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1.
Curr Heart Fail Rep ; 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474734

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the growing need for donor hearts and longer transplant waiting lists, there is a growing interest in expanding the donor pool by reconsidering previously excluded donor candidates. There has been an increase in solid organ availability due to drug overdose deaths in the setting of the recent opioid epidemic. However, these donors often have transmissible infections such as hepatitis C. In this review, we discuss the challenges associated with heart transplantation from hepatitis C-infected donors as well as the recent advancements that are making the use of these organs possible. RECENT FINDINGS: With the introduction and widespread use of nucleic acid testing (NAT), the ability to distinguish viremic donors and those that have cleared the virus has become a reality. In addition, with the emergence of direct antiviral agents, there is an increase in data showing the short-term outcomes and success of hepatitis C treatment for recipients of viremic donor hearts. As techniques to distinguish donor hepatitis C infection status and successful treatments emerge, the percentage of accepted hepatitis C donor hearts is increasing. A number of studies showing success with hepatitis C organ transplants present a promising new avenue for organ procurement essential to meet the increasing demand for donor hearts.

3.
Circ Heart Fail ; 13(5): e006858, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) often have multiple chronic conditions that may impact health-related quality of life (HRQOL) despite HF therapy. We sought to determine the association between noncardiac comorbidities and HRQOL in ambulatory patients with advanced HF. METHODS: Baseline data from 373 subjects in REVIVAL (Registry Evaluation of Vital Information for Ventricular Assist Devices in Ambulatory Life) were analyzed using multivariable general linear models to evaluate the relationship between comorbidities and HRQOL (EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale, EQ-5D-3L Index Score, and Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire). The primary independent variables were a comorbidity index (sum of 14 noncardiac conditions), a residual comorbidity index (without depression), and depression alone. The median (25th to 75th percentile) number of comorbidities was 3 (2-4). RESULTS: Increasing comorbidity burden was associated with a reduction in generic (EQ-5D Index, P=0.005) and HF-specific (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, P=0.001) HRQOL. The residual comorbidity index was not associated with HRQOL when depression included in the model independently, while depression was associated with HRQOL across all measures. Participants with depression (versus without) scored on average 13 points (95% CI, 8-17) lower on the EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale, 0.15 points (95% CI, 0.12-0.18) lower on the EQ-5D Index, and 24.9 points (95% CI, 21.2-28.5) lower on the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire overall summary score. CONCLUSIONS: While noncardiac comorbidities were prevalent in ambulatory advanced HF patients, only depression was associated with decreased generic and HF-specific HRQOL. Other than depression, the presence of noncardiac comorbidities should not impact expected gains in HRQOL following ventricular assist device implantation, provided the conditions are not a contraindication to implant. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01369407.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin (ASA) anti-platelet therapy is mandated with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) to prevent hemocompatibility-related adverse events (HRAEs). However, the optimal dose of ASA with HeartMate 3 (HM3) LVAD is unknown. METHODS: In an exploratory analysis of HM3-supported patients in the MOMENTUM 3 study (NCT02224755), 2 groups were analyzed: usual-dose (325 mg) and low-dose (81 mg) ASA with anti-coagulation targeted to an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0. Exclusion criteria included patients not receiving either ASA 81 mg or 325 mg, those with HRAEs ≤7 days after device implantation, and those receiving >1 anti-platelet agent. The primary end-point was survival free from HRAEs (non-surgical bleeding, pump thrombosis, stroke, and peripheral arterial thromboembolic events) at 2 years. RESULTS: Overall, 321 HM3 patients (usual-dose: n = 141, low-dose: n = 180) were included in this analysis. Usual-dose group patients were younger (57 ± 13 vs 60 ± 12 years, p = 0.035) and less often assigned destination therapy (55% vs 67%, p = 0.029) than low-dose ASA. At 2 years, a similar proportion of patients in the usual- and low-dose groups (43.4% vs 45.3%, p = 0.94) met the primary end-point. There were no differences in survival free from hemorrhagic (usual-dose: 54.4% vs low-dose: 51.7%, p = 0.42) or thrombotic (usual-dose: 76.8% vs low-dose: 75.7%, p = 0.92) events. CONCLUSIONS: Usual- and low-dose ASA revealed similar rates of bleeding and thrombotic events in HM3 LVAD-supported patients within the MOMENTUM 3 trial. Whether ASA therapy provides any meaningful therapeutic effect in patients treated by the HM3 LVAD remains to be determined.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a lack of evidence to guide appropriate donor sizing in recipients with moderate pulmonary hypertension (pHTN) awaiting heart transplantation (HTx). It is common practice to oversize donor hearts for such recipients to prevent post-operative right ventricular failure. Therefore, our objective was to determine if oversizing in pre-transplant moderate pHTN provides a survival advantage. METHODS: The United Network for Organ Sharing database was analyzed to include HTx recipients from 1994 to 2016. Recipients were considered as having moderate pHTN if the pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) was 2.5 to 5 Wood units (WU) or transpulmonary gradient (TPG) was 10 to 18 mm Hg. Heart size mismatch was determined using the predicted heart mass equations. A size mismatch of ≥15% in either direction was considered undersized or oversized, respectively. Ninety-day and 1-year survival were analyzed based on size matching via univariate and Cox regression analysis. Propensity matching was performed to specifically evaluate the effect of donor sex among male transplant recipients. RESULTS: Among 29,441 HTx recipients, 10,666 had moderate pHTN by PVR criteria and 12,624 HTx patients had moderate pHTN according to TPG criteria. Among patients with a PVR of 2.5 to 5 WU, oversizing was not associated with lower mortality compared with matched hearts at 90 days (7.6% vs 7.4%; p = 0.75) and 1 year (12.1% vs 11.3%; p = 0.26). Conversely, undersizing the donor was associated with a higher 90-day (10.6% vs 7.6% vs 7.4%; p < 0.01) and 1-year (15.3% vs 12.1% vs 11.3%; p < 0.01) mortality than recipients receiving oversized or matched hearts, respectively. On Cox regression analysis, there was no benefit with oversizing at 90 days (hazard ratio [HR] 0.88; p = 0.23) and 1 year (HR 0.99; p = 0.90), whereas undersizing was associated with higher 90-day (HR 1.32; p = 0.02) and 1-year mortality (HR 1.23; p = 0.03) compared to size-matched controls. Among patients with moderate pHTN based on TPG of 10 to 18 mm Hg, neither undersizing nor oversizing was predictive of mortality at 90 days and 1 year according to Cox regression analysis. Propensity matching revealed that female-to-male transplantation had similar 1-year mortality to male-to-male transplantation, and there was no advantage to oversizing female donors for male recipients. CONCLUSIONS: In this registry-based analysis, there was no benefit to oversizing donors for cardiac transplant recipients with moderate pHTN. Elimination of this restriction could increase the donor pool and reduce wait times for such recipients.

