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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e054516, 2022 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256442

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To address structural determinants and healthcare workers' (HCWs) physical, mental, emotional and professional challenges of working during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: Exploratory qualitative study with semistructured interviews. Collected data were analysed using thematic analysis. SETTING: This qualitative study was undertaken with HCWs who mainly worked in intensive care units in six non-profit hospitals in Vienna, Austria. Data were collected from June 2020 to January 2021. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 30 HCWs (13 medical doctors, 11 qualified nursing staff, 2 nurse assistants, 2 physiotherapists and 2 technical/cleaning staff) who were in direct and indirect contact with patients with COVID-19 were included. RESULTS: Three overall themes resulted as relevant: challenges due to lack of preparedness, structural conditions, and physical and mental health of HCWs. Lack of preparedness included delayed infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines, shortages of personal protective equipment combined with staff shortages (especially of nursing staff) and overworked personnel. Physical and mental strains resulted from HCWs being overworked and working permanently on alert to face medical uncertainties and the critical conditions of patients. HCWs lacked recognition on multiple levels and dealt with stigma and avoidance behaviour of colleagues. CONCLUSION: To mitigate HCWs' occupational health risks and staff turnover, we propose context-specific recommendations. The number of available essential workers in care of patients with COVID-19, especially nursing staff, should be carefully planned and increased to avert chronic work overload. Timely training and education in IPC for all HCWs is important. Providing supportive supervision is as essential as appropriate recognition by higher level management and the public.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 10(1): e0140221, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35196824

RESUMO

Various commercial anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests are used for studies and in clinical settings after vaccination. An international standard for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies has been established to achieve comparability of such tests, allowing conversions to BAU/mL. This study aimed to investigate the comparability of antibody tests regarding the timing of blood collection after vaccination. For this prospective observational study, antibody levels of 50 participants with homologous AZD1222 vaccination were evaluated at 3 and 11 weeks after the first dose and 3 weeks after the second dose using two commercial anti-Spike binding antibody assays (Roche and Abbott) and a surrogate neutralization assay. The correlation between Roche and Abbott changed significantly depending on the time point studied. Although Abbott provided values three times higher than Roche 3 weeks after the first dose, the values for Roche were twice as high as for Abbott 11 weeks after the first dose and 5 to 6 times higher at 3 weeks after the second dose. The comparability of quantitative anti-Spike SARS-CoV-2 antibody tests was highly dependent on the timing of blood collection after vaccination. Therefore, standardization of the timing of blood collection might be necessary for the comparability of different quantitative SARS-COV-2 antibody assays. IMPORTANCE This work showed that the comparability of apparently standardized SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays (Roche, Abbott; both given in BAU/mL) after vaccination depends on the time of blood withdrawal. Initially (3 weeks after the first dose AZD1222), there were 3 times higher values in the Abbott assay, but this relationship inversed before boosting (11 weeks after the first dose) with Roche 2 times greater than Abbott. After the booster, Roche quantified ca. 5 times higher levels than Abbott. This must be considered by clinicians when interpreting SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/diagnóstico , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/imunologia , Vacinação/tendências , Adulto , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Vacinação/normas
3.
Allergy ; 2022 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152450

RESUMO

The immune system interacts with many nominal 'danger' signals, endogenous danger-associated (DAMP), exogenous pathogen (PAMP) and allergen (AAMP)-associated molecular patterns. The immune context under which these are received can promote or prevent immune activating or inflammatory mechanisms and may orchestrate diverse immune responses in allergy and cancer. Each can act either by favouring a respective pathology or by supporting the immune response to confer protective effects, depending on acuity or chronicity. In this Position Paper under the collective term danger signals or DAMPs, PAMPs and AAMPs, we consider their diverse roles in allergy and cancer and the connection between these in AllergoOncology. We focus on their interactions with different immune cells of the innate and adaptive immune system and how these promote immune responses with juxtaposing clinical outcomes in allergy and cancer. While danger signals present potential targets to overcome inflammatory responses in allergy, these may be reconsidered in relation to a history of allergy, chronic inflammation and autoimmunity linked to the risk of developing cancer, and with regard to clinical responses to anti-cancer immune and targeted therapies. Cross-disciplinary insights in AllergoOncology derived from dissecting clinical phenotypes of common danger signal pathways may improve allergy and cancer clinical outcomes.

