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1.
J Immunol ; 203(9): 2451-2458, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562208

RESUMO

Granuloma formation is a hallmark of several infectious diseases, including those caused by Mycobacterium sp These structures are composed of accumulations of inflammatory cells, and it has been shown that cytokines such as IFN-γ and TNF-α are required for granuloma assembly during M. avium infections in mice. Macrophages (MΦs) insensitive to IFN-γ (MIIG) mice have MΦs, monocytes, and dendritic cells that are unresponsive to IFN-γ. We observed that although IFN-γ-/- mice present an exacerbated infection, the same is not true for MIIG animals, where the same levels of protection as the wild-type animals were observed in the liver and partial protection in the spleen. Unlike IFN-γ-/- mice, MIIG mice still develop well-defined granulomas, suggesting that IFN-γ-mediated MΦ activation is not required for granuloma assembly. This work also shows that MIIG animals exhibit increased cell recruitment with higher CD4+ T cells numbers as well as increased IFN-γ and TNF-α expression, suggesting that TNF-α may have a role in protection and may compensate the lack of MΦ response to IFN-γ in the MIIG model. TNF-α-deficient MIIG mice (MIIG.TNF-α-/-) exhibited increased bacterial burdens when compared with MIIG mice. These results suggest that in the absence of IFN-γ signaling in MΦs, TNF-α has a protective role against M. avium.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31442594

RESUMO

We have previously reported that a peripheral blood absolute CD38brightCD8+ effector memory T cell (TEM) population expansion of >35 cells/µL predicts the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that these T cells are activated, proliferating, and cytotoxic trafficking cells that are not a response to viral reactivation and may be involved in acute GVHD. We characterized peripheral blood T cell populations at the time of maximum CD38brightCD8+ TEM expansion in patients from our originally reported pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation recipient cohort. Samples were incubated with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies directed against CD3, CD8, CD38, HLA-DR (T cell activation), Ki-67 (T cell proliferation), granzyme B (marker of cytotoxic T cells), CLA (skin trafficking), CCR5 (visceral trafficking), and CXCR6 (liver trafficking). We also incubated samples with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) peptide pools and measured IFN-γ production by flow cytometry and performed EBV and CMV tetramer staining. Higher median proportions of cell expression of HLA-DR, Ki-67, granzyme B, CLA, CCR5, and CXCR6 were observed for CD38brightCD8+ T cells compared with CD38nonbrightCD8+ T cells in patients with acute GVHD (P < .05) but not in patients without acute GVHD (P not significant). No IFN-γ production was observed after incubation with CMV and EBV peptide pools. EBV-specific tetramer populations of 6.85% and 3.17% were detected in 2 patients with acute GVHD, whereas a CMV-specific tetramer population of 3.77% was detected in 1 patient with acute GVHD. No EBV- or CMV-specific tetramer populations were detected in any patient without acute GVHD. We conclude that CD38brightCD8+ T cells associated with the development of acute GVHD are activated, proliferating, and cytotoxic trafficking cells that do not appear to respond to CMV or EBV reactivation. Further studies are needed to determine whether these cells are directly involved in acute GVHD pathogenesis.

