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1.
World J Surg ; 2021 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In resource-limited countries, open appendectomy is still performed under general anesthesia (GA) or neuraxial anesthesia (NA). We sought to compare the postoperative outcomes of appendectomy under NA versus GA. METHODS: We conducted a post hoc analysis of the International Patterns of Opioid Prescribing (iPOP) multicenter study. All patients ≥ 16 years-old who underwent an open appendectomy between October 2016 and March 2017 in one of the 14 participating hospitals were included. Patients were stratified into two groups: NA-defined as spinal or epidural-and GA. All-cause morbidity, hospital length of stay (LOS), and pain severity were assessed using univariate analysis followed by multivariable logistic regression adjusting for the following preoperative characteristics: age, gender, body mass index (BMI), smoking, history of opioid use, emergency status, and country. RESULTS: A total of 655 patients were included, 353 of which were in the NA group and 302 in the GA group. The countries operating under NA were Colombia (39%), Thailand (31%), China (23%), and Brazil (7%). Overall, NA patients were younger (mean age (SD): 34.5 (14.4) vs. 40.7 (17.9), p-value < 0.001) and had a lower BMI (mean (SD): 23.5 (3.8) vs. 24.3 (5.2), p-value = 0.040) than GA patients. On multivariable analysis, NA was independently associated with less postoperative complications (OR, 95% CI: 0.30 [0.10-0.94]) and shorter hospital LOS (LOS > 3 days, OR, 95% CI: 0.47 [0.32-0.68]) compared to GA. There was no difference in postoperative pain severity between the two techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Open appendectomy performed under NA is associated with improved outcomes compared to that performed under GA. Further randomized controlled studies should examine the safety and value of NA in lower abdominal surgery.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Never-frozen liquid plasma (LQP) was found to reduce component waste, decrease healthcare expenses, and have a superior hemostatic profile compared to fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Although transfusing LQP in hemorrhaging patients has become more common, its clinical effectiveness remains to be explored. This study aims to examine outcomes of trauma patients transfused with LQP compared to thawed FFP. METHODS: Adult (≥18 years) trauma patients receiving early (≤4 hours) plasma transfusions were identified in the Trauma Quality Improvement Program 2017. Patients were stratified into those receiving LQP vs. FFP. Propensity-score matching in a 1:2 ratio was performed. Primary outcome measures were mortality and time to first plasma unit transfusion. Secondary outcome measures were major complications and hospital length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 107 adult trauma patients receiving LQP were matched to 214 patients receiving FFP. Mean age was 48±19 years, 73% were male, and median ISS was 27 [23-41]. A total of 42% of patients were in shock, 22% had penetrating injuries, and 31% required surgical intervention for hemorrhage control. Patients received a median of 4 [2,6] units of PRBC, 2 [1,3] units of LQP or FFP, and 1 [0,1] unit of platelets. The median time to the first LQP unit transfused was significantly shorter compared to the first FFP unit transfused (54 [28-79] vs. 98 [59-133] minutes; p<0.001). Rates of 24-hour mortality (2.8 vs. 3.7%; p=0.664) and in-hospital mortality (16.8 vs. 20.1%; p=0.481) were not different between the LQP and FFP groups. Similarly, there was no difference in major complications (15.9 vs. 21.5%; p=0.233) and hospital LOS (12 [6-21] vs. 12 [6-23] days; p=0.826). CONCLUSION: LQP is safe and effective in resuscitating trauma patients. LQP has the potential to expand our transfusion armamentarium given its longer storage time and immediate availability. STUDY TYPE: Prognostic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605704