4.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(7-8): 276-285, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34487198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In aging healthcare professionals, multiple stressors such as night work may affect life and work satisfaction and risk for chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease [CVD]). In this pilot study we compared workability, quality of life (QoL), and CVD risk markers between night shift and day workers. METHODS: We included 70 hospital employees (mean age 52 ±â€¯4 years, 91.4% female): 32 rotating night shift workers (> 3 nights/month) and 38 permanent day workers. In addition to sociodemographic, lifestyle, and sleep characteristics, we assessed i) workability index (WAI), ii) QoL (World Health Organization Quality of Life [WHOQOL-Bref]) and iii) CVD risk markers, i.e. carotid ultrasound measurements, and biomarkers (NTproBNP, CRP, IL­6, LDL, ferritin, copper, zinc, and selenium). WAI, QoL, and CVD risk markers were compared between night and day workers. In a subgroup of participants (N = 38) with complete data, we used quantile regression analysis to estimate age and multivariate adjusted differences in biomarker levels. RESULTS: We found no differences in the domains of QoL (physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environment) and WAI scores between night and day workers. Night shift workers were less likely to report excellent workability than day workers, although differences were not statistically significant. Night shift workers reported more sleep problems (73.1% vs. 55.6%) and tended to have lower zinc levels and higher inflammatory markers (CRP, IL­6, ferritin), but differences were not significant after adjusting for potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Workability, QoL and CVD markers did not significantly differ between rotating night shift and day workers in this small pilot study. Sleep problems and inflammatory marker levels carry implications for occupational health.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Envelhecimento , Biomarcadores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Ferritinas , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Interleucina-6 , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Zinco
7.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 309-313, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332084

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody levels after the first dose of vaccine can predict the final antibody response, and whether this is dependent on the vaccine type. METHODS: Sixty-nine recipients of BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) and 55 recipients of AZD1222 (AstraZeneca), without previous infection or immunosuppressive medication, were included in this study. Antibody levels were quantified 3 weeks after the first dose [directly before boostering in the case of AZD1222 (11 weeks after the first dose)] and 3 weeks after the second dose using the Roche Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 S total antibody assay. RESULTS: Median pre-booster {BNT162b2: 80.6 [interquartile range (IQR) 25.5-167.0] binding antibody units (BAU)/mL; AZD1222: 56.4 (IQR 36.4-104.8) BAU/mL; not significant} and post-booster [BNT162b2: 2092.0 (IQR 1216.3-4431.8) BAU/mL; AZD1222: 957.0 (IQR 684.5-1684.8) BAU/mL; P<0.0001] levels correlated well in the recipients of BNT162b2 (ρ=0.53) but not in the recipients of AZD1222. Moreover, antibody levels after the first dose of BNT162b2 correlated inversely with age (ρ=-0.33, P=0.013), whereas a positive correlation with age was observed after the second dose in recipients of AZD1222 (ρ=0.26, P=0.030). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that antibody levels quantified by the Roche Elecsys SARS-CoV-2 S assay before the booster shot could infer post-booster responses to BNT162b2, but not to AZ1222. In addition, this study found a vaccine-dependent effect on antibody responses, where age seems to play an ambivalent role.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticorpos Antivirais , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Humanos , Vacinação
8.
Allergo J Int ; 30(5): 169-175, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34277326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Along with the newly approved vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reports of allergic or intolerance reactions were published. Subsequently, questions arose whether these vaccines pose an increased risk for intolerance reactions and whether allergic patients may be at higher risk for this. RESULTS: Allergic reactions following COVID-19 vaccinations have been reported, but mostly of mild severity and at normal (Moderna®) or only slightly increased frequency (BioNTech/Pfizer®) compared to established conventional vaccines. The risk of allergic reaction to the newly licensed vector vaccines (AstraZeneca®, Johnson&Johnson®) cannot be conclusively assessed yet, but also appears to be low. There is currently no evidence that patients with allergic diseases (atopic patients) react more frequently or more severely to these vaccines. It is currently assumed that intolerance reactions of the immediate-type are either type I allergic (IgE-mediated) reactions or occur via complement activation (CARPA, "complement activation-related pseudoallergy"). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polysorbate, which are present as stabilizers in the vaccines, are suspected as triggers for this. CONCLUSION: The data available so far do not show a significantly increased risk of immediate-type allergic reactions in atopic persons. In almost all cases, atopic patients can be vaccinated without problems. Standardized follow-up tests after suspected allergic reactions or CARPA-mediated reactions are currently limited.

