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1.
Microb Genom ; 7(3)2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684029

RESUMO

The equine disease strangles, which is characterized by the formation of abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck, is one of the most frequently diagnosed infectious diseases of horses around the world. The causal agent, Streptococcus equi subspecies equi, establishes a persistent infection in approximately 10 % of animals that recover from the acute disease. Such 'carrier' animals appear healthy and are rarely identified during routine veterinary examinations pre-purchase or transit, but can transmit S. equi to naïve animals initiating new episodes of disease. Here, we report the analysis and visualization of phylogenomic and epidemiological data for 670 isolates of S. equi recovered from 19 different countries using a new core-genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) web bioresource. Genetic relationships among all 670 S. equi isolates were determined at high resolution, revealing national and international transmission events that drive this endemic disease in horse populations throughout the world. Our data argue for the recognition of the international importance of strangles by the Office International des Épizooties to highlight the health, welfare and economic cost of this disease. The Pathogenwatch cgMLST web bioresource described herein is available for tailored genomic analysis of populations of S. equi and its close relative S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus that are recovered from horses and other animals, including humans, throughout the world. This article contains data hosted by Microreact.

2.
Equine Vet J ; 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174229

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Three horse mares inadvertently inseminated with semen from a Tayorella asinigenitalis-positive Jack donkey developed severe, purulent endometritis whereas two Jenny donkeys mated naturally to the same Jack donkey did not develop clinical signs of infection. OBJECTIVES: To isolate and identify the causative agent. STUDY DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: Endometrial swabs from the infected mares were cultured on selective and non-selective media under aerobic and microaerophilic conditions. Isolates were subjected to Gram staining, oxidase and catalase tests, the Monotayl Latex Agglutination test and PCR to test for both T. equigenitalis and T. asinigenitalis. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and the bacterial isolate was genotyped using MLST. RESULTS: A new sequence type of T. asinigenitalis was confirmed. MAIN LIMITATIONS: A limited numbers of mares and donkeys are described. CONCLUSIONS: This strain of T. asinigenitalis causes a severe venereal infection in mares but not in Jenny donkeys.

3.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(5): 577-584, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric patients are at higher risk of nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication after kidney transplant and the resulting adverse outcomes. Factors associated with nonadherence vary, which follow an epidemiological framework and according to health system patterns. The Brazilian public health system covers all costs of kidney transplant, including immunosuppressive medications. We aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of nonadherence to immunosuppressive medications in a pediatric kidney transplant population who received free access to immunosuppressive medications within the health care system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center crosssectional study, we studied a convenience sample of 156 outpatients (< 18 years old) who were a minimum of 4 weeks posttransplant. Implementation nonadherence to immunosuppressive medications was measured by the 4 questions of the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale. Multilevel correlates to non - adherence (patient, micro, and macro levels) were assessed. RESULTS: In our patient population, 61% were males, mean age was 13.6 ± 3.1 years, 77% were adolescents, and 84% received organs from deceased donors. We found that 33% were nonadherent to immuno - suppressive medications, mainly in timing (25%) and taking (10.9%) dimensions. Being an adolescent (odds ratio: 2.66; CI, 1.02-6.96), religion other than Catholic or Protestant (odds ratio: 4.33; CI, 1.13-16.67), and family income higher than 4 reference wages (odds ratio: 3.50; CI, 1.14-10.75) were factors associated with nonadherence. CONCLUSIONS: In our patient population of mostly adolescents, one-third displayed nonadherence to immunosuppressants. Unexpectedly, a higher economic profile, potentially representing better previous access to health care, was independently associated with nonadherence. This result highlights the need for identifying specific correlates to non - adherence before designing interventions.