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Nonoperative management of acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) in the frail geriatric population is underexplored. The aim of our study was to examine long-term outcomes of frail geriatric patients with ACC treated with cholecystectomy compared to initial nonoperative management. METHODS: We conducted a 2017 analysis of the Nationwide Readmissions Database and included frail geriatric (≥65 years) patients with ACC. Frailty was assessed using the 5-factor modified frailty index (mFI). Patients were stratified into those undergoing cholecystectomy at index admission (OP) vs. those managed with non-operative intervention (NOP). The NOP group was further subdivided into those who received antibiotics only, and those who received percutaneous drainage. Primary outcomes were procedure-related complications in the OP group and 6-month failure of NOP (readmission with cholecystitis). Secondary outcomes were mortality and overall hospital length of stay (LOS). RESULTS: A total of 53,412 geriatric patients with ACC were identified, 51.0% of whom were frail: 16,791 (61.6%) in OP group and 10,472 (38.4%) in NOP group (3,256 had percutaneous drainage, 7,216 received antibiotics only). Patients were comparable in age (76±7 vs. 77±8 years;p=0.082) and mFI (0.47 vs. 0.48;p=0.132). Procedure-related complications in the OP group was 9.3% and 6-month failure of NOP was 18.9%. Median time to failure of NOP management was 36[12-78] days. Mortality was higher in the frail NOP group (5.2 vs. 3.2%;p<0.001). The NOP group had more days of hospitalization (8[4-15] vs. 5[3-10];p<0.001). Both receiving antibiotics only (OR 1.6 [1.3-2.0]; p<0.001) and receiving percutaneous drainage (OR 1.9 [1.7-2.2]; p<0.001) were independently associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION: One in five patients failed NOP and subsequently had complicated hospital stays. Non-operative management of frail elderly ACC patients may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III Prognostic.

4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 501-506, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33617197

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies have proposed the use of antibiotics only in cases of acute uncomplicated appendicitis (AUA). However, there remains a paucity of data evaluating this nonoperative approach in the vulnerable frail geriatric population. The aim of this study was to examine long-term outcomes of frail geriatric patients with AUA treated with appendectomy compared with initial nonoperative management (NOP). METHODS: We conducted a 1-year (2017) analysis of the Nationwide Readmissions Database and included all frail geriatric patients(age, ≥65 years) with a diagnosis of AUA. Frailty was assessed using the five-factor modified frailty index. Patients were stratified into those undergoing appendectomy at index admission (operative management) versus those receiving antibiotics only without operative intervention (NOP). Propensity score matching in a 1:1 ratio was performed adjusting for patient- and hospital-related factors. RESULTS: A total of 5,562 frail geriatric patients with AUA were identified from which a matched cohort of 1,320 patients in each group was obtained. Patients in the NOP and operative management were comparable in terms of age (75.5 ± 7.7 vs. 75.5 ± 7.4 years; p = 0.882) and modified frailty index (0.4 [0.4-0.6] vs. 0.4 [0.4-0.6]; p = 0.526). Failure of NOP management was reported in 18% of patients, 95% of which eventually underwent appendectomy. Over the 6-month follow-up period, patients in the NOP group had significantly higher rates of Clostridium difficile enterocolitis (3% vs. 1%; p < 0.001), greater number of overall hospitalized days (5 [3-9] vs. 4 [2-7] days; p < 0.001), and higher overall costs (US $16,000 [12,000-25,000] vs. US $11,000 [8,000-19,000]; p < 0.001). Patients undergoing appendectomy after failed NOP had significantly higher rates of complications (20% vs. 11%; p < 0.001), mortality (4% vs. 2%; p = 0.019), and appendiceal neoplasm (3% vs. 1%; p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: One in six patients failed NOP within 6 months and required appendectomy with subsequent more complications and higher mortality. Appendectomy may offer better outcomes in managing AUA in the frail geriatric population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level IV.

5.
World J Surg ; 2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To analyze and report on the changes in epidemiology traumatic causes of death in the USA. METHODS: Data were extracted from the annual National Vital Statistics Reports (2008-2017) from Center for Disease Control and analyzed for trends during the time period given. Generalized additive model was applied to evaluate the significance of trend using R software. RESULTS: Firearm deaths (39,790) and firearm death rate (12.2/100,000) in 2017 were the highest reported, and this increasing trend was significant (p < 0.001) the last ten years. Deaths from motor vehicle crash (MVC) and firearm homicides did not change significantly during the same time period. Firearm deaths were lower than MVC deaths by 21% (8,197/39,790) in 2008, but after 10 years, the difference was only 1% (458/40,231). Years of life lost from firearms is now higher than MVC. Suicides by firearm in 2017 were the highest reported at 23,854/39,773 (60%). In 2017, suicides by firearm victims were predominantly white 20,328/23,562 (85%), men 20,362/23,562 (86%), and the largest group was between the ages of 55-64. CONCLUSIONS: Death from firearms in the USA is increasing and endemic. They were the highest ever reported in 2017 by the CDC. While deaths from MVC used to be the main cause of traumatic death in the USA, deaths from firearms now almost equal it. Calculated years of life lost from firearms is now more than from MVC. Most firearm deaths are not from homicides but are from suicides, and they are predominantly in white older males of the baby boomer generation (born 1946-1964).

