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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2021 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843952

RESUMO

Weight loss or lower Body Mass Index (BMI) may be an early symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but when this begins to emerge is difficult to estimate with traditional observational data. In an extension of Mendelian randomization, we used genetic risk for late-onset AD risk to estimate the causal effect of AD on BMI and the earliest ages at which AD-related weight loss (or lower BMI as a proxy) occurs. 407,386 UK Biobank participants enrolled 2007-2010 without dementia, aged 39-73, with Caucasian genetic ancestry, with BMI (kg/m2), and an AD genetic risk score (AD-GRS) based on 23 genetic variants. Using linear regressions, we tested the association of AD-GRS with BMI stratified by decade and calculated the age of divergence in BMI-trends between low and high AD-GRS. AD-GRS was not associated with BMI in 39-49 year-olds (ß:0.00;95%CI:-0.03,0.03). AD-GRS was associated with lower BMI in 50-59 year-olds (ß:-0.03; 95%CI:-0.06,-0.01) and 60-73 year-olds (ß:-0.09;95%CI:-0.12,-0.07). Model-based BMI age-curves for high versus low AD-GRS began to diverge after age 47. Sensitivity analyses found no evidence for pleiotropy or survival bias. Longitudinal replication is needed; however, our findings suggest that AD genes may begin to reduce BMI decades prior to dementia diagnosis.

2.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 120, 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33633108

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking contributes to numerous diseases and is one of the leading causes of death in the United States. Smoking behaviors vary widely across race/ethnicity, but it is not clear why. Here, we examine the contribution of genetic ancestry to variation in two smoking-related traits in 43,485 individuals from four race/ethnicity groups (non-Hispanic white, Hispanic/Latino, East Asian, and African American) from a single U.S. healthcare plan. Smoking prevalence was the lowest among East Asians (22.7%) and the highest among non-Hispanic whites (38.5%). We observed significant associations between genetic ancestry and smoking-related traits. Within East Asians, we observed higher smoking prevalence with greater European (versus Asian) ancestry (P = 9.95 × 10-12). Within Hispanic/Latinos, higher cigarettes per day (CPD) was associated with greater European ancestry (P = 3.34 × 10-25). Within non-Hispanic whites, the lowest number of CPD was observed for individuals of southeastern European ancestry (P = 9.06 × 10-5). These associations remained after considering known smoking-associated loci, education, socioeconomic factors, and marital status. Our findings support the role of genetic ancestry and socioeconomic factors in cigarette smoking behaviors in non-Hispanic whites, Hispanic/Latinos, and East Asians.

3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1258, 2021 02 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627673

RESUMO

Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is a heritable common cause of blindness world-wide. To identify risk loci, we conduct a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on a total of 34,179 cases and 349,321 controls, identifying 44 previously unreported risk loci and confirming 83 loci that were previously known. The majority of loci have broadly consistent effects across European, Asian and African ancestries. Cross-ancestry data improve fine-mapping of causal variants for several loci. Integration of multiple lines of genetic evidence support the functional relevance of the identified POAG risk loci and highlight potential contributions of several genes to POAG pathogenesis, including SVEP1, RERE, VCAM1, ZNF638, CLIC5, SLC2A12, YAP1, MXRA5, and SMAD6. Several drug compounds targeting POAG risk genes may be potential glaucoma therapeutic candidates.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 970, 2021 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579919

RESUMO

Even distinct cancer types share biological hallmarks. Here, we investigate polygenic risk score (PRS)-specific pleiotropy across 16 cancers in European ancestry individuals from the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohort (16,012 cases, 50,552 controls) and UK Biobank (48,969 cases, 359,802 controls). Within cohorts, each PRS is evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models against all other cancer types. Results are then meta-analyzed across cohorts. Ten positive and one inverse cross-cancer associations are found after multiple testing correction. Two pairs show bidirectional associations; the melanoma PRS is positively associated with oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer and vice versa, whereas the lung cancer PRS is positively associated with oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer, and the oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer PRS is inversely associated with lung cancer. Overall, we validate known, and uncover previously unreported, patterns of pleiotropy that have the potential to inform investigations of risk prediction, shared etiology, and precision cancer prevention strategies.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/classificação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Epidemiologia Molecular , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
5.
Cancer Res ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293427