9.
Allergo J Int ; 30(5): 155-168, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) approved in the European Union represent a decisive step in the fight against the pandemic. The application of these available vaccines to patients with pre-existing immunological conditions leads to a multitude of questions regarding efficacy, side effects and the necessary patient information. RESULTS: This review article provides insight into mechanisms of action of the currently available severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines and summarises the current state of science as well as expert recommendations regarding tolerability of the vaccines. In addition, the potential to develop protective immune responses is determined. A special focus is given on patients under immunosuppression or in treatment with immunomodulatory drugs. Special groups of the population such as children, pregnant women and the elderly are also considered. CONCLUSION: Despite the need for a patient-specific risk-benefit assessment, the consensus among experts is that patients with immunological diseases in particular benefit from the induced immune protection after COVID-19 vaccination and do not have an increased risk of side effects.

10.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(1): 100505, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664932

RESUMO

Since the discovery of IgE, almost all attention was given to conditions with elevated specific or total IgE levels such as atopy, type I hypersensitivity reactions, or parasitic infestations. Recent prospective and retrospective studies show that having very low IgE levels, such as those seen in IgE deficiency (IgE<2.5 kU/L), is not without clinical consequences. Patients with ultra-low IgE levels have an elevated risk of cancer of any type. These results are in agreement with murine models research which demonstrated that grafted tumors grow faster and bigger on an IgE knockout background. The novel finding that IgE deficiency is a susceptibility factor for cancer, fits very well with the AllergoOncology concept. The reports on a beneficial, cytotoxic function of IgE, in cooperation with its high (FcεRI) and low (FcεRII, CD23) affinity IgE receptors resulting in tumor cell phagocytosis, propose a role of IgE in cancer surveillance. It appears that not only deficiency of serum IgE, but also lack of tissue-bound IgE is important in malignancy susceptibility in these patients. As such, IgE deficient individuals with absent serum and cell-bound IgE as suggested by negative type I hypersensitivity skin tests, are at the highest risk for a malignancy diagnosis. In contrast, IgE deficient individuals with cell-bound IgE depicted through positive type I hypersensitivity skin tests, have lower rates of malignancy diagnosis. The present report discusses the evidence and potential role of ultra-low IgE as a novel biomarker for cancer susceptibility.