7.
Heart Fail Rev ; 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002731

RESUMO

The relationship between severity of obesity and outcomes in heart failure (HF) has long been under debate. We studied index HF admissions from the 2013-14 National Readmission Database. Admissions were separated into three weight-based categories: non-obese (Non-Ob), obese (Ob), and morbidly obese (Morbid-Ob) to analyze hospital mortality and readmission at 30 days and 6 months. We investigated etiologies and predictors of 30-day readmission among these weight categories. We studied a total of 578,213 patients of whom 3.0% died during index hospitalization (Non-Ob 3.3% vs. Ob 1.9% vs. Morbid-Ob 1.9%; p < 0.01). Non-Ob comprised 79.5%, Ob 9.9%, and Morbid-Ob 10.6% of patients. Morbid-Ob patients were the youngest among age categories and more likely to be female. In-hospital mortality during readmission at 30 days and 6 months was significantly lower among Morbid-Ob and Ob compared with Non-Ob patients (all p < 0.01). Thirty-day readmission among Morbid-Ob was lower than Non-Ob and higher than Ob patients (19.6% vs. 20.5% vs. 18.6%, respectively; p < 0.01). Morbid-Ob patients were less likely to be readmitted for cardiovascular etiologies compared with both Ob and Non-Ob (45.0% vs. 50.3% vs. 50.6%; p < 0.01). Multivariable regression analysis revealed that Ob (adjusted odds ratio 0.84, 95% confidence intervals 0.82-0.86) and Morbid-Ob (aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.81-0.85) were independently associated with lower 30-day readmission. Readmission at 6 months was highest among Morbid-Ob followed by Non-Ob and Ob (51.1% vs. 50.2% vs. 49.1%, p < 0.01). Morbid-Ob and Ob patients experience lower in-hospital mortality during index HF admission and during readmission with 30 days or 6 months compared with Non-Ob. Morbid-Ob patients experience greater readmission at 6 months despite the lower rate at 30 days post discharge. Morbid-Ob patients are most likely to be readmitted for non-cardiovascular causes.