RESUMO

To identify rare variants associated with prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility and better characterize the mechanisms and cumulative disease risk associated with common risk variants, we conducted an integrated study of PrCa genetic etiology in two cohorts using custom genotyping microarrays, large imputation reference panels, and functional annotation approaches. Specifically, 11,984 men (6,196 PrCa cases, 5,788 controls) of European ancestry from Northern California Kaiser Permanente were genotyped and meta-analyzed with 196,269 men of European ancestry (7,917 PrCa cases, 188,352 controls) from the UK Biobank. Three novel loci, including two rare variants (European ancestry minor allele frequency < 0.01, at 3p21.31 and 8p12), were significant genome-wide in a meta-analysis. Gene-based rare variant tests implicated a known PrCa gene (HOXB13), as well as a novel candidate gene (ILDR1), which encodes a receptor highly expressed in prostate tissue and is related to the B7/CD28 family of T cell immune checkpoint markers. Haplotypic patterns of long-range linkage disequilibrium were observed for rare genetic variants at HOXB13 and other loci, reflecting their evolutionary history. Additionally, a polygenic risk score (PRS) of 188 PrCa variants was strongly associated with risk (90th vs. 40-60th percentile OR = 2.62, P = 2.55*10-191). Many of the 188 variants exhibited functional signatures of gene expression regulation or transcription factor binding, including a six-fold difference in log-probability of Androgen Receptor binding at the variant rs2680708 (17q22). Rare variant and PRS associations, with concomitant functional interpretation of risk mechanisms can help clarify the full genetic architecture of PrCa and other complex traits.

6.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 765, 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33318654

RESUMO

Although cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) is one of the most common malignancies in individuals of European ancestry, the incidence of cSCC in Hispanic/Latinos is also increasing. cSCC has both a genetic and environmental etiology. Here, we examine the role of genetic ancestry, skin pigmentation, and sun exposure in Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites on cSCC risk. We observe an increased cSCC risk with greater European ancestry (P = 1.27 × 10-42) within Hispanic/Latinos and with greater northern (P = 2.38 × 10-65) and western (P = 2.28 × 10-49) European ancestry within non-Hispanic whites. These associations are significantly, but not completely, attenuated after considering skin pigmentation-associated loci, history of actinic keratosis, and sun-protected versus sun-exposed anatomical sites. We also report an association of the well-known pigment variant Ala111Thr (rs1426654) at SLC24A5 with cSCC in Hispanic/Latinos. These findings demonstrate a strong correlation of northwestern European genetic ancestry with cSCC risk in both Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic whites, largely but not entirely mediated through its impact on skin pigmentation.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5116, 2020 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037222

RESUMO

Mammographic density (MD) phenotypes are strongly associated with breast cancer risk and highly heritable. In this GWAS meta-analysis of 24,192 women, we identify 31 MD loci at P < 5 × 10-8, tripling the number known to 46. Seventeen identified MD loci also are associated with breast cancer risk in an independent meta-analysis (P < 0.05). Mendelian randomization analyses show that genetic estimates of dense area (DA), nondense area (NDA), and percent density (PD) are all significantly associated with breast cancer risk (P < 0.05). Pathway analyses reveal distinct biological processes involving DA, NDA and PD loci. These findings provide additional insights into the genetic basis of MD phenotypes and their associations with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Densidade da Mama , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Mamografia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
8.
Cell ; 182(5): 1198-1213.e14, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888493

RESUMO

Most loci identified by GWASs have been found in populations of European ancestry (EUR). In trans-ethnic meta-analyses for 15 hematological traits in 746,667 participants, including 184,535 non-EUR individuals, we identified 5,552 trait-variant associations at p < 5 × 10-9, including 71 novel associations not found in EUR populations. We also identified 28 additional novel variants in ancestry-specific, non-EUR meta-analyses, including an IL7 missense variant in South Asians associated with lymphocyte count in vivo and IL-7 secretion levels in vitro. Fine-mapping prioritized variants annotated as functional and generated 95% credible sets that were 30% smaller when using the trans-ethnic as opposed to the EUR-only results. We explored the clinical significance and predictive value of trans-ethnic variants in multiple populations and compared genetic architecture and the effect of natural selection on these blood phenotypes between populations. Altogether, our results for hematological traits highlight the value of a more global representation of populations in genetic studies.

9.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4423, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887889

RESUMO

Deciphering the shared genetic basis of distinct cancers has the potential to elucidate carcinogenic mechanisms and inform broadly applicable risk assessment efforts. Here, we undertake genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and comprehensive evaluations of heritability and pleiotropy across 18 cancer types in two large, population-based cohorts: the UK Biobank (408,786 European ancestry individuals; 48,961 cancer cases) and the Kaiser Permanente Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging cohorts (66,526 European ancestry individuals; 16,001 cancer cases). The GWAS detect 21 genome-wide significant associations independent of previously reported results. Investigations of pleiotropy identify 12 cancer pairs exhibiting either positive or negative genetic correlations; 25 pleiotropic loci; and 100 independent pleiotropic variants, many of which are regulatory elements and/or influence cross-tissue gene expression. Our findings demonstrate widespread pleiotropy and offer further insight into the complex genetic architecture of cross-cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Pleiotropia Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
10.
Neurology ; 95(16): e2225-e2234, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878991