11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(5): 1780-1789, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753052

RESUMO

Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only setting in which a vaccine is applied in patients allergic exactly to the active principle in the vaccine. Therefore, AIT products need to be not only effective but also safe. In Europe, for subcutaneous AIT, this has been achieved by the allergoid strategy in which IgE epitopes are destroyed or masked. In addition, adjuvants physically precipitate the allergen at the injection site to prevent too rapid systemic distribution. The choice of adjuvant critically shapes the efficacy and type of immune response to the injected allergen. In contrast to TH2-promoting adjuvants, others clearly counteract allergy. Marketed products in Europe are formulated with aluminum hydroxide (alum) (66.7%), microcrystalline tyrosine (16.7%), calcium phosphate (11.1%), or the TH1 adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (5.6%). In contrast to the European practice, in the United States mostly nonadjuvanted extracts and no allergoids are used for subcutaneous AIT, highlighting not only a regulatory but maybe a "historic preference." Sublingual AIT in the form of drops or tablets is currently applied worldwide without adjuvants, usually with higher safety but lower patient adherence than subcutaneous AIT. This article will discuss how AIT and adjuvants modulate the immune response in the treated patient toward immune activation, modulation, or-with new developments in the pipeline-immune resilience.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Alérgenos , Dessensibilização Imunológica , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia
12.
Chronobiol Int ; 38(6): 893-906, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757396

RESUMO

Sleep impairment is highly prevalent in night shift workers, but evidence on the association of former night shift work (NSW) and its metrics (duration and frequency) in relation to sleep complaints is lacking. We evaluated the association of former and current NSW with chronic insomnia or circadian rhythm sleep disorder in a sample of the general worker (GW) population and in hospital workers (HW) in Austria. Information on sleep, NSW history, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors was collected through an online cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of GW (N= 1,004) and a sample of HW (N= 799) between 2017 and 2019. Multi-variable adjusted logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for various measures of sleep (including chronic insomnia, daytime sleepiness, sleep duration, napping habits) and doctor-diagnosed chronic insomnia across NSW exposure (never night shift work; ever; ever/former; ever/current) and related metrics (cumulative duration, average frequency), compared to never NSW. Effect modification by chronotype and daytime napping was investigated. Former NSW was associated with higher odds of chronic insomnia in both samples (GW: OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.07-4.83; HW: OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 0.60-2.27). Chronic insomnia odds tended to increase among current night shift workers (HW: OR = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.79-2.83), compared to day workers. Higher NSW frequency (shifts/month) was associated with higher chronic insomnia odds in former night shift workers in both samples (GW: ORper shift/month = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.00-1.12; HW: ORper shift/month = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.25). Former NSW was also associated with increased daytime sleepiness among GW (OR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.28-3.99). Associations were more pronounced among early chronotypes and participants who reported no daytime naps. Our results suggest that NSW is associated with chronic insomnia even in the years after cessation of involvement in working it.


Assuntos
Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Áustria , Ritmo Circadiano , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Sono , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/epidemiologia
13.
Oncoimmunology ; 10(1): 1880687, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33628623