7.
J Surg Res ; 261: 343-350, 2021 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) is an important component of national health policy. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of low HL (LHL) and determine its impact on outcomes after emergency general surgery (EGS). METHODS: We performed a (2016-2017) prospective cohort analysis of adult EGS patients. HL was assessed using the Short Assessment of HL score. LHL was defined as Short Assessment of HL score <14. Outcomes were the prevalence of LHL, compliance with medications, wound/drain care, 30-d complications, 30-d readmission, and time to resuming activities of daily living. RESULTS: We enrolled 900 patients. The mean age was 43 ± 11 y. Overall, 22% of the patients had LHL. LHL patients were more likely to be Hispanics (59% versus 15%, P < 0.01), uninsured (50% versus 20%, P < 0.01), have lower socioeconomic status (80% versus 40%, P < 0.02), and are less likely to have completed college (5% versus 60%, P < 0.01) compared with HL patients. On regression analysis, LHL was associated with lower medication compliance (OR: 0.81, [0.4-0.9], P = 0.02), inadequate wound/drain care (OR: 0.75, [0.5-0.8], P = 0.01), 30-d complications (OR: 1.95, [1.3-2.5], P < 0.01), and 30-d readmission (OR: 1.51, [1.2-2.6], P = 0.02). The median time of resuming activities of daily living was longer in patients with LHL than HL patients (4 d versus 7 d, P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: One in five patients undergoing EGS has LHL. LHL is associated with decreased compliance with discharge instructions, medications, and wound/drain care. Health literacy must be taken into account when discussing the postoperative plan and better instruction is needed for patients with LHL. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III. STUDY TYPE: Prognostic.

8.
World J Surg ; 45(3): 880-886, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415448

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Traditional management of traumatic hemothorax/hemopneumothorax (HTX/HPTX) has been insertion of large-bore 32-40 French (Fr) chest tubes (CTs). Retrospective studies have shown 14Fr percutaneous pigtail catheters (PCs) are equally effective as CTs. Our aim was to compare effectiveness between PCs and CTs by performing the first randomized controlled trial (RCT). We hypothesize PCs work equally as well as CTs in management of traumatic HTX/HPTX. METHODS: Prospective RCT comparing 14Fr PCs to 28-32Fr CTs for management of traumatic HTX/HPTX from 07/2015 to 01/2018. We excluded patients requiring emergency tube placement or who refused. Primary outcome was failure rate defined as retained HTX or recurrent PTX requiring additional intervention. Secondary outcomes included initial output (IO), tube days and insertion perception experience (IPE) score on a scale of 1-5 (1 = tolerable experience, 5 = worst experience). Unpaired Student's t-test, chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum test were utilized with significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Forty-three patients were enrolled. Baseline characteristics between PC patients (N = 20) and CT patients (N = 23) were similar. Failure rates (10% PCs vs. 17% CTs, P = 0.49) between cohorts were similar. IO (median, 650 milliliters[ml]; interquartile range[IR], 375-1087; for PCs vs. 400 ml; IR, 240-700; for CTs, P = 0.06), and tube duration was similar, but PC patients reported lower IPE scores (median, 1, "I can tolerate it"; IR, 1-2) than CT patients (median, 3, "It was a bad experience"; IR, 3-4, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: In patients with traumatic HTX/HPTX, 14Fr PCs were equally as effective as 28-32Fr CTs with no significant difference in failure rates. PC patients, however, reported a better insertion experience. www.ClinicalTrials.gov Registration ID: NCT02553434.