4.
Vet Microbiol ; 242: 108597, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122601

RESUMO

The accurate identification of Taylorella equigenitalis strains is essential to improve worldwide prevention and control strategies for contagious equine metritis (CEM). This study compared 367 worldwide equine strains using multilocus sequence typing according to the geographical origin, isolation year and equine breed. The strains were divided into 49 sequence types (STs), including 10 described for the first time. Three major and three minor clonal complexes (CCs), and 11 singletons, were identified. The genetic heterogeneity was low (0.13 STs/strain) despite the wide diversity of geographical origins (n = 16), isolation years (1977-2018) and equine breeds (n = 18). It was highest outside Europe and in the 1977-1997 period; current major STs and CCs already existed before 1998. Previous data associated the major CC1 with the first CEM outbreaks in 1977-1978 in the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States, and revealed its circulation in France. Our study confirms its circulation in France over a longer period of time (1992-2018) and its distribution in Spain and Germany but not throughout Europe. In addition to CC1, relationships between non-European and European countries were observed only through ST4, ST17 and ST30. Within Europe, several STs emerged with cross-border circulation, in particular ST16 and ST46 from the major complexes CC2 and CC8. These results constitute a baseline for monitoring the spread of CEM outbreaks. A retrospective analysis of a higher number of strains isolated worldwide between 1977 and the early 2000s would be helpful to obtain an exhaustive picture of the original CEM situation.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Taylorella equigenitalis/classificação , Animais , Austrália , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Europa (Continente) , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/epidemiologia , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Filogenia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
5.
Vet Ital ; 55(3): 261-267, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599551

RESUMO

Six horses were challenged experimentally with a strain of Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from a fatal case of the infection in a dromedary camel years earlier in the Emirate of Dubai. Three horses were inoculated subcutaneously and in 3 the bacterium was administered by the oral route. Four of the horses became serologically positive based on reactions to one or more of the OIE described tests for glanders. B. pseudomallei was re-isolated from the 4 serological positive horses. Only one of the subcutaneously infected horses, developed fever for 3 days. The white blood cell values and the neutrophil counts were also elevated. The study confirmed that existing serological test for diagnosing glanders cannot differentiate between glanders and melioidosis in horses.


Assuntos
Burkholderia pseudomallei/fisiologia , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/veterinária , Doenças dos Cavalos/diagnóstico , Melioidose/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/instrumentação , Feminino , Mormo/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos , Masculino , Melioidose/diagnóstico , Melioidose/microbiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos
6.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 68(11): 3627-3634, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303475

RESUMO

Five bacterial strains, UAE-HKU57T, UAE-HKU58, UAE-HKU59, UAE-HKU60 and UAE-HKU61, were isolated in Dubai, UAE, from necrotic foot tissue samples of four dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) and associated maggots (Wohrlfartia species). They were non-sporulating, Gram-negative, non-motile bacilli. They grew well under aerobic conditions at 37 °C, but not anaerobically. The pH range for growth was pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.5-8.0) and the strains could tolerate NaCl concentrations (w/v) up to 2 % (optimum, 0.5 %). They were catalase- and cytochrome oxidase-positive, but caseinase-, gelatinase- and urease-negative. Their phenotypic characters were distinguishable from other closely related species. Phylogenetic analyses of the almost-complete 16S rRNA gene and partial 23S rRNA gene, gyrB, groEL and recA sequences revealed that the five isolates were most closely related to undescribed Ignatzschineria strain F8392 and Ignatzschineria indica, but in most phylogenies clustered separately from these close relatives. Average nucleotide identity analysis showed that genomes of the five isolates (2.47-2.52 Mb, G+C content 41.71-41.86 mol%) were 98.00-99.97% similar to each other, but ≤87.18 % similar to other Ignatzschineriaspecies/strains. Low DNA relatedness between the five isolates to other Ignatzschineriaspecies/strains was also supported by Genome-to-Genome Distance Calculator analysis. The chemotaxonomic traits of the five strains were highly similar. They were non-susceptible (intermediate or resistant) to tetracycline and resistant to trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. The name Ignatzschineria cameli sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these five strains, with strain UAE-HKU57T (=CCOS1165T=NBRC 113042T) as the type strain.


Assuntos
Camelus/microbiologia , Gammaproteobacteria/classificação , Larva/microbiologia , Necrose/microbiologia , Filogenia , Sarcofagídeos/microbiologia , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Composição de Bases , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Pé/microbiologia , Gammaproteobacteria/genética , Gammaproteobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos , Fosfolipídeos/química , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ubiquinona/química , Emirados Árabes Unidos
7.
Mycoses ; 61(8): 600-609, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29611232