RESUMO

IgG4 subclass antibodies are expressed in alternative Th2 environments featuring high IL-10 expression, including several solid tumors such as melanoma. To induce tolerance, allergen immunotherapy mediates antibody class switching from pro-inflammatory IgE to anti-inflammatory IgG4. We previously reported that IgG4 drives allergic M2 macrophages toward tolerogenic states. Here we assessed the roles of IgG4 and macrophage activation in colorectal cancer (CRC). In this observer-blinded, case-control study, we analyzed total circulating serum IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 levels in CRC (n = 38) patients with (n = 13, TxNxM1) or without (n = 25, TxNxM0) metastasis, and in healthy donors (n = 21). Primary cultures of circulating monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy controls and CRC patients were further evaluated in their responses to stimulation with IgG1 or IgG4. We found higher absolute serum levels of IgG4 in patients with CRC. IgG4 enabled polarization of macrophages derived from CRC patients and healthy controls into alternatively-activated tolerogenic M2b phenotypes. IgG4-stimulated M2 macrophages were characterized by lower surface CD206, CD163, CD14, and CD11b expression and higher CCL-1, IL-10, and IL-6 production. IgG4 was less potent that IgG1 in triggering antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) of cancer cells. Further, higher z-normalized IgG4/-IgE sera level ratios correlated with the presence of metastasis (p = .0247 and p = .0009, respectively) in CRC patients. High IgG4 in CRC synergizes with macrophages in shaping an immunosuppressive microenvironment and impairs anti-cancer effector cell functions. The shift of serum IgG4/IgE ratios toward enhanced tolerance induction in metastatic disease indicates a role for high IgG4 in disease progression and poor prognostic outcome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Colo , Imunoglobulina G , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Macrófagos , Microambiente Tumoral
14.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(3-4): 86-95, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in systemic inflammatory responses and organ failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate early circulating plasma levels of MMP­2, MMP­9 and their inhibitors TIMP­1 and TIMP­2 and their prognostic significance in critically ill patients on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: In a single center prospective study 120 consecutive patients (72.5% male, mean age 66.8 ± 13.3 years, mean simplified acute physiology score [SAPS II] score 52.9 ± 21.9) were enrolled on transfer to the ICU of a cardiology department. The most common underlying conditions were cardiac diseases (n = 42.5%), respiratory failure (n = 10.8%) and sepsis (n = 6.7%). Blood samples were taken within 12 h of ICU admission. The MMP­2, MMP­9, TIMP­1 and TIMP­2 levels in plasma were evaluated in terms of 30-day survival, underlying condition and clinical score. RESULTS: On ICU admission 30-day survivors had significantly lower plasma MMP­9 (odds ratio, OR 1.67 per 1 SD; 95% confidence interval, CI 1.10-2.53; p = 0.016) and TIMP­1 (OR 2.15 per 1 SD; 95% CI 1.27-3.64; p = 0.004) levels than non-survivors; furthermore, MMP­9 and TIMP­1 correlated well with SAPS II (both p < 0.01). In patients with underlying cardiac diseases, MMP­9 (p = 0.002) and TIMP­1 (p = 0.01) were independent predictors of survival (Cox regression). No significant correlation was found between MMP­2 and TIMP­2 levels, MMP/TIMP ratios and 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: The MMP­9 and TIMP­1 levels are significantly elevated in acute critical care settings with increased short-term mortality risk, especially in patients with underlying heart disease. These findings support the value of MMPs and TIMPs as prognostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in conditions leading to systemic inflammation and acute organ failure.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1 , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Plasma , Estudos Prospectivos
15.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 133(11-12): 620-624, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591933

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether additional reminders could enhance adherence to a 12-week program consisting of regular physical activity. METHODS: The study collective consisted of pensioners insured with the Austrian Insurance Fund for Civil or Public Servants. They were made aware of our program through the public service union. The subjects were randomized to an intervention group (group A) that received reminders and to a control group (group B) that did not receive such notifications. Adherence to physical activity was assessed by the use of diaries. RESULTS: Group A performed 96 min more moderate intensity regular physical activity per week than group B (group A median 269 min, r = 0-1560 min; group B median 173 min, r = 0-2700 min). The Mann-Whitney U-test showed no significant differences (p = 0.080) between the study groups. There was no difference in muscle strengthening activity (group A: median: 2, r = 0-13 sessions; group B: median: 2, r = 0-20 sessions). CONCLUSION: The major positive observation was that both the experimental and control group participants exceeded the recommended level of physical activity. Nevertheless, there were some differences concerning the minutes of physical activity performed in favor of the intervention group.


Assuntos
Terapia por Exercício , Exercício Físico , Áustria , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(4): 1781-1794, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106975

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on health-related outcome parameters in the prehabilitation of patients diagnosed with cancer. METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies on HIIT in cancer prehabilitation conducted by screening standard databases from their inception to March 30, 2020. Outcomes of interest included cardiorespiratory fitness, feasibility, safety, clinical, and patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Of the 855 identified studies, 8 articles met the inclusion criteria (7 randomized, 1 non-randomized controlled trial) with a total of 896 patients. The study protocols were heterogeneous, but the methodological quality ranged from good to high according to PEDro scale. Meta-analysis revealed a significant improvement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) achieved with HIIT compared to usual care. Furthermore, HIIT was feasible and safe, showing low risk of adverse events and positive effects on health-related outcomes in prehabilitative settings. CONCLUSION: In the phase of prehabilitation, HIIT has potential health benefits in patients diagnosed with cancer and is feasible and safe to perform. Nonetheless, larger randomized controlled trials focusing on long-term effects (such as cancer recurrence or survival rates) are missing, to underline the potential relevance of HIIT for cancer patients.