9.
J Surg Res ; 257: 239-245, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862051

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With an aging population, the number of patients on antiplatelet medications and traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasing. Our study aimed to evaluate the role of platelet transfusion on outcomes after traumatic intracranial bleeding (IB) in these patients. METHODS: We analyzed our prospectively maintained TBI database from 2014 to 2016. We included all isolated TBI patients with an IB, who were on preinjury antiplatelet agents and excluded patients taking anticoagulants. Outcome measures included the progression of IB, neurosurgical intervention, and mortality. Regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 343 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 58 ± 11 y, 58% were men, and median injury severity score was 15 (10-24). Distribution of antiplatelet agents was as follows: aspirin (60%) and clopidogrel (35%). Overall, 74% patients received platelet transfusion after admission with a median number of two platelet units. After controlling for confounders, patients who received one unit of pooled platelets had no difference in progression of IB (odds ratio [OR]: 0.98, [0.6-1.9], P = 0.41), need for neurosurgical intervention (OR: 1.09, [0.7-2.5], P = 0.53), and mortality (OR: 0.84, [0.6-1.8], P = 0.51). However, patients who received two units of pooled platelets had lower rate of progression of IB (OR: 0.69, [0.4-0.8], P = 0.02), the need for neurosurgical intervention (OR: 0.81, [0.3-0.9], P = 0.03), and mortality (OR: 0.84, [0.5-0.9], P = 0.04). Both groups were compared with those who did not receive platelet transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The use of two units of platelet may decrease the risk of IB progression, neurosurgical intervention, and mortality in patients on preinjury antiplatelet agents and TBI. Further studies should focus on developing protocols for platelet transfusion to improve outcomes in these patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III prognostic.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/terapia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Transfusão de Plaquetas/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Intracraniana Traumática/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Surg Res ; 257: 69-78, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32818786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in operative techniques, major abdominal complications (MACs) continue to occur after penetrating abdominal trauma (PAT). This study aimed to evaluate the burden of MAC after PAT. METHODS: The (2012-2015) National Readmission Database was queried for all adult (age ≥18 y) trauma patients with penetrating injuries who underwent exploratory laparotomy and were readmitted within 6 mo of index hospitalization discharge. Patients were stratified by firearm injuries (FIs) and stab injuries (SIs). Primary outcomes were rates of MAC: intra-abdominal abscesses (IAAs), superficial surgical site infection (SSI), and fascial dehiscence within 6 mo after discharge. Secondary outcomes were both nonabdominal complications and mortality, postdischarge, and 6-mo readmission. Regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 4473 patients (FI, 2326; SI, 2147) were included in the study; the mean age was 32 ± 14 y, the Injury Severity Score was 19 (15-25), and 23% underwent damage control laparotomy (DCL). The rate of MAC within 6 mo was 22% (IAA 19%, SSI 7%, and fascial dehiscence 4%). Patients with FIs had a higher rate of IAA (27% versus 10%; P < 0.01), SSI (11% versus 3%; P < 0.01), fascial dehiscence (5% versus 3%; P = 0.03), nonabdominal complications (54% versus 24%; P < 0.01), and postdischarge mortality (8% versus 6%; P < 0.01) compared with patients with SIs . On regression analysis, DCL (P < 0.01), large bowel perforation (P < 0.01), biliary-pancreatic injury (P < 0.01), hepatic injury (P < 0.01), and blood transfusion (P = 0.02) were predictors of MAC. CONCLUSIONS: MAC developed in one in five patients after PAT. FIs have a higher potential for hollow viscus injury and peritoneal contamination, and are more predictive of MAC and nonabdominal complications, especially after DCL. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III Prognostic.