3.
Transplantation ; 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415033

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal allograft rejection is more frequent under belatacept-based, compared to tacrolimus-based, immunosuppression. We studied kidney transplant recipients experiencing rejection under belatacept-based early corticosteroid withdrawal following T cell depleting induction in a recent randomized trial (BEST Trial, clinicaltrials.gov #NCT01729494) to determine mechanisms of rejection and treatment. METHODS: Peripheral mononuclear cells, serum creatinine levels, and renal biopsies were collected from 8 patients undergoing belatacept-refractory rejection. We used flow cytometry, histology and immunofluorescence to characterize CD8 effector memory T cell (TEM) populations in the periphery and graft before and after mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition. RESULTS: Here, we found that patients with belatacept-refractory rejection (BRR) did not respond to standard antirejection therapy and had a substantial increase in alloreactive CD8 T cells with a CD28/DR/CD38/CD45RO TEM. These cells had increased activation of the mTOR pathway, as assessed by phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 (p-RPS6) expression. Notably, everolimus (an mTOR inhibitor) treatment of patients with BRR halted the in vivo proliferation of TEM cells, their ex vivo alloreactivity, and resulted in their significant reduction in the peripheral blood. The frequency of circulating FoxP3 regulatory T cells was not altered. Importantly, everolimus led to rapid resolution of rejection as confirmed by histology. CONCLUSIONS: Thus, while prior work has shown that concomitant belatacept + mTOR inhibitor therapy is effective for maintenance immunosuppression, our preliminary data suggest that everolimus may provide an available means for effecting "rescue" therapy for rejections occurring under belatacept that are refractory to traditional antirejection therapy with corticosteroids and polyclonal antilymphocyte globulin.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 130: 4451-4463, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a hematologic illness involving cytokine-induced lymphoproliferation, systemic inflammation, cytopenias, and life-threatening multi-organ dysfunction. The molecular underpinnings of interleukin-6(IL-6)-blockade refractory patients remain unknown; no targeted therapies exist. In this study, we searched for therapeutic targets in IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD patients with the thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever/elevated C-reactive protein, reticulin myelofibrosis, renal dysfunction, organomegaly (TAFRO) clinical subtype. METHODS: We analyzed tissues and blood samples from three IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD-TAFRO patients. Cytokine panels, quantitative serum proteomics, flow cytometry of PBMCs, and pathway analyses were employed to identify novel therapeutic targets. To confirm elevated mTOR signaling, a candidate therapeutic target from the above assays, immunohistochemistry was performed for phosphorylated S6, a read-out of mTOR activation, in three iMCD lymph node tissue samples and controls. Proteomic, immunophenotypic, and clinical response assessments were performed to quantify the effects of administration of the mTOR inhibitor, sirolimus. RESULTS: Studies of three IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD cases revealed increased CD8+ T cell activation, VEGF-A, and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway activity. Administration of sirolimus significantly attenuated CD8+ T cell activation and decreased VEGF-A levels. Sirolimus induced clinical benefit responses in all three patients with durable and ongoing remissions of 66, 19, and 19 months. CONCLUSION: This precision medicine approach identifies PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling as the first pharmacologically-targetable pathogenic process in IL-6-blockade refractory iMCD. Prospective evaluation of sirolimus in treatment-refractory iMCD is planned (NCT03933904). FUNDING: Castleman's Awareness & Research Effort/Castleman Disease Collaborative Network, Penn Center for Precision Medicine, University Research Foundation, Intramural NIH funding, and National Heart Lung and Blood Institute.

5.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 66(11): e27929, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339233

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of pathologic immune activation, often associated with genetic defects of lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Though a distinctive constellation of features has been described for HLH, diagnosis remains challenging as patients have diverse presentations associated with a variety of triggers. We propose two concepts to clarify how HLH is diagnosed and treated: within the broader syndrome of HLH, "HLH disease" should be distinguished from "HLH disease mimics" and HLH subtypes should be categorized by specific etiologic associations, not the ambiguous dichotomy of "primary" and "secondary." We provide expert-based advice regarding the diagnosis and initiation of treatment for patients with HLH, rooted in improved understanding of its pathophysiology.

6.
Front Immunol ; 10: 998, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31156616

RESUMO

CTLA-4 is essential for immune tolerance. Heterozygous CTLA4 mutations cause immune dysregulation evident in defective regulatory T cells with low levels of CTLA-4 expression. Biallelic mutations in LRBA also result in immune dysregulation with low levels of CTLA-4 and clinical presentation indistinguishable from CTLA-4 haploinsufficiency. CTLA-4 has become an immunotherapy target whereby its blockade with a monoclonal antibody has resulted in improved survival in advanced melanoma patients, amongst other malignancies. However, this therapeutic manipulation can result in autoimmune/inflammatory complications reminiscent of those seen in genetic defects affecting the CTLA-4 pathway. Despite efforts made to understand and establish disease genotype/phenotype correlations in CTLA-4-haploinsufficiency and LRBA-deficiency, such relationships remain elusive. There is currently no specific immunological marker to assess the degree of CTLA-4 pathway disruption or its relationship with clinical manifestations. Here we compare three different patient groups with disturbances in the CTLA-4 pathway-CTLA-4-haploinsufficiency, LRBA-deficiency, and ipilimumab-treated melanoma patients. Assessment of CTLA4 mRNA expression in these patient groups demonstrated an inverse correlation between the CTLA4 message and degree of CTLA-4 pathway disruption. CTLA4 mRNA levels from melanoma patients under therapeutic CTLA-4 blockade (ipilimumab) were increased compared to patients with either CTLA4 or LRBA mutations that were clinically stable with abatacept treatment. In summary, we show that increased CTLA4 mRNA levels correlate with the degree of CTLA-4 pathway disruption, suggesting that CTLA4 mRNA levels may be a quantifiable surrogate for altered CTLA-4 expression.