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that incipient Alzheimer disease (AD) may adversely affect hearing and that hearing loss may adversely affect cognition, we evaluated whether genetic variants that increase AD risk also increase problem hearing and genetic variants that increase hearing impairment risk do not influence cognition. METHODS: UK Biobank participants without dementia ≥56 years of age with Caucasian genetic ancestry completed a Digit Triplets Test of speech-in-noise hearing (n = 80,074), self-reported problem hearing and hearing with background noise (n = 244,915), and completed brief cognitive assessments. A genetic risk score for AD (AD-GRS) was calculated as a weighted sum of 23 previously identified AD-related polymorphisms. A genetic risk score for hearing (hearing-GRS) was calculated using 3 previously identified polymorphisms related to hearing impairment. Using age-, sex-, and genetic ancestry-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, we evaluated whether the AD-GRS predicted poor hearing and whether the hearing-GRS predicted worse cognition. RESULTS: Poor speech-in-noise hearing (>-5.5-dB speech reception threshold; prevalence 14%) was associated with lower cognitive scores (ß = -1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.54 to -1.03). Higher AD-GRS was significantly associated with poor speech-in-noise hearing (odds ratio [OR] 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) and self-reported problems hearing with background noise (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.00-1.05). Hearing-GRS was not significantly associated with cognitive scores (ß = -0.05; 95% CI -0.17 to 0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic risk for AD also influences speech-in-noise hearing. We failed to find evidence that genetic risk for hearing impairment affects cognition. AD disease processes or a that shared etiology may cause speech-in-noise difficulty before dementia onset.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Perda Auditiva/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/complicações , Testes Auditivos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Percepção da Fala
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008725, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603359

RESUMO

Risk factors that contribute to inter-individual differences in the age-of-onset of allergic diseases are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify genetic risk variants associated with the age at which symptoms of allergic disease first develop, considering information from asthma, hay fever and eczema. Self-reported age-of-onset information was available for 117,130 genotyped individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank study. For each individual, we identified the earliest age at which asthma, hay fever and/or eczema was first diagnosed and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this combined age-of-onset phenotype. We identified 50 variants with a significant independent association (P<3x10-8) with age-of-onset. Forty-five variants had comparable effects on the onset of the three individual diseases and 38 were also associated with allergic disease case-control status in an independent study (n = 222,484). We observed a strong negative genetic correlation between age-of-onset and case-control status of allergic disease (rg = -0.63, P = 4.5x10-61), indicating that cases with early disease onset have a greater burden of allergy risk alleles than those with late disease onset. Subsequently, a multivariate GWAS of age-of-onset and case-control status identified a further 26 associations that were missed by the univariate analyses of age-of-onset or case-control status only. Collectively, of the 76 variants identified, 18 represent novel associations for allergic disease. We identified 81 likely target genes of the 76 associated variants based on information from expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and non-synonymous variants, of which we highlight ADAM15, FOSL2, TRIM8, BMPR2, CD200R1, PRKCQ, NOD2, SMAD4, ABCA7 and UBE2L3. Our results support the notion that early and late onset allergic disease have partly distinct genetic architectures, potentially explaining known differences in pathophysiology between individuals.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Asma/patologia , Criança , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia
12.
Commun Biol ; 3(1): 301, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32528159

RESUMO

Central corneal thickness (CCT) is one of the most heritable human traits, with broad-sense heritability estimates ranging between 0.68 to 0.95. Despite the high heritability and numerous previous association studies, only 8.5% of CCT variance is currently explained. Here, we report the results of a multiethnic meta-analysis of available genome-wide association studies in which we find association between CCT and 98 genomic loci, of which 41 are novel. Among these loci, 20 were significantly associated with keratoconus, and one (RAPSN rs3740685) was significantly associated with glaucoma after Bonferroni correction. Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggests that thinner CCT does not causally increase the risk of primary open-angle glaucoma. This large CCT study explains up to 14.2% of CCT variance and increases substantially our understanding of the etiology of CCT variation. This may open new avenues of investigation into human ocular traits and their relationship to the risk of vision disorders.