Assuntos
Abdome/cirurgia , Traumatismos Abdominais/cirurgia , Laparotomia , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia , Abscesso Abdominal/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Traumatismos Abdominais/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Deiscência da Ferida Operatória/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/complicações , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Perfurantes/complicações , Ferimentos Perfurantes/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(1): 177-184, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with sympathetic discharge that leads to posttraumatic hyperthermia (PTH). Beta blockers (ßß) are known to counteract overactive sympathetic discharge. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of ßß on PTH in critically-ill TBI patients. METHODS: We performed retrospective cohort analysis of the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care database. We included all critically ill TBI patients with head Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 3 or greater and other body region AIS score less than 2 who developed PTH (at least one febrile episode [T > 38.3°C] with negative microbiological cultures (blood, urine, and bronchoalveolar lavage). Patients on preinjury ßß were excluded. Patients were stratified into (ßß+) and (ßß-) groups. Propensity score matching was performed (1:1 ratio) controlling for patient demographics, injury parameters and other medications that influence temperature. Outcomes were the number of febrile episodes, maximum temperature, and the time interval between febrile episodes. Multivariate linear regression was performed. RESULTS: We analyzed 4,286 critically ill TBI patients. A matched cohort of 1,544 patients was obtained: 772 ßß + (metoprolol, 60%; propranolol, 25%; and atenolol, 15%) and 772 ßß-. Mean age was 63.4 ± 15.4 years, median head AIS score of 3 (3-4), and median Injury Severity Score of 10 (9-16). Patients in the ßß+ group had a lower number of febrile episodes (8 episodes vs. 12 episodes; p = 0.003), lower median maximum temperature (38.0°C vs. 38.5°C; p = 0.025), and a longer median time between febrile episodes (3 hours vs. 1 hour; p = 0.013). On linear regression, propranolol was found to be superior in terms of reducing the number of febrile episodes and the maximum temperature. However, there was no significant difference between the three ßß in terms of reducing the time interval between febrile episodes (p = 0.582). CONCLUSION: Beta blockers attenuate PTH by decreasing the frequency of febrile episodes, increasing the time interval between febrile episodes, and reducing the maximum rise in temperature. ßß may be a potential therapeutic modality in PTH. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level IV.

12.
J Surg Res ; 257: 493-500, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32916502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure alterations in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been shown to be associated with increased mortality. However, there is paucity of data describing the optimal emergency department (ED) systolic blood pressure (SBP) target during the initial evaluation. The aim of our study was to assess the association between SBP on presentation and mortality in patients with TBI. METHODS: We performed a retrospective (2015-2016) review of the American College of Surgeons Trauma Quality Improvement Program database and included all adult (age ≥18y) trauma patients who had TBI on presentation. The outcome measure was in-hospital mortality at different ED-SBP values. A subanalysis by age and TBI severity in accordance with the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) was performed (mild (GCS ≥13), moderate (GCS 9-12), and severe (≤8)). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 94,411 adult trauma patients with TBI were included. Mean age was 59 ± 21y, 62% were male, and median GCS was 15 [14-15]. Mean SBP was 147 ± 28 mmHg, and overall mortality was 8.6%. The lowest rate of mortality was noticed at ED SBP between 110 and 149 mmHg, whereas the highest mortality was at admission SBP <90 mmHg and SBP >190 mmHg. On regression analysis, SBP between 130 and 149 mmHg (odds ratio = 0.92; P = 0.68) was not associated with increased odds of mortality relative to SBP between 110 and 129 mmHg. On subanalysis based on severity of TBI (mild 80.9%, moderate 5.3%, and severe 13.8%), patients with SBP between 110 and 149 mmHg were less likely to die across all TBI groups. CONCLUSIONS: The optimal ED-SBP range for patients with TBI seems to be age and severity dependent. The optimum range might guide clinicians in developing resuscitation protocols for managing patients with TBI. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III Prognostic.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/fisiopatologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Surg Res ; 259: 182-191, 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Changes in the shock index (ΔSI) can be a predictive tool but is not established among pediatric trauma patients. The aim of our study was to assess the impact of ΔSI on mortality in pediatric trauma patients. METHODS: We performed a 2017 analysis of all pediatric trauma patients (age 0-16 y) from the ACS-TQIP. SI was defined as heart rate(HR)/systolic blood pressure(SBP). We abstracted the SI in the field (EMS), SI in the emergency department (ED) and calculated the change in SI (ΔSI = ED SI-EMS SI). Patients were divided into four age groups: 0-3 y, 4-6 y, 7-12 y, and 13-16 y and substratified into two groups based on the value of the age-group-specific ΔSI cutoff obtained with receiver operating characteristic ROC analysis; +ΔSI and -ΔSI. Our outcome measure was mortality. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: We included 31,490 patients. Mean age was 10.6 ± 4.6 y, and 65.8% were male. The overall mortality rate was 1.4%. In the age group 0-3 y the cutoff point for ΔSI was 0.29 with an area under the curve (AUC) 0.70 [0.62-0.79], ΔSI cutoff 4-6 y was 0.41 AUC 0.81 [0.70-0.92], ΔSI cutoff 7-12 y was 0.05 AUC 0.83 [0.76-0.90], and ΔSI cutoff 13-16 y was 0.13 AUC 0.75 [0.69-0.81]. On the Cox regression analysis, +ΔSI was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality and 24-h mortality (P ≤ 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Vital signs vary by age group in children, but ΔSI inherently accounts for this variation. ΔSI predicts mortality and may be utilized as a predictor to help guide triage of pediatric trauma patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III Prognostic.