RESUMO

Aspergillosis in falcons may be associated with high mortality and difficulties in clinical and laboratory diagnosis. We previously cloned an immunogenic protein, Afmp1p, in Aspergillus fumigatus and showed that anti-Afmp1p antibodies were present in human patients with A. fumigatus infections. In this study, we hypothesise that a similar Afmp1p-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) could be applied to serodiagnose falcon aspergillosis. A specific polyclonal antibody was first generated to detect falcon serum IgY. Horseradish peroxidase-conjugate of this antibody was then used to measure anti-Afmp1p antibodies in sera collected from falcons experimentally infected with A. fumigatus, and the performance of the Afmp1p-based ELISA was evaluated using sera from healthy falcons and falcons with documented A. fumigatus infections. All four experimentally infected falcons developed culture- and histology-proven invasive aspergillosis. Anti-Afmp1p antibodies were detected in their sera. For the Afmp1p-based ELISA, the mean ± SD OD450 nm using sera from 129 healthy falcons was 0.186 ± 0.073. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis showed an absorbance cut-off value of 0.407. One negative serum gave an absorbance outside the normal range, giving a specificity of 99.2%. For the 12 sera from falcons with confirmed aspergillosis, nine gave absorbance values ≥ cut-off, giving a sensitivity of 75%. The Afmp1p-based ELISA is useful for serodiagnosis of falcons with aspergillosis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antifúngicos/sangue , Antígenos de Fungos/imunologia , Aspergilose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Falconiformes , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Animais , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
8.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 34(4): 229-32, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168718

RESUMO

Background. During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. Case report. A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported. Tissue samples were studied by conventional mycology procedures and the obtained cryptococcal isolate was molecularly characterized by mating-type determination, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to investigate the geographic origin of the cryptococcal isolate. The isolate was identified as Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII), mating-type α. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was closely related to another C. deuterogattii isolate from the Middle East. Conclusions. A second case of a C. deuterogattii infection in the Middle East is described. It is likely that the horse acquired the infection in the Middle East, as the isolate is closely related to that of a recent human case from that region (AU)


Antecedentes. Durante las dos últimas décadas, las infecciones criptocócicas causadas por el hongo levaduriforme basidiomiceto Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato se han incrementado entre los seres humanos y los animales que viven en regiones endémicas de Australia, Europa y América. A diferencia de la criptococosis humana, existen muy pocos datos epidemiológicos disponibles sobre las infecciones por C. gattii sensu lato en los caballos. Caso clínico. Se expone el caso de una criptococosis diseminada fatal por C. gattii sensu lato en un caballo árabe castrado de 11 años de edad, importado desde Sudáfrica a los Emiratos Árabes Unidos. Las muestras de tejido analizadas por métodos microbiológicos convencionales permitieron el aislamiento de un criptococo que fue posteriormente caracterizado por técnicas moleculares para la determinación del tipo sexual, la obtención del perfil AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) o polimorfismo de tamaño de fragmentos amplificados, y la tipificación por secuenciación multilocus (multi-locus sequence typing [MLST]). Se llevó a cabo un análisis filogenético para investigar el origen geográfico del criptococo aislado. Mediante PCR y AFLP el aislamiento fue identificado como Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII) y tipo sexual α. El análisis filogenético mostró que el aislamiento se encuentra muy próximo a otro único aislamiento de C. deuterogattii de Oriente Medio. Conclusiones. Este es el segundo caso descrito de infección por C. deuterogattii en Oriente Medio. Parece que el caballo adquirió la infección en aquella región, ya que el aislamiento muestra una relación muy próxima con otro de un caso reciente en un ser humano de esa región (AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Cryptococcus/patogenicidade , Criptococose/microbiologia , Fungemia/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos
9.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 34(4): 229-232, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the past decades there has been an increase in cryptococcal infections caused by the basidiomycetous yeast species Cryptococcus gattii sensu lato, among humans and animals that live in endemic regions in Australia, Europe and the Americas. Unlike human cryptococcosis, little epidemiological data are available about C. gattii sensu lato infections in horses. CASE REPORT: A fatal case of a disseminated C. gattii sensu lato infection in an 11-year-old Arabian gelding imported from South Africa into the United Arab Emitares is reported. Tissue samples were studied by conventional mycology procedures and the obtained cryptococcal isolate was molecularly characterized by mating-type determination, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting, and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Phylogenetic analysis was performed to investigate the geographic origin of the cryptococcal isolate. The isolate was identified as Cryptococcus deuterogattii (AFLP6/VGII), mating-type α. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it was closely related to another C. deuterogattii isolate from the Middle East. CONCLUSIONS: A second case of a C. deuterogattii infection in the Middle East is described. It is likely that the horse acquired the infection in the Middle East, as the isolate is closely related to that of a recent human case from that region.