13.
JCI Insight ; 5(10)2020 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434987

RESUMO

Recent large-scale GWAS and large epidemiologic studies have accelerated the discovery of genes and environmental factors that contribute to the risk of keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), which includes basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). This Review summarizes the genomic regions associated with SCC and BCC risk, examines the genetic overlap between SCC and BCC, and discusses biological pathways involved in SCC and BCC development. Next, we review environmental factors that are associated with KC risk, including those that are shared between SCC and BCC as well as others that associated with only one type of KC. We conclude with a critical appraisal of current research and potential directions for future research.

14.
Nat Genet ; 52(4): 401-407, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32231278

RESUMO

Refractive errors, in particular myopia, are a leading cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. Genetic investigation can improve understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie abnormal eye development and impaired vision. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) that involved 542,934 European participants and identified 336 novel genetic loci associated with refractive error. Collectively, all associated genetic variants explain 18.4% of heritability and improve the accuracy of myopia prediction (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.75). Our results suggest that refractive error is genetically heterogeneous, driven by genes that participate in the development of every anatomical component of the eye. In addition, our analyses suggest that genetic factors controlling circadian rhythm and pigmentation are also involved in the development of myopia and refractive error. These results may enable the prediction of refractive error and the development of personalized myopia prevention strategies in the future.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Miopia/genética , Erros de Refração/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
15.
Sci Adv ; 6(3): eaay5034, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31998841

RESUMO

High alcohol consumption is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality, yet few genetic loci have been robustly associated with alcohol intake. Here, we use U.K. Biobank (n = 125,249) and GERA (n = 47,967) datasets to determine genetic factors associated with extreme population-level alcohol consumption and examine the functional validity of outcomes using model organisms and in silico techniques. We identified six loci attaining genome-wide significant association with alcohol consumption after meta-analysis and meeting our criteria for replication: ADH1B (lead SNP: rs1229984), KLB (rs13130794), BTF3P13 (rs144198753), GCKR (rs1260326), SLC39A8 (rs13107325), and DRD2 (rs11214609). A conserved role in phenotypic responses to alcohol was observed for all genetic targets available for investigation (ADH1B, GCKR, SLC39A8, and KLB) in Caenorhabditis elegans. Evidence of causal links to lung cancer, and shared genetic architecture with gout and hypertension was also found. These findings offer insight into genes, pathways, and relationships for disease risk associated with high alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Biomarcadores , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Transdução de Sinais
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 145(1): 192-198.e11, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369801

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is more common among African American children. Whether there are racial/ethnic difference among adults with AD and the causes for those disparities are unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to examine the relationship between self-reported race/ethnicity and AD and determine whether African genetic ancestry is predictive of these outcomes among African American subjects. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2 independent multiethnic longitudinal studies: 86,893 subjects aged 18 to 100 years from the Kaiser Permanente Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) cohort and 5467 subjects aged 2 to 26 years from the national Pediatric Eczema Elective Registry (PEER) cohort. The primary outcomes were physician-diagnosed AD in GERA and repeated measures of self-reported disease control among patients with physician-diagnosed AD at 6-month intervals in PEER. We examined whether self-identified African American race/ethnicity was predictive of these outcomes and then tested whether a continuous measure of African genetic ancestry was associated with outcomes within the African American group. RESULTS: AD was more common among self-identified African American subjects than non-Hispanic white subjects in GERA (4.4% vs 2.1%; odds ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.70-2.48) and less well-controlled in PEER subjects (odds of 1-level worse control, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.64-2.22). However, African genetic ancestry was not associated with AD risk or control among self-identified African American subjects in either cohort, nor did an AD polygenic risk score or genetic skin pigment score explain the AD disparities in patients with AD. CONCLUSION: Ancestry-related genetic effects do not explain increased AD prevalence or poorer disease control among African American subjects.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estados Unidos
17.
PLoS Genet ; 15(12): e1008500, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869403

RESUMO

Most genome-wide association and fine-mapping studies to date have been conducted in individuals of European descent, and genetic studies of populations of Hispanic/Latino and African ancestry are limited. In addition, these populations have more complex linkage disequilibrium structure. In order to better define the genetic architecture of these understudied populations, we leveraged >100,000 phased sequences available from deep-coverage whole genome sequencing through the multi-ethnic NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program to impute genotypes into admixed African and Hispanic/Latino samples with genome-wide genotyping array data. We demonstrated that using TOPMed sequencing data as the imputation reference panel improves genotype imputation quality in these populations, which subsequently enhanced gene-mapping power for complex traits. For rare variants with minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.5%, we observed a 2.3- to 6.1-fold increase in the number of well-imputed variants, with 11-34% improvement in average imputation quality, compared to the state-of-the-art 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 and Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels. Impressively, even for extremely rare variants with minor allele count <10 (including singletons) in the imputation target samples, average information content rescued was >86%. Subsequent association analyses of TOPMed reference panel-imputed genotype data with hematological traits (hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), and white blood cell count (WBC)) in ~21,600 African-ancestry and ~21,700 Hispanic/Latino individuals identified associations with two rare variants in the HBB gene (rs33930165 with higher WBC [p = 8.8x10-15] in African populations, rs11549407 with lower HGB [p = 1.5x10-12] and HCT [p = 8.8x10-10] in Hispanics/Latinos). By comparison, neither variant would have been genome-wide significant if either 1000 Genomes Project Phase 3 or Haplotype Reference Consortium reference panels had been used for imputation. Our findings highlight the utility of the TOPMed imputation reference panel for identification of novel rare variant associations not previously detected in similarly sized genome-wide studies of under-represented African and Hispanic/Latino populations.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Hispano-Americanos/genética , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos , Globinas beta/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
18.
JAMA ; 322(17): 1682-1691, 2019 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688885