7.
Blood ; 133(23): 2465-2477, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30992265

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a severe hyperinflammatory syndrome induced by aberrantly activated macrophages and cytotoxic T cells. The primary (genetic) form, caused by mutations affecting lymphocyte cytotoxicity and immune regulation, is most common in children, whereas the secondary (acquired) form is most frequent in adults. Secondary HLH is commonly triggered by infections or malignancies but may also be induced by autoinflammatory/autoimmune disorders, in which case it is called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS; or MAS-HLH). Most information on the diagnosis and treatment of HLH comes from the pediatric literature. Although helpful in some adult cases, this raises several challenges. For example, the HLH-2004 diagnostic criteria developed for children are commonly applied but are not validated for adults. Another challenge in HLH diagnosis is that patients may present with a phenotype indistinguishable from sepsis or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Treatment algorithms targeting hyperinflammation are frequently based on pediatric protocols, such as HLH-94 and HLH-2004, which may result in overtreatment and unnecessary toxicity in adults. Therefore, dose reductions, individualized tailoring of treatment duration, and an age-dependent modified diagnostic approach are to be considered. Here, we present expert opinions derived from an interdisciplinary working group on adult HLH, sponsored by the Histiocyte Society, to facilitate knowledge transfer between physicians caring for pediatric and adult patients with HLH, with the aim to improve the outcome for adult patients affected by HLH.

9.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(12): e27400, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272386

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is characterized by dysregulated immune activation.  Primary HLH involves hereditary deficits in cytotoxic lymphocytes while secondary HLH is triggered by extrinsic factors. The HLH-2004 criteria are widely used for clinical diagnosis, yet their specificity for HLH or their ability to differentiate primary from secondary disease is unclear, potentially leading to inappropriate treatment. We describe several cases where fulfillment of HLH-2004 criteria obscured the diagnoses of underlying malignancies and delayed curative management. These issues are remedied without waiting for genetic testing results through an alternative diagnostic approach using flow cytometry-based immunologic assays and a thorough investigation for malignancy.

10.
Front Immunol ; 9: 2131, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30283457

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections, including Pneumocystis Pneumonia (PcP), remain frequent life-threatening conditions of patients with adaptive immune defects. While innate immunity helps control pathogen growth early during infection, it is typically not sufficient for complete protection against Pneumocystis and other human fungal pathogens. Alveolar macrophages (AM) possess pattern recognition molecules capable of recognizing antigenic and structural determinants of Pneumocystis. However, this pathogen effectively evades innate immunity to infect both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed hosts, albeit with differing outcomes. During our studies of mouse models of PcP, the FVB/N strain was identified as unique because of its ability to mount a protective innate immune response against Pneumocystis infection. In contrast to other immunocompetent strains, which become transiently infected prior to the onset of adaptive immunity, FVB/N mice rapidly eradicated Pneumocystis before an adaptive immune response was triggered. Furthermore, FVB/N mice remained highly resistant to infection even in the absence of functional T cells. The effector mechanism of innate protection required the action of functional alveolar macrophages, and the adoptive transfer of resistant FVB/N AMs, but not susceptible CB.17 AMs, conferred protection to immunodeficient mice. Macrophage IFNγ receptor signaling was not required for innate resistance, and FVB/N macrophages were found to display markers of alternative activation. IFNγ reprogrammed resistant FVB/N macrophages to a permissive M1 biased phenotype through a mechanism that required direct activation of the macrophage IFNγR. These results demonstrate that appropriately programmed macrophages provide protective innate immunity against this opportunistic fungal pathogen, and suggest that modulating macrophage function may represent a feasible therapeutic strategy to enhance antifungal host defense. The identification of resistant and susceptible macrophages provides a novel platform to study not only the mechanisms of macrophage-mediated antifungal defense, but also the mechanisms by which Pneumocystis evades innate immunity.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170123