Assuntos
Criptococose/veterinária , Cryptococcus gattii/isolamento & purificação , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Cavalos/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Coinfecção , Criptococose/epidemiologia , Criptococose/microbiologia , Cryptococcus gattii/classificação , Cryptococcus gattii/genética , Evolução Fatal , Genótipo , Humanos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Masculino , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Filogenia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 41: 191-200, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27051044

RESUMO

Previously, we reported the discovery of a novel canine picornavirus (CanPV) in the fecal sample of a dog. In this molecular epidemiology study, CanPV was detected in 15 (1.11%) of 1347 canine fecal samples from Hong Kong and one (0.76%) of 131 canine fecal samples from Dubai, with viral loads 1.06×10(3) to 6.64×10(6) copies/ml. Complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed that CanPV was clustered with feline picornavirus (FePV), bat picornavirus (BatPV) 1 to 3, Ia io picornavirus 1 (IaioPV1) and bovine picornavirus (BoPV), and this cluster was most closely related to the genera Enterovirus and Sapelovirus. The Ka/Ks ratios of all the coding regions were <0.1. According to the definition of the Picornavirus Study Group of ICTV, CanPV, FePV, BatPV 1 to 3, IaioPV1 and BoPV should constitute a novel genus in Picornaviridae. BEAST analysis showed that this genus diverged from its most closely related genus, Sapelovirus, about 49 years ago.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/veterinária , Picornaviridae/genética , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Gatos , Bovinos , Quirópteros , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Fezes/virologia , Hong Kong/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Picornaviridae/classificação , Picornaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Picornaviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Picornaviridae/virologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 4(12): e74, 2015 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26632876

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was detected by monoclonal antibody-based nucleocapsid protein-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), RNA detection, and viral culture from the nasal sample of a 1-month-old dromedary calf in Dubai with sudden death. Whole genome phylogeny showed that this MERS-CoV strain did not cluster with the other MERS-CoV strains from Dubai that we reported recently. Instead, it formed a unique branch more closely related to other MERS-CoV strains from patients in Qatar and Hafr-Al-Batin in Saudi Arabia, as well as the MERS-CoV strains from patients in the recent Korean outbreak, in which the index patient acquired the infection during travel in the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula. Non-synonymous mutations, resulting in 11 unique amino acid differences, were observed between the MERS-CoV genome from the present study and all the other available MERS-CoV genomes. Among these 11 unique amino acid differences, four were found in ORF1ab, three were found in the S1 domain of the spike protein, and one each was found in the proteins encoded by ORF4b, ORF5, envelope gene, and ORF8. MERS-CoV detection for all other 254 dromedaries in this closed dairy herd was negative by nucleocapsid protein-capture ELISA and RNA detection. MERS-CoV IgG sero-positivity gradually increased in dromedary calves with increasing age, with positivity rates of 75% at zero to three months, 79% at four months, 89% at five to six months, and 90% at seven to twelve months. The development of a rapid antigen detection kit for instantaneous diagnosis is warranted.Emerging Microbes & Infections (2015) 4, e74; doi:10.1038/emi.2015.74; published online 2 December 2015.


Assuntos
Camelus , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Indústria de Laticínios , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Filogenia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Tropismo Viral
12.
J Neurosci ; 35(13): 5144-55, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25834041

RESUMO

The Na-K-2Cl cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) was thought to be kidney specific. Here we show expression in the brain hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal system (HNS), wherein upregulation follows osmotic stress. The HNS controls osmotic stability through the synthesis and release of the neuropeptide hormone, arginine vasopressin (AVP). AVP travels through the bloodstream to the kidney, where it promotes water conservation. Knockdown of HNS NKCC2 elicited profound effects on fluid balance following ingestion of a high-salt solution-rats produced significantly more urine, concomitant with increases in fluid intake and plasma osmolality. Since NKCC2 is the molecular target of the loop diuretics bumetanide and furosemide, we asked about their effects on HNS function following disturbed water balance. Dehydration-evoked GABA-mediated excitation of AVP neurons was reversed by bumetanide, and furosemide blocked AVP release, both in vivo and in hypothalamic explants. Thus, NKCC2-dependent brain mechanisms that regulate osmotic stability are disrupted by loop diuretics in rats.