RESUMO

Importance: Primary open-angle glaucoma presents with increased prevalence and a higher degree of clinical severity in populations of African ancestry compared with European or Asian ancestry. Despite this, individuals of African ancestry remain understudied in genomic research for blinding disorders. Objectives: To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of African ancestry populations and evaluate potential mechanisms of pathogenesis for loci associated with primary open-angle glaucoma. Design, Settings, and Participants: A 2-stage GWAS with a discovery data set of 2320 individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma and 2121 control individuals without primary open-angle glaucoma. The validation stage included an additional 6937 affected individuals and 14 917 unaffected individuals using multicenter clinic- and population-based participant recruitment approaches. Study participants were recruited from Ghana, Nigeria, South Africa, the United States, Tanzania, Britain, Cameroon, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Morocco, Peru, and Mali from 2003 to 2018. Individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma had open iridocorneal angles and displayed glaucomatous optic neuropathy with visual field defects. Elevated intraocular pressure was not included in the case definition. Control individuals had no elevated intraocular pressure and no signs of glaucoma. Exposures: Genetic variants associated with primary open-angle glaucoma. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presence of primary open-angle glaucoma. Genome-wide significance was defined as P < 5 × 10-8 in the discovery stage and in the meta-analysis of combined discovery and validation data. Results: A total of 2320 individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma (mean [interquartile range] age, 64.6 [56-74] years; 1055 [45.5%] women) and 2121 individuals without primary open-angle glaucoma (mean [interquartile range] age, 63.4 [55-71] years; 1025 [48.3%] women) were included in the discovery GWAS. The GWAS discovery meta-analysis demonstrated association of variants at amyloid-ß A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 2 (APBB2; chromosome 4, rs59892895T>C) with primary open-angle glaucoma (odds ratio [OR], 1.32 [95% CI, 1.20-1.46]; P = 2 × 10-8). The association was validated in an analysis of an additional 6937 affected individuals and 14 917 unaffected individuals (OR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.09-1.21]; P < .001). Each copy of the rs59892895*C risk allele was associated with increased risk of primary open-angle glaucoma when all data were included in a meta-analysis (OR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.14-1.25]; P = 4 × 10-13). The rs59892895*C risk allele was present at appreciable frequency only in African ancestry populations. In contrast, the rs59892895*C risk allele had a frequency of less than 0.1% in individuals of European or Asian ancestry. Conclusions and Relevance: In this genome-wide association study, variants at the APBB2 locus demonstrated differential association with primary open-angle glaucoma by ancestry. If validated in additional populations this finding may have implications for risk assessment and therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/etnologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 106(3): 623-631, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30924126

RESUMO

Allopurinol, which lowers uric acid (UA) concentration, is increasingly being recognized for its benefits in cardiovascular and renal disease. However, response to allopurinol is variable. We gathered samples from 4,446 multiethnic subjects for a genome-wide association study of allopurinol response. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that the Q141K variant in ABCG2 (rs2231142), which encodes the efflux pump breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), associated with worse response to allopurinol. However, for the first time this association reached genome-wide level significance (P = 8.06 × 10-11 ). Additionally, we identified a novel association with a variant in GREM2 (rs1934341, P = 3.22 × 10-6 ). In vitro studies identified oxypurinol, the active metabolite of allopurinol, as an inhibitor of the UA transporter GLUT9, suggesting that oxypurinol may modulate UA reabsorption. These results provide strong evidence for a role of BCRP Q141K in allopurinol response, and suggest that allopurinol may have additional hypouricemic effects beyond xanthine oxidase inhibition.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Alopurinol/farmacologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Citocinas/genética , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas Facilitadoras de Transporte de Glucose/antagonistas & inibidores , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxipurinol/farmacologia , Prognóstico
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