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Caspase activation and recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) encodes a scaffold protein in lymphocytes that links antigen receptor engagement with downstream signaling to nuclear factor κB, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. Germline CARD11 mutations cause several distinct primary immune disorders in human subjects, including severe combined immune deficiency (biallelic null mutations), B-cell expansion with nuclear factor κB and T-cell anergy (heterozygous, gain-of-function mutations), and severe atopic disease (loss-of-function, heterozygous, dominant interfering mutations), which has focused attention on CARD11 mutations discovered by using whole-exome sequencing. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the molecular actions of an extended allelic series of CARD11 and to characterize the expanding range of clinical phenotypes associated with heterozygous CARD11 loss-of-function alleles. METHODS: Cell transfections and primary T-cell assays were used to evaluate signaling and function of CARD11 variants. RESULTS: Here we report on an expanded cohort of patients harboring novel heterozygous CARD11 mutations that extend beyond atopy to include other immunologic phenotypes not previously associated with CARD11 mutations. In addition to (and sometimes excluding) severe atopy, heterozygous missense and indel mutations in CARD11 presented with immunologic phenotypes similar to those observed in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 loss of function, dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency, common variable immunodeficiency, neutropenia, and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked-like syndrome. Pathogenic variants exhibited dominant negative activity and were largely confined to the CARD or coiled-coil domains of the CARD11 protein. CONCLUSION: These results illuminate a broader phenotypic spectrum associated with CARD11 mutations in human subjects and underscore the need for functional studies to demonstrate that rare gene variants encountered in expected and unexpected phenotypes must nonetheless be validated for pathogenic activity.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1508-1517, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201097

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome requiring aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. Following 2 large international studies mainly targeting pediatric patients with familial disease and patients without underlying chronic or malignant disease, the HLH-94 protocol is recommended as the standard of care when using etoposide-based therapy by the Histiocyte Society. However, in clinical practice, etoposide-based therapy has been widely used beyond the study inclusion criteria, including older patients and patients with underlying diseases (secondary HLH). Many questions remain around these extended indications and published reports do not address several practical issues. To tackle these concerns, the HLH Steering Committee of the Histiocyte Society decided to issue guidance for use of the HLH-94 protocol. The group convened in a structured consensus finding process to define recommendations that are based largely on expert opinion backed up by available data from the literature. The recommendations address all main elements of HLH-94 including corticosteroids, cyclosporin, etoposide, intrathecal therapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and consider various forms of HLH and all age groups. Aspects covered include indications, applications, dosing, side effects, duration of therapy, salvage therapy, and HSCT. These recommendations aim to provide a framework to guide treatment decisions in this severe disease.

13.
Diabetes ; 67(11): 2319-2328, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30104248

RESUMO

Preserving endogenous insulin production is clinically advantageous and remains a vital unmet challenge in the treatment and reversal of type 1 diabetes. Although broad immunosuppression has had limited success in prolonging the so-called remission period, it comes at the cost of compromising beneficial immunity. Here, we used a novel strategy to specifically deplete the activated diabetogenic T cells that drive pathogenesis while preserving not only endogenous insulin production but also protective immunity. Effector T (Teff) cells, such as diabetogenic T cells, are naturally poised on the edge of apoptosis because of activation-induced DNA damage that stresses the p53 regulation of the cell cycle. We have found that using small molecular inhibitors that further potentiate p53 while inhibiting the G2/M cell cycle checkpoint control drives apoptosis of activated T cells in vivo. When delivered at the onset of disease, these inhibitors significantly reduce diabetogenic Teff cells, prolong remission, preserve functional islets, and protect islet allografts while leaving naive, memory, and regulatory T-cell populations functionally untouched. Thus, the targeted manipulation of p53 and cell cycle checkpoints represents a new therapeutic modality for the preservation of islet ß-cells in new-onset type 1 diabetes or after islet transplant.