Assuntos
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/metabolismo , Osmorregulação/fisiologia , Neuro-Hipófise/metabolismo , Membro 1 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/metabolismo , Animais , Arginina Vasopressina/sangue , Arginina Vasopressina/efeitos dos fármacos , Bumetanida/farmacologia , Desidratação/fisiopatologia , Furosemida/farmacologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/citologia , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Núcleos da Linha Média do Tálamo/fisiologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/fisiologia , Quiasma Óptico/fisiologia , Neuro-Hipófise/citologia , Neuro-Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ratos Transgênicos , Inibidores de Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio e Potássio/farmacologia , Membro 1 da Família 12 de Carreador de Soluto/biossíntese , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/efeitos dos fármacos , Equilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/fisiologia
13.
Indian J Tuberc ; 62(1): 29-35, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25857563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Though Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS) is found effective in many controlled trials, few studies have examined its effectiveness under programmatic conditions. DOTS based Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) was initiated in Ernakulam district of Kerala state in June 2000. It now covers all of India. It now seems appropriate to do an evaluation of RNTCP at field level. AIM: This study aims to document impact of DOTS in providing productive life to tuberculosis patients and measure rate of clinical recurrence under program conditions. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using interview with structured, peer reviewed and validated questionnaire among cohort of new smear positive patients registered in RNTCP from January 2002 to December 2003 and declared cured/Treatment completed. We have contacted 1173 patients (62.2% of the cohort) for the study at their homes by devising a strategy to identify and trace patients from address given in TB registers. RESULTS: Mean age of identified patients is 51.9 years. 82.4% were males. 79% patients report full supervision in the intensive period. After seven years 64.1% are healthy, work and earn; 29.8% report residual respiratory problems; 0.3% of symptomatic patients were diagnosed with smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Relapse calculated as worst case scenario for full target population (dead and migrated inclusive) is 9.27%. Age specific mortality is 4-6 times higher than in a comparable general population. CONCLUSIONS: DOTS treatment under program conditions makes a measurable reduction in tuberculosis morbidity. Though high proportion of patients remains productive after DOTS, a significant proportion complains of residual respiratory symptoms. Age specific mortality of Post tuberculosis patients is high compared to general population. Close follow up irrespective of duration of symptoms may help to determine the causes of high residual morbidity and mortality rates.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Terapia Diretamente Observada , Tuberculose Pulmonar , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Diretamente Observada/métodos , Terapia Diretamente Observada/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia
14.
Virology ; 471-473: 117-25, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25461537

RESUMO

The recent discovery of Middle East Respiratory Coronavirus and another novel dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 in dromedaries has boosted interest in search of novel viruses in dromedaries. In this study, fecal samples of 203 dromedaries in Dubai were pooled and deep sequenced. Among the 7330 assembled viral contigs, 1970 were assigned to mammalian viruses. The largest groups of these contigs matched to Picobirnaviridae, Circoviridae, Picornaviridae, Parvoviridae, Astroviridae and Hepeviridae. Many of these viral families were previously unknown to dromedaries. In addition to the high abundance of contigs from Circoviridae (n=598 with 14 complete genomes) and Picobirnaviridae (n=1236), a high diversity of contigs from these two families was found, with the 14 Circoviridae complete genomes forming at least five clusters and contigs from both genogroup I and genogroup II potentially novel picobirnaviruses. Further studies comparing the incidence of these viral families in healthy and sick dromedaries will reveal their pathogenic potential.