14.
J Surg Res ; 260: 293-299, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Efficient Emergency Department (ED) throughput depends on several factors, including collaboration and consultation with surgical services. The acute care surgery service (ACS) collaborated with ED to implement a new process termed "FASTPASS" (FP), which might improve patient-care for those with acute appendicitis and gallbladder disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 1-year outcome of FP. METHODS: FASTPASS is a joint collaboration between ACS and ED. ED physicians were provided with a simple check-list for diagnosing young males (<50-year old) with acute appendicitis (AA) and young males or females (<50-year old) with gallbladder disease (GBD). Once ED deemed patients fit our FP check-list, patients were directly admitted (FASTPASSed) to the observation unit. The ACS then came to evaluate the patients for possible surgical intervention. We performed outcome analysis before and after the institution of the FP. Outcomes of interest were ED length of stay (LOS), time from ED to the operating room (OR) (door-to-knife), hospital LOS (HLOS), and cost. RESULTS: During our 1-year study period, for those patients who underwent GBD/AA surgery, 56 (26%) GBD and 27 (26%) AA patients met FP criteria. Compared to the non-FP patients during FP period, FP halved ED LOS for GBD (7.4 ± 3.0 versus 3.5 ± 1.7 h, P < 0.001) and AA (6.7 ± 3.3 versus. 1.8 ± 1.6 h, P < 0.001). Similar outcome benefits were observed for door-to-knife time, HLOS, and costs. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the FP process improved ED throughput in a single, highly-trained ER leading to an overall improved patient care process. A future study involving multiple EDs and different disease processes may help decrease ED overcrowding and improve healthcare system efficiency.

15.
Ann Surg ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214470

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Compare emergency general surgery (EGS) patient outcomes following index and non-index hospital readmissions, and explore predictive factors for non-index readmission. BACKGROUND: Readmission to a different hospital leads to fragmentation of care. The impact of non-index readmsision on patient outcomes following EGS is not well established. METHODS: The Nationwide Readmissions Database (2017) was queried for adult patients readmitted following an EGS procedure. Patients were stratified and propensity-matched according to readmission destination: index vs. non-index hospital. Outcomes were failure to rescue (FTR), mortality, number of subsequent readmissions, overall hospital LOS, and total costs. Hierarchical logistic regression was performed to account for clustering effect within hospitals and adjusting for patient- and hospital-level potential confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 471,570 EGS patients were identified, of which 79,127 (16.8%) were readmitted within 30 days: index hospital (61,472; 77.7%) vs. non-index hospital (17,655; 22.3%). Following 1:1 propensity matching, patients with non-index readmission had higher rates of FTR (5.6% vs. 4.3%; p < 0.001), mortality (2.7% vs. 2.1%; p < 0.001), and overall hospital costs (in $1000; 37 [27-64] vs. 28 [21-48]; p < 0.001). Non-index readmission was independently associated with higher odds of FTR (aOR 1.18 [1.03-1.36]; p < 0.001). Predictors of non-index readmission included top quartile for zip code median household income (1.35 [1.08-1.69]; p < 0.001), fringe county residence (1.08 [1.01-1.16]; p = 0.049), discharge to a skilled nursing facility (1.28 [1.20-1.36]; p < 0.001), and leaving AMA (2.32 [1.81-2.98]; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: One in five readmissions after EGS occur at a different hospital. Non-index readmission carries a heightened risk of FTR. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III Prognostic STUDY TYPE:: Prognostic.