14.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(7): 1527-1529, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29555312

RESUMO

Mixed chimerism and eventual graft loss occurs in a proportion of children with primary immune deficiencies receiving alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We investigated the usefulness of a CD34+ selected stem cell "boost" without conditioning to treat mixed chimerism in children and young adults who received predominantly an alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan RIC regimen for primary immune deficiencies and reported the outcomes. Patients with a primary immune deficiency disorder who were either enrolled on a prospective CD34+ boost study for treatment of mixed chimerism from 2011 to 2014 (n = 9) or treated with a CD34+ boost on a clinical basis from 2014 to 2016 (n = 3) were included in this analysis. Response to a CD34+ boost was defined as a rise in donor chimerism by ≥15% with donor chimerism of at least 20%, stabilization was defined as a rise in chimerism by <15% with donor chimerism ≥ 20%, and no response was defined as any decline in donor chimerism or need for a second HSCT after a CD34+ boost. Twelve patients received alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan. Median age was 4.5 years (range, .9 to 20.6), and median whole blood donor chimerism before the boost was 25% (range, 3% to 61%). Three patients (25%) met criteria for response, 1 patient (8%) was considered to have stabilization, and 8 patients (67%) had no response 12 months after the boost. None of the patients developed any complications from a CD34+ boost, including no acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). All patients are alive with a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 8 to 79). We conclude that a CD34+ selected stem cell boost can be considered for treatment of mixed chimerism after alemtuzumab, fludarabine, and melphalan RIC HSCT in children and young adults with primary immune deficiencies. Approximately one-third of patients can be expected to benefit from a CD34+ selected stem cell boost and may avoid the need for a second HSCT. Lack of any GVHD or toxicity makes a stem cell boost an attractive option compared with donor lymphocyte infusions for treatment of mixed chimerism.

15.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 430, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382851

RESUMO

GTPase of immunity-associated protein 5 (Gimap5) is linked with lymphocyte survival, autoimmunity, and colitis, but its mechanisms of action are unclear. Here, we show that Gimap5 is essential for the inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK3ß) following T cell activation. In the absence of Gimap5, constitutive GSK3ß activity constrains c-Myc induction and NFATc1 nuclear import, thereby limiting productive CD4+ T cell proliferation. Additionally, Gimap5 facilitates Ser389 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of GSK3ß, thereby limiting DNA damage in CD4+ T cells. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition and genetic targeting of GSK3ß can override Gimap5 deficiency in CD4+ T cells and ameliorates immunopathology in mice. Finally, we show that a human patient with a GIMAP5 loss-of-function mutation has lymphopenia and impaired T cell proliferation in vitro that can be rescued with GSK3 inhibitors. Given that the expression of Gimap5 is lymphocyte-restricted, we propose that its control of GSK3ß is an important checkpoint in lymphocyte proliferation.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/fisiologia , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/patologia , Morte Celular , Proliferação de Células , Colite/genética , Colite/imunologia , Dano ao DNA/imunologia , Ativação Enzimática , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/imunologia , Glicogênio Sintase Quinase 3 beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Homeostase , Humanos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fosforilação
17.
Haematologica ; 102(11): 1956-1968, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28860338