Assuntos
Camelus , Circovirus/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/virologia , Variação Genética , Metagenômica , Picobirnavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Circovirus/classificação , Circovirus/genética , Filogenia , Picobirnavirus/classificação , Picobirnavirus/genética
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 8(9): e3195, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25255232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glanders, caused by the gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia mallei, is a highly infectious zoonotic disease of solipeds causing severe disease in animals and men. Although eradicated from many Western countries, it recently emerged in Asia, the Middle-East, Africa, and South America. Due to its rareness, little is known about outbreak dynamics of the disease and its epidemiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated a recent outbreak of glanders in Bahrain by applying high resolution genotyping (multiple locus variable number of tandem repeats, MLVA) and comparative whole genome sequencing to B. mallei isolated from infected horses and a camel. These results were compared to samples obtained from an outbreak in the United Arab Emirates in 2004, and further placed into a broader phylogeographic context based on previously published B. mallei data. The samples from the outbreak in Bahrain separated into two distinct clusters, suggesting a complex epidemiological background and evidence for the involvement of multiple B. mallei strains. Additionally, the samples from Bahrain were more closely related to B. mallei isolated from horses in the United Arab Emirates in 2004 than other B. mallei which is suggestive of repeated importation to the region from similar geographic sources. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High-resolution genotyping and comparative whole genome analysis revealed the same phylogenetic patterns among our samples. The close relationship of the Dubai/UAE B. mallei populations to each other may be indicative of a similar geographic origin that has yet to be identified for the infecting strains. The recent emergence of glanders in combination with worldwide horse trading might pose a new risk for human infections.


Assuntos
Burkholderia mallei/genética , Camelus , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Mormo/microbiologia , Cavalos , Animais , Barein/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Mormo/epidemiologia
16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 20(6): 1044-8, 2014 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24856611

RESUMO

In a molecular epidemiology study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in dromedaries in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, HEV was detected in fecal samples from 3 camels. Complete genome sequencing of 2 strains showed >20% overall nucleotide difference to known HEVs. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed a previously unrecognized HEV genotype.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , DNA Viral/genética , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Hepatite E/genética , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Fezes/virologia , Genótipo , Hepatite E/virologia , Vírus da Hepatite E/classificação , Vírus da Hepatite E/isolamento & purificação , Epidemiologia Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr ; 126(1-2): 16-24, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23367664

RESUMO

Reptile-associated salmonellosis in humans has become a growing problem worldwide. Reptiles are frequently asymptomatic carriers of Salmonella and therefore, they are considered as an important reservoir for these bacteria. The classical biochemical method for Salmonella subspecies detection is time consuming, especially in samples from reptiles since they frequently carry more than one Salmonella subspecies. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a multiplex PCR assay for a rapid and accurate differentiation of Salmonella subspecies I, II, IIa, IIIb and IV. In the present study, the occurrence of the genes invA, ttrCA, iroB, STM4075, sciA, STM3690, sadA, gatD, foxA, pagN, fljB, iucD, spvB, lacZ, iutA, mdcA and irp2 was examined in 41 Salmonella strains from Middle Eastern animals (mainly reptiles) by monoplex PCR. According to the results a multiplex PCR assay was developed based on the genes ttrCA, sciA, foxA, iutA. Compared to biochemical analysis this method allowed a fast identification of the subspecies from all the Middle Eastern Salmonella strains (n = 41), as well as 79 strains from German children (n = 18) with reptile associated salmonellosis and other humans and animals (n = 61) with salmonellosis.These results revealed the multiplex PCR as a fast assay for a specific identification of Salmonella subspecies I, II, IIIa, and IIIb.


Assuntos
Genes Bacterianos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/genética , Animais , Aves , Primers do DNA , Répteis , Salmonella/classificação , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação
19.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 54(4): 241-7, 2006 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16466896

RESUMO

A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay targeting the flagellin P (fliP)-I S407A genomic region of Burkholderia mallei was developed for the specific detection of this organism in pure cultures and clinical samples from a recent outbreak of equine glanders. Primers deduced from the known fliP-IS407A sequence of B. mallei American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 23344(T) allowed the specific amplification of a 989-bp fragment from each of the 20 B. mallei strains investigated, whereas other closely related organisms tested negative. The detection limit of the assay was 10 fg for purified DNA of B. mallei ATCC 23344(T). B. mallei DNA was also amplified from various tissues of horses with a generalized B. mallei infection. The developed PCR assay can be used as a simple and rapid tool for the specific and sensitive detection of B. mallei in clinical samples.


Assuntos
Burkholderia mallei/isolamento & purificação , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Flagelina/genética , Mormo/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Burkholderia mallei/genética , DNA Bacteriano/análise , Mormo/microbiologia , Cavalos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia
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