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1.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2018: 4298583, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30123586

RESUMO

Background: Deep and respiratory muscle disorders are commonly observed in critically ill patients. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is an alternative to mobilize and to exercise that does not require active patient participation and can be used on bedridden patients. Objective: Evaluate the effectiveness of the NMES therapy in quadriceps versus diaphragm subjects in mechanical ventilation (MV). Methods: Sixty-seven subjects in MV were included, divided into 3 groups: (a) control group (CG, n=26), (b) stimulation of quadriceps (quadriceps group-QG, n=24), and (c) stimulation of diaphragm (diaphragm group-DG, n=17). The QG and DG patients received consecutive daily electrical stimulation sessions at specific points from the first day of randomization until ICU discharge. Respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, MV time, length of hospitalization, and functional independence score (the Functional Status Score-ICU) were recorded. Results: There were studied n=24 (QG), n=17 (DG), and n=26 (CG) patients. Peripheral muscle strength improved significantly in the QG (p=0.030). Functional independence at ICU discharge was significantly better in QG (p=0.013), and the QG presented a better Barthel Index compared to DG and CG (p=0.0049) and also presented better FSS compared to CG (p=0.001). Conclusions: Electrical stimulation of quadriceps had best outcomes for peripheral muscle strength compared with controls or electrical stimulation of diaphragm among mechanically ventilated critically ill subjects and promoted functional independence and decreased length of hospitalization.

2.
ABCS health sci ; 43(1): 61-66, maio 18, 2018. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-884027

RESUMO

O delirium consiste em um estado confusional agudo e de curso flutuante representando uma manifestação da disfunção cerebral que pode estar associado com diferentes manifestações clínicas. Os pacientes com delirium têm sido estudados, pois tem apresentado maior tempo de ventilação mecânica e de internação em unidade de terapia intensiva. O objetivo do estudo foi realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca da influência do delirium no tempo de ventilação mecânica, sedação e na mortalidade de pacientes internados em unidade de terapia intensiva. Foi realizada uma busca por estudos nas bases de dados PubMed e Embase, com os descritores delirium, intensive care unit and mechanical ventilation. Nos resultados foram incluídos oito artigos, um recebeu graduação A e sete receberam graduação B na escala de Oxford. Os principais resultados foram: Os pacientes com delirium apresentaram maior gravidade, maior tempo de ventilação mecânica, maior tempo de sedação e maior mortalidade. Conclui-se que o delirium parece estar associado ao maior tempo da ventilação mecânica, maior dosagem de sedação e de mortalidade nestes pacientes. (AU)


Delirium consists of an acute, fluctuating, confusional state, representing a manifestation of cerebral dysfunction that can occur with different clinical manifestations. Patients with delirium have been studied because they have had longer time of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization in the intensive care unit. The objective of the study was to perform a literature review about the influence of delirium on the time of mechanical ventilation, sedation and on the mortality of patients admitted in intensive care units. A search for studies with the keywords delirium, intensive care unit and mechanical ventilation was performed in PubMed and Embase databases. As result eight articles were included, one received level A and seven received level B on the Oxford scale. The main results were: Patients with delirium presented greater severity, longer time of mechanical ventilation, longer sedation time and higher mortality. It is concluded that delirium appears to be associated with longer mechanical ventilation, greater sedation and mortality rates in these patients. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Delírio/complicações , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Respiração Artificial
3.
Respir Care ; 60(11): 1527-35, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26152472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Failure to wean can prolong ICU stay, increase complications associated with mechanical ventilation, and increase morbidity and mortality. The spontaneous breathing trial (SBT) is one method used to assess weaning. The aim of this study was to assess proportional assist ventilation plus (PAV+) as an SBT by comparing its applicability, safety, and efficacy with T-tube and pressure support ventilation (PSV). METHODS: A randomized study was performed involving 160 adult subjects who remained on mechanical ventilation for > 24 h. Subjects were randomly assigned to the PAV+, PSV, or T-tube group. When subjects were ready to perform the SBT, subjects in the PAV+ group were ventilated in PAV+ mode (receiving support of up to 40%), the pressure support was reduced to 7 cm H2O in the PSV group, and subjects in the T-tube group were connected to one T-piece with supplemental oxygen. Subjects were observed for signs of intolerance, whereupon the trial was interrupted. When the trial succeeded, the subjects were extubated and assessed until discharge. RESULTS: The subjects were predominantly male (66.5%), and the leading cause of admission was traumatic brain injury. The groups were similar with respect to baseline characteristics, and no significant difference was observed among the groups regarding extubation success or failure. Analysis of the specificity and sensitivity revealed good sensitivity for all groups; however, the PAV+ group had higher specificity (66.6%) and higher sensitivity (97.6%), with prediction of ∼ 92.1% of the success and failure events. CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences in the groups was observed regarding the rate of extubation failure, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU and hospital stay, indicating that PAV+ is an alternative for use as an SBT.