9.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 159(3): 865-896, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983522
12.
ASAIO J ; 66(3): 277-282, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973402

RESUMO

Fibrinogen is a clotting factor and a major determinant of platelet aggregation. Albumin, on the other hand, inhibits platelet function and thrombus formation. Taken together, an elevated fibrinogen albumin ratio (FAR) has been described as a marker of disease severity during prothrombotic conditions. We evaluated the association of FAR and ischemic stroke during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) support. A single center, retrospective study was performed including all adult patients placed on VA ECMO. FAR was calculated from fibrinogen and albumin measurements in the first 24 hours of VA-ECMO initiation. Patients were categorized into high (≥125) and low (<125) FAR groups and the risk of eventual ischemic stroke was determined. There were 201 patients who underwent VA ECMO placement and 157 had a FAR. They were 56 ± 14 years old and 66 (42%) had a high FAR. Patients with a high FAR had lower survival free from an ischemic stroke during VA ECMO (log rank p < 0.001; adjusted hazard ratio 5.51; 95% CI: 1.8-16.5). In tertile analysis, the level of FAR was associated with an incrementally higher likelihood of eventual ischemic stroke (log rank p = 0.004). Those with a high FAR had greater mean platelet volume (10.8[10.4-12] vs. 10.5[10.2-11.9]fl, p = 0.004). An elevated FAR during the first 24 hours of VA ECMO placement is associated with a greater risk of a subsequent ischemic stroke. Our findings suggest that assessment of FAR soon after VA ECMO placement may assist with early stratification of patients at risk for an ischemic stroke.

13.
Echocardiography ; 37(1): 22-28, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accurately assessing volume status in acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF) can be challenging. Inferior vena cava (IVC) dynamics by echocardiography allow indirect assessment of volume status in these patients. Recently introduced hand-held ultrasound devices are promising. We aimed to describe the clinical correlates of volume status assessment using a hand-held ultrasound device in ADHF. METHODS: In this prospective study, we evaluated 106 patients admitted with ADHF. First scan was performed within 24 hours of admission and timed in reference to first dose of intravenous diuretic. Daily resting and inspiratory (sniff) IVC diameters were measured according to standard echocardiography methods during hospitalization including the day of discharge. IVC collapsibility index (IVC-CI = Maximum IVC diameter-Inspiratory IVC diameter/maximum diameter; <0.5 representing hypervolemia) was calculated. Primary study endpoint was 30-day readmission. Research activities were independent of clinical decision-making. RESULTS: Data for 106 patients was analyzed. Mean age was 66.7 ± 13.8 years, of which 53.8% were females, and a mean ejection fraction was 39 ± 18%. Initial scan of the IVC was obtained at an average time of 5.2 ± 8.04 hours from first diuretic dose. 81.2% of patients at admission had an IVC-CI <0.5. 63.2% patients had an IVC-CI <0.5 at discharge. There were no significant differences in age, length of stay, diuretic dose, or 30-day readmissions between patients with a discharge IVC-CI <0.5 vs ≥ 0.5. CONCLUSION: Hand-held ultrasound assessment of IVC-CI in ADHF patients, although a feasible concept, is unable to predict 30-day readmissions in our study. Further prospective studies are necessary.

