map and allows a fast, intuitive and regional identification of breeds in danger. Appropriate conservation actions and breeding programs can thus be undertaken in order to promote the recovery of the genetic diversity in livestock breeds in need. The use of the platform is illustrated by means of an example based on three local livestock breeds from different species in Switzerland.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/genética , Variação Genética , Informática/métodos , Animais , Cruzamento , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Tomada de Decisões , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Feminino , Geografia , Masculino
20.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(2): 559-575, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073954

RESUMO

Background: Previous studies have suggested that modern obesogenic environments accentuate the genetic risk of obesity. However, these studies have proven controversial as to which, if any, measures of the environment accentuate genetic susceptibility to high body mass index (BMI). Methods: We used up to 120 000 adults from the UK Biobank study to test the hypothesis that high-risk obesogenic environments and behaviours accentuate genetic susceptibility to obesity. We used BMI as the outcome and a 69-variant genetic risk score (GRS) for obesity and 12 measures of the obesogenic environment as exposures. These measures included Townsend deprivation index (TDI) as a measure of socio-economic position, TV watching, a 'Westernized' diet and physical activity. We performed several negative control tests, including randomly selecting groups of different average BMIs, using a simulated environment and including sun-protection use as an environment. Results: We found gene-environment interactions with TDI (Pinteraction = 3 × 10 -10 ), self-reported TV watching (Pinteraction = 7 × 10 -5 ) and self-reported physical activity (Pinteraction = 5 × 10 -6 ). Within the group of 50% living in the most relatively deprived situations, carrying 10 additional BMI-raising alleles was associated with approximately 3.8 kg extra weight in someone 1.73 m tall. In contrast, within the group of 50% living in the least deprivation, carrying 10 additional BMI-raising alleles was associated with approximately 2.9 kg extra weight. The interactions were weaker, but present, with the negative controls, including sun-protection use, indicating that residual confounding is likely. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the obesogenic environment accentuates the risk of obesity in genetically susceptible adults. Of the factors we tested, relative social deprivation best captures the aspects of the obesogenic environment responsible.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Dieta , Exercício , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Obesidade/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Reino Unido
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