Assuntos
Extubação , Suporte Ventilatório Interativo , Respiração , Desmame do Respirador/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
J Crit Care ; 30(3): 655.e1-6, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25622762

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effects of passive orthostatism on various clinicophysiologic parameters of adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients, by daily placement on a tilt table. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed in a general ICU. Twenty-three patients 18 years or older, intubated or tracheostomized, without sedation and under weaning from mechanical ventilation, were analyzed. All variables were evaluated at tilting of 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°. RESULTS: Glasgow Coma Scale increased during tilt in the first and second day, as well as Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale. No significant differences were detected in the physiological parameters; however, there was a nonsignificant decrease on the mean arterial pressure at angles of 75° and 90°. The maximum inspiratory pressure significantly increased at 60° compared with 30° on day 1 of the intervention. No significant differences were observed for maximum expiratory pressure, rapid shallow breathing index, and the tidal volume. CONCLUSION: A protocol with daily use of a tilt table for ICU patients is safe and improves the level of consciousness and inspiratory maximum pressure, without causing deleterious acute physiological effects.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência , Cuidados Críticos , Deambulação Precoce , Posicionamento do Paciente/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Respiração Artificial , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
5.
Crit Care Res Pract ; 2014: 546349, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24982804

RESUMO

Background. We compare the incidence of delirium before and after extubation and identify the risk factors and possible predictors for the occurrence of delirium in this group of patients. Methods. Patients weaned from mechanical ventilation (MV) and extubated were included. The assessment of delirium was conducted using the confusion assessment method for the ICU and completed twice per day until discharge from the intensive care unit. Results. Sixty-four patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom presented with delirium. The risk factors of delirium were age (P = 0.01), SOFA score (P = 0.03), APACHE score (P = 0.01), and a neurological cause of admission (P = 0.01). The majority of the patients began with delirium before or on the day of extubation. Hypoactive delirium was the most common form. Conclusion. Acute (traumatic or medical) neurological injuries were important risk factors in the development of delirium. During the weaning process, delirium developed predominantly before or on the same day of extubation and was generally hypoactive (more difficult to detect). Therefore, while planning early prevention strategies, attention must be focused on neurological patients who are receiving MV and possibly even on patients who are still under sedation.

6.
Rev Bras Ter Intensiva ; 25(1): 68-72, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23887763

RESUMO

Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare affliction characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum associated with chronic consumption of ethanol. The disease may occasionally occur in patients who are not alcoholics but are chronically malnourished. A complex deficiency of group B vitamins is the main etiopathogenic hypothesis, and many patients improve after the administration of these compounds. However, a good response is not always observed. The definitive diagnosis of Marchiafava-Bignami disease can be problematic and is based on features of neuroimaging studies, especially magnetic resonance imaging. Its treatment is still controversial and shows variable results. Because nutritional factors are implicated, as in Wernicke's encephalopathy, some authors claim that replacement of B vitamins is beneficial. The present article is a case report of a severe acute form of Marchiafava-Bignami disease in an alcohol-dependent male patient who improved after the administration of parenteral B vitamins. As a consequence of his neurological and immunologic conditions, he developed multiple pulmonary infections and had a protracted course in the intensive care unit. He eventually died of sepsis associated with an uncommon fungus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The present article reports the clinical and neuroimaging data from this patient and contains a review of Marchiafava-Bignami disease and Rhodotorula infections in the intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/complicações , Doença de Marchiafava-Bignami/fisiopatologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Evolução Fatal , Humanos , Masculino , Doença de Marchiafava-Bignami/complicações , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroimagem , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 25(1): 68-72, jan.-mar. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-673370

RESUMO

A doença de Marchiafava-Bignami é uma entidade rara, caracterizada por uma degeneração primária do corpo caloso, associada com o consumo crônico do etanol. A doença pode, ocasionalmente, ocorrer em pacientes não etilistas cronicamente desnutridos. Uma deficiência de vitaminas do complexo B é considerada como a hipótese etiopatogênica principal, uma vez que muitos pacientes obtiveram uma melhora após a administração desses compostos. Algumas vezes, entretanto, tal resposta terapêutica não foi observada. O diagnóstico definitivo da doença de Marchiafava-Bignami pode ser problemático e depende das características de estudos de neuroimagem, especialmente a ressonância magnética. Seu tratamento, dessa forma, é ainda controverso, com resultados variáveis. Como estão implicados fatores nutricionais, analogamente à encefalopatia de Wernicke, alguns autores recomendam a reposição de vitaminas do complexo B, particularmente da B1. O presente artigo relata a forma aguda da doença de Marchiafava-Bignami em um paciente masculino dependente do álcool, que apresentou discreta melhora após a administração parenteral das vitaminas do complexo B. Como consequência de suas más condições neurológicas e imunológicas, ele desenvolveu infecções pulmonares múltiplas e permaneceu, por longo tempo, na unidade de terapia intensiva. Seu óbito ocorreu por sepse causada por um fungo raro, o Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. O artigo é um relato clínico da evolução desse paciente, com a apresentação de seus dados de neuroimagem, acompanhada por uma revisão sobre doença de Marchiafava-Bignami e sobre as infecções por Rhodotorula dentro da perspectiva da unidade de cuidado intensivo.


Marchiafava-Bignami disease is a rare affliction characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum associated with chronic consumption of ethanol. The disease may occasionally occur in patients who are not alcoholics but are chronically malnourished. A complex deficiency of group B vitamins is the main etiopathogenic hypothesis, and many patients improve after the administration of these compounds. However, a good response is not always observed. The definitive diagnosis of Marchiafava-Bignami disease can be problematic and is based on features of neuroimaging studies, especially magnetic resonance imaging. Its treatment is still controversial and shows variable results. Because nutritional factors are implicated, as in Wernicke's encephalopathy, some authors claim that replacement of B vitamins is beneficial. The present article is a case report of a severe acute form of Marchiafava-Bignami disease in an alcohol-dependent male patient who improved after the administration of parenteral B vitamins. As a consequence of his neurological and immunologic conditions, he developed multiple pulmonary infections and had a protracted course in the intensive care unit. He eventually died of sepsis associated with an uncommon fungus, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. The present article reports the clinical and neuroimaging data from this patient and contains a review of Marchiafava-Bignami disease and Rhodotorula infections in the intensive care unit.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alcoolismo/complicações , Doença de Marchiafava-Bignami/fisiopatologia , Complexo Vitamínico B/administração & dosagem , Evolução Fatal , Doença de Marchiafava-Bignami/complicações , Neuroimagem , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sepse/etiologia , Sepse/microbiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
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