14.
J Card Fail ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31809791

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worsening heart failure (HF) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have been shown to impact the decision to proceed with left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, but little is known about how socioeconomic factors influence expressed patient preference for LVAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ambulatory patients with advanced systolic HF (n=353) reviewed written information about LVAD therapy and completed a brief survey to indicate whether they would want an LVAD to treat their current level of HF. Ordinal logistic regression analyses identified clinical and demographic predictors of LVAD preference. Higher New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, worse HRQOL measured by Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire, lower education level, and lower income were significant univariable predictors of patients wanting an LVAD. In the multivariable model, higher NYHA class (OR [odds ratio]: 1.43, CI [confidence interval]: 1.08-1.90, P = .013) and lower income level (OR: 2.10, CI: 1.18 - 3.76, P = .012 for <$40,000 vs >$80,000) remained significantly associated with wanting an LVAD. CONCLUSION: Among ambulatory patients with advanced systolic HF, treatment preference for LVAD was influenced by level of income independent of HF severity. Understanding the impact of socioeconomic factors on willingness to consider LVAD therapy may help tailor counseling towards individual needs.

15.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of different types of regional wall motion abnormalities(RWMAs) including Takotsubo-syndrome like(TTS-like) phenotype, on post-transplant outcomes when using donor hearts with transient left ventricular systolic dysfunction(LVSD) is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic association of different RWMAs including TTS-like hypokinesis, and post-transplant outcomes when using donor hearts with transient LVSD. METHODS: From all the adult(≥18 years) heart transplants in UNOS between January-2007 and September-2015, we identified 472 donor hearts with improving or transient LVSD- defined as LVEF≤40% on initial trans-thoracic echocardiogram(TTE) that improved to ≥50% on follow up TTE during donor evaluation. These improved LVSD donors were then sub-divided into 3 groups based on RWMAs on the initial TTE: TTS-like 49(10.38%), non-TTS RWMAs 74(15.68%) and diffuse global-hypokinesis(GH) 349(73.94%); and compared for baseline characteristics and post-transplant outcomes with follow up until June-2018. RESULTS: Donors with TTS-like LVSD were older and more likely to be female. The type of RWMA on initial TTE (including TTS-like) of transient LVSD donor hearts was not associated with 1-year or 5-year post-transplant mortality. Post-transplant functional status scores of recipients (at 1 year) and donor LVEF (at median follow up of 3.6 years) improved in all 3 sub-groups. Rates of stroke or pacemaker pre-discharge were also similar. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest analysis of transplanted donor hearts with transient LVSD, 1 in 4 had RWMAs on the initial TTE; but this was not associated with adverse post-transplant outcomes. Donor hearts with initial LVSD should be pursued irrespective of TTS-like hypokinesis or other RWMAs.

16.
Circ Heart Fail ; 12(10): e006235, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564135
17.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(9): 907-917, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) donors should be categorized as HCV-viremic (antibody [Ab] negative or positive/Nucleic Acid testing [NAT] positive) or HCV Ab+nonviremic (Ab+/NAT-). Whereas recipients of hearts from HCV-viremic donors will develop viremia but can be cured of HCV shortly after transplant with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), recipients of hearts from HCV Ab+ nonviremic donors are highly unlikely to become viremic or require DAAs. Given this important difference in risk, we assessed the utilization trends and post-heart-transplantation outcomes of HCV-naive (Ab-/NAT-), HCV-viremic, and HCV Ab+ nonviremic donor hearts. METHODS: A total of 26,572 adult donors (≥18 years) with information on HCV Ab and NAT status were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing registry between August 2015 and June 2018 for utilization rates. Adult heart transplant recipients of these donors were compared for primary graft failure (PGF) at 90 days and 1-year recipient survival. RESULTS: A total of 96 HCV Ab+ nonviremic and 135 HCV-viremic adult donor hearts were transplanted during the study period. The utilization rates of both HCV Ab+ nonviremic (1.4%-23.4%) and HCV-viremic (0.7%-25.4%) donor hearts increased significantly approaching HCV-naive rates (29.04%). There was no significant difference in rates of PGF and 1-year survival between recipients in the 3 donor HCV groups. We also used (1:3) propensity score matching and found similar 1-year survival in different donor HCV groups (HCV-naive vs HCV Ab+ nonviremic, p = 0.59, and HCV-naive vs HCV-viremic, p = 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Recipients of HCV-viremic and HCV Ab+ nonviremic donor hearts had equivalent risk of PGF and 1-year mortality compared with recipients of HCV-naive donor hearts. Although only HCV-viremic organs require DAAs and the risk of coronary artery vasculopathy after treated HCV infection has not been defined, the utilization rates of both HCV Ab+ nonviremic and HCV-viremic adult donor hearts have increased at an equal pace now approaching HCV-naive rates.