Assuntos
Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade/métodos , Neoplasias/reabilitação , Exercício Pré-Operatório/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Environ Res ; 192: 110437, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181134

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with development of oropharyngeal cancer. Aim of this review was to assess airborne transmission risk of infectious particles from HPV lesions to airway mucosa of medical staff during established ablation procedures. METHODS: A systematic review of human and animal studies, published before 09/2020, relevant to airborne HPV transmission. Controlled studies reporting prevalence of HPV-associated upper airway (nasal/oral/pharyngeal) disease in staff performing ablation procedures (laser, loop electrosurgical excision [LEEP], cryosurgery) on HPV lesions were included in meta-analysis. Additionally, we aimed for a comprehensive systematic overview of studies regarding occupational risk of airborne HPV transmission and safety measures during ablation procedures. RESULTS: A total of n = 30 original studies report outcomes related to HPV transmission risk in medical staff conducting ablation procedures. HPV DNA detection in ablation smoke (n = 7), matching HPV genotypes on ablated HPV lesions and face/airways of medical staff after ablation (n = 2), and evidence for infectivity of papillomavirus in ablation smoke (n = 3, animal models only) were reported. Three case reports describe occupational HPV disease of upper airway mucosa. Three controlled studies assessed warts (in CO2 laser-users only); when pooling all controls (general population, non-laser users), nasal/oral/pharyngeal lesion sites were more common amongst laser-users (OR = 5.75; 95%CI[1.55, 21.38]; p < .001). DISCUSSION: Airborne HPV dispersal with matching "high-risk" HPV-genotypes in airways of medical staff after ablations (LEEP and CO2-laser) and cases of HPV-associated upper airways neoplasms based on exposure to laser and LEEP smoke are documented. Upper airway mucosa is a more common anatomical site for warts in CO2 laser users compared to controls. Simple safety measures greatly reduce HPV contamination and transmission risk.


Assuntos
Alphapapillomavirus , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Animais , Humanos , Papillomaviridae , Infecções por Papillomavirus/epidemiologia , Prevalência
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708690

RESUMO

Among the four immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses, IgG4 is the least represented in serum of a healthy human and it is considered an "odd" antibody. The IgG4 antibody has unique structural features that affect its biological function. These include the ability to undergo antigen-binding fragment (Fab)-arm exchange, to create fragment crystallizable (Fc) - Fc binding with other IgG4 and other IgG subclass antibodies, have a unique affinity profile for Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) and no binding to complement component C1q. Altogether, these characteristics support anti-inflammatory roles of IgG4 leading to immune tolerance. Under conditions of chronic antigenic stimulation and Th2-type inflammation, both tissue and serum IgG4 levels are increased. This review seeks to highlight how in allergen immunotherapy IgG4 can confer a protective role as a "blocking" antibody and safeguard from subsequent allergen exposure, while IgG4 can confer immunomodulatory functions to support malignancy. While Th2 conditions drive polarization of macrophages to the M2a subtype, chronic antigen stimulation drives B cell class switching to IgG4 to further support phenotypical macrophage changes towards an M2b-like state. M2b-like macrophages can secrete chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) to support regulatory cell recruitment and to further shape a tolerogenic microenvironment. Thereby, IgG4 have a Janus-faced role, favorable in allergy but detrimental in cancer.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Neoplasias/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral , Animais , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
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