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening syndrome characterized by overwhelming immune activation. A steroid and chemotherapy-based regimen remains as the first-line of therapy but it has substantial morbidity. Thus, novel, less toxic therapy for HLH is urgently needed. Although differences exist between familial HLH (FHL) and secondary HLH (sHLH), they have many common features. Using bioinformatic analysis with FHL and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which is associated with sHLH, we identified a common hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A) signature. Furthermore, HIF1A protein levels were found to be elevated in the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infected Prf1-/- mouse FHL model and the CpG oligodeoxynucleotide-treated mouse sHLH model. To determine the role of HIF1A in HLH, a transgenic mouse with an inducible expression of HIF1A/ARNT proteins in hematopoietic cells was generated, which caused lethal HLH-like phenotypes: severe anemia, thrombocytopenia, splenomegaly, and multi-organ failure upon HIF1A induction. Mechanistically, these mice show type 1 polarized macrophages and dysregulated natural killler cells. The HLH-like phenotypes in this mouse model are independent of both adaptive immunity and interferon-γ, suggesting that HIF1A is downstream of immune activation in HLH. In conclusion, our data reveal that HIF1A signaling is a critical mediator for HLH and could be a novel therapeutic target for this syndrome.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/genética , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
18.
Cancer ; 123(17): 3229-3240, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28621800

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome of severe immune activation and dysregulation resulting in extreme and often life-threatening inflammation. HLH has been well recognized in pediatric populations, and most current diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines are based on pediatric HLH. Recently there has been recognition of HLH in adults, especially secondary to immune deregulation by an underlying rheumatologic, infectious, or malignant condition. This review is focused on malignancy-associated HLH (M-HLH), in which possible mechanisms of pathogenesis include severe inflammation, persistent antigen stimulation by the tumor cells, and loss of immune homeostasis because of chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, or infection. Previously considered rare, M-HLH may occur in up to 1% of patients with hematologic malignancies. M-HLH is often missed or diagnosed late in most published studies, and it has been associated with a poor median survival of less than 2 months. Identification of the clinical and laboratory features specific to M-HLH in adults may allow early detection, consultation with HLH experts, and intervention. Improved management of adult M-HLH with optimal combinations of T-lympholytic and immunosuppressive agents and the incorporation of novel agents based on the pediatric experience hopefully will improve outcomes in adults with M-HLH. Cancer 2017;123:3229-40. © 2017 American Cancer Society.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/patologia , Adulto , Alemtuzumab , Consenso , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/tratamento farmacológico , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/imunologia , Linfo-Histiocitose Hemofagocítica/mortalidade , Masculino , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Cell Rep ; 19(6): 1165-1175, 2017 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494866

RESUMO

Mucosal tissues are constantly in direct contact with diverse beneficial and pathogenic microbes, highlighting the need for orchestrating complex microbial signals to sustain effective host defense. Here, we show an essential role for intestinal epithelial cell expression of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in responding to pathogenic microbes and activating protective innate immunity. Mice lacking HDAC3 in intestinal epithelial cells were more susceptible to Citrobacter rodentium when under tonic stimulation by the commensal microbiota. This impaired host defense reflected significantly decreased IFNγ production by intraepithelial CD8+ T cells early during infection. Further, HDAC3 was necessary for infection-induced epithelial expression of the IFNγ-inducing factor IL-18, and administration of IL-18 restored IFNγ activity to resident CD8+ T cells and reduced infection. Thus, HDAC3 mediates communication between intestinal epithelial cells and resident lymphocytes, revealing that epithelial priming by an epigenetic modifier may direct mucosal regulation of host defense against pathogenic microbes.


Assuntos
Enterócitos/imunologia , Histona Desacetilases/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citrobacter/patogenicidade , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/imunologia , Enterócitos/microbiologia , Feminino , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Imunidade Inata , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL
20.
Immunol Rev ; 277(1): 21-43, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28462527

RESUMO

T cells play a critical role in immune responses as they specifically recognize peptide/MHC complexes with their T-cell receptors and initiate adaptive immune responses. While T cells are critical for performing appropriate effector functions and maintaining immune memory, they also can cause autoimmunity or neoplasia if misdirected or dysregulated. Thus, T cells must be tightly regulated from their development onward. Maintenance of appropriate T-cell homeostasis is essential to promote protective immunity and limit autoimmunity and neoplasia. This review will focus on the role of cell death in maintenance of T-cell homeostasis and outline novel therapeutic strategies tailored to manipulate cell death to limit T-cell survival (eg, autoimmunity and transplantation) or enhance T-cell survival (eg, vaccination and immune deficiency).


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/terapia , Morte Celular , Sobrevivência Celular , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Homeostase , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Transplante , Vacinação
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