18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 6: 88, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355209

RESUMO

Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is the commonest valvular abnormality encountered among adult patients with cardiac valvular disease and conveys significant morbidity and mortality. The mitral valve is a complex anatomical structure and etiology for regurgitation is classified as either primary or secondary MR. Identification of the etiology in severe MR is critical in determining the appropriate treatment strategy. Transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVR) is a minimally invasive technique for treatment of selected patients with symptomatic chronic moderate-severe or severe (3 to 4+) MR. While surgery remains the mainstay for treatment in primary MR, several technological advances within the last decade have made transcatheter mitral valve intervention increasingly feasible and safe in clinical practice. Use of TMVR in patients with severe MR has successfully reduced patient symptoms, disease morbidity, improved quality of life, and facilitated reverse remodeling with potential for a survival advantage among certain patients with secondary MR. Recent randomized controlled trials on MitraClip use in secondary MR have reinvigorated interest in this disease and refocused our attention on optimizing patient selection and timing of intervention to maximize benefit from using such percutaneous devices. In our review, we discuss etiologies and pathophysiology in both acute MR and development of chronic severe MR. We discuss management strategies for MR among patients based on etiology, particularly percutaneous mitral valve interventional therapies. We perform an extensive review comparing and contrasting existing data on safety, efficacy, durability, and appropriate patient selection related to MitraClip implantation in both primary and secondary MR. Lastly, we explore percutaneous MV therapies beyond the MitraClip as we await larger scale trials on these devices prior to them making way into day-to-day practice.

20.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(3): 756-763, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemolysis, even at low levels, activates platelets to create a prothrombotic state and is common during mechanical circulatory support. We examined the association of low-level hemolysis (LLH) and nonhemorrhagic stroke during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) support. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review of all adult patients placed on VA ECMO from January 2012 to September 2017 was conducted. To determine the association between LLH and nonhemorrhagic stroke, patients were categorized as those with and without LLH. LLH was defined by 48-hour plasma free hemoglobin (PFHb) of 11 to 50 mg/dL after VA ECMO implantation. RESULTS: Of 201 patients who underwent VA ECMO placement, 150 (75%) met inclusion criteria and comprised the study population. They were 55 ± 14 years of age and 50 (33%) were women. Sixty-two (41%) patients had LLH. Patients with LLH had a higher likelihood of incident nonhemorrhagic stroke during VA ECMO support (20 [32%] versus 4 [5%]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 7.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 25.9; p = 0.001). The severity of LLH was associated with an incrementally higher likelihood of a nonhemorrhagic stroke (PFHb 26 to 50 mg/dL: HR, 11.3; 95% CI, 3.6 to 35.1; p = 0.001; PFHb 11 to 25 mg/dL: HR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.36 to 14.85; p = 0.014) in comparison with no LLH. Those with LLH had a 2-fold greater increase in mean platelet volume after VA ECMO placement (0.98 ± 1.1 fL versus 0.49 ± 0.96 fL; p = 0.03). Patients with a nonhemorrhagic stroke had a higher operative mortality (20 [83%] versus 57 [45%]; adjusted HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hemolysis at low levels during VA ECMO support is associated with subsequent nonhemorrhagic stroke.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hemólise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , California , Estudos de Coortes , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
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