16.
J Intensive Care Med ; : 885066620968518, 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111599

RESUMO

Tele-ICU is a technology-based model designed to deliver effective critical care in the intensive care unit (ICU). The tele-ICU system has been developed to address the increasing demand for intensive care services and the shortage of intensivists. A finite number of intensivists from remote locations provide real-time services to multiple ICUs and assist in the treatment of critically ill patients. Risk prediction algorithms, smart alarm systems, and machine learning tools augment conventional coverage and can potentially improve the quality of care. Tele-ICU is associated with substantial improvements in mortality, reduced hospital and ICU length of stay, and decreased health care costs. Although multiple studies show improved outcomes following the implementation of tele-ICU, results are not consistent. Several factors, including the heterogeneity of tele-ICU infrastructure deployed in different facilities and the reluctance of health care workers to accept tele-ICU, could be associated with these varied results. Considerably high installation and ongoing operational costs might also be limiting the widespread utilization of this innovative service. While we believe that the implementation of tele-ICU offers potential advantages and makes critical care delivery more efficient, further research on the impact of this technology in critical care settings is warranted.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009339

RESUMO

Inequity exists in surgical training and the workplace. The Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma Equity, Quality and Inclusion in Trauma Surgery Ad Hoc Task Force (EAST4ALL) sought to raise awareness and provide resources to combat these inequities. METHODS: A study was conducted of EAST members to ascertain areas of inequity and lack of inclusion. Specific problems and barriers were identified that hindered inclusion. Toolkits were developed as resources for individuals and institutions to address and overcome these barriers. RESULTS: Four key areas were identified: 1) harassment and discrimination, 2) gender pay gap or parity, 3) implicit bias and microaggressions, and 4) call-out culture. A diverse panel of seven surgeons with experience in overcoming these barriers either on a personal level or as a chief or chair of surgery was formed. Four scenarios based on these key areas were proposed to the panelists, who then modeled responses as allies. CONCLUSIONS: Despite perceived progress in addressing discrimination and inequity, residents and faculty continue to encounter barriers at the workplace at levels today similar to those decades ago. Action is needed to address inequities and lack of inclusion in acute care surgery. EAST is working on fostering a culture that minimizes bias and recognizes and addresses systemic inequities, and has provided toolkits to support these goals. Together we can create a better future for all of us. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Not applicableEAST 2020 Plenary Session proceedings.

19.
J Surg Res ; 258: 119-124, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thromboprophylaxis in patients with spinal trauma is often delayed due to the risk of bleeding and expansion of the intraspinal hematoma (ISH). Our study aimed to assess the safety of early initiation of thromboprophylaxis in patients with operative spinal trauma (OST). METHODS: We performed a 2014-2017 retrospective analysis of our level I trauma registry and included all adult patients with isolated OST who received low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH). Patients were stratified into early (≤48 h) and late (>48 h) initiation of LMWH groups. Outcomes were a decline in hemoglobin level, packed red blood cell transfusion, and progression of ISH. We performed multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified a total of 526 patients (early: 332, late: 194). Mean age was 46 ± 22y, and the median spine abbreviated injury scale was 3 [2-4]. After thromboprophylaxis, 1.5% (8) of the patients had progression of ISH and 1% (5) underwent surgical decompression of the spinal canal. There was no difference between the two groups regarding the rate of postprophylaxis ISH progression (1.5% versus 1.6%, P = 0.11) or surgical decompression (0.9% versus 1.1%, P = 0.19). Patients who received LMWH within 48 hrs had a lower incidence of clinically significant deep vein thrombosis (2.4% versus 6.8%, P = 0.02), but no difference in pulmonary embolism (0.6% versus 1.6%, P = 0.33) or mortality (1.2% versus 1.5%, P = 0.41). On regression analysis, there was no difference regarding decline in hemoglobin levels (ß = 0.079, [-0.253 to 1.025]; P = 0.23) or number of packed red blood cell units transfused (ß = -0.011, [-0.298 to 0.471]; P = 0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Thromboprophylaxis with LMWH within the first 48 h in patients with OST is safe and efficacious. Prospective studies are needed to further validate their risk-benefit ratio. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III therapeutic.

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