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1.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269365

RESUMO

Acquired somatic mutations in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (clonal hematopoiesis or CH) are associated with advanced age, increased risk of cardiovascular and malignant diseases, and decreased overall survival. 1-4 These adverse sequelae may be mediated by altered inflammatory profiles observed in patients with CH. 2,5,6 A pro-inflammatory immunologic profile is also associated with worse outcomes of certain infections, including SARS-CoV-2 and its associated disease Covid-19. 7,8 Whether CH predisposes to severe Covid-19 or other infections is unknown. Among 515 individuals with Covid-19 from Memorial Sloan Kettering (MSK) and the Korean Clonal Hematopoiesis (KoCH) consortia, we found that CH was associated with severe Covid-19 outcomes (OR=1.9, 95%=1.2-2.9, p=0.01). We further explored the relationship between CH and risk of other infections in 14,211 solid tumor patients at MSK. CH was significantly associated with risk of Clostridium Difficile (HR=2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3, p=6×10 -3 ) and Streptococcus/Enterococcus infections (HR=1.5, 95% CI=1.1-2.1, p=5×10 -3 ). These findings suggest a relationship between CH and risk of severe infections that warrants further investigation.

2.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

3.
Cancer Res ; 80(17): 3732-3744, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32675277

RESUMO

Germline mutations in TP53 cause a rare high penetrance cancer syndrome, Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Here, we identified a rare TP53 tetramerization domain missense mutation, c.1000G>C;p.G334R, in a family with multiple late-onset LFS-spectrum cancers. Twenty additional c.1000G>C probands and one c.1000G>A proband were identified, and available tumors showed biallelic somatic inactivation of TP53. The majority of families were of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, and the TP53 c.1000G>C allele was found on a commonly inherited chromosome 17p13.1 haplotype. Transient transfection of the p.G334R allele conferred a mild defect in colony suppression assays. Lymphoblastoid cell lines from the index family in comparison with TP53 normal lines showed that although classical p53 target gene activation was maintained, a subset of p53 target genes (including PCLO, PLTP, PLXNB3, and LCN15) showed defective transactivation when treated with Nutlin-3a. Structural analysis demonstrated thermal instability of the G334R-mutant tetramer, and the G334R-mutant protein showed increased preponderance of mutant conformation. Clinical case review in comparison with classic LFS cohorts demonstrated similar rates of pediatric adrenocortical tumors and other LFS component cancers, but the latter at significantly later ages of onset. Our data show that TP53 c.1000G>C;p.G334R is found predominantly in Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, causes a mild defect in p53 function, and leads to low penetrance LFS. SIGNIFICANCE: TP53 c.1000C>G;p.G334R is a pathogenic, Ashkenazi Jewish-predominant mutation associated with a familial multiple cancer syndrome in which carriers should undergo screening and preventive measures to reduce cancer risk.

4.
J Community Genet ; 11(4): 501-504, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32676930

RESUMO

We describe utilization of clinical genetic services among survivors of childhood and young adult cancer after participation in a genetic registry. Clinical genetic counselors flagged 162 out of 1069 pedigrees (15.2%) as suggestive of inheritable cancer susceptibility, resulting in 126 (11.8%) referral letters. Following delivery of the referral letters, 19 (15.1%) participants completed clinical genetic counseling, 16 (12.7%) received testing, and four (3.2%) were found to have actionable results. Our results suggest a discordance between reported willingness to undergo genetic counseling and real-world utilization.

5.
Cancer ; 126(13): 3114-3121, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32320050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Constitutional or somatic mosaic epimutations are increasingly recognized as a mechanism of gene dysregulation resulting in cancer susceptibility. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome is the cancer predisposition syndrome most commonly associated with epimutation and is extremely variable in its phenotypic presentation, which can include isolated tumors. Because to the authors' knowledge large-scale germline DNA sequencing studies have not included methylation analysis, the percentage of pediatric cancer predisposition that is due to epimutations is unknown. METHODS: Germline methylation testing at the 11p15.5 locus was performed in blood for 24 consecutive patients presenting with hepatoblastoma (3 patients) or Wilms tumor (21 patients). RESULTS: Six individuals with Wilms tumor and 1 patient with hepatoblastoma were found to have low-level gain of methylation at imprinting control 1, and a child with hepatoblastoma was found to have loss of methylation at imprinting control 2. The loss of methylation at imprinting control 2 was found to be maternally inherited, despite not being associated with any detectable genomic alteration. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, 33% of patients (8 of 24 patients) with Wilms tumor or hepatoblastoma were found to have an epigenetic susceptibility that was detectable in the blood. It is interesting to note that low-level gain of methylation at imprinting control 1 predominantly was detected in females with bilateral Wilms tumors. Further studies in larger cohorts are needed to determine the efficacy of testing all patients with Wilms tumor or hepatoblastoma for 11p15.5 epimutations in the blood as part of DNA analysis because this hallmark of predisposition will not be detected by sequencing-based approaches and detecting a cancer predisposition may modify treatment.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 41(1): 103-109, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444830

RESUMO

Fumarate hydratase (FH) mutations underpin the autosomal recessive syndrome. FH deficiency and the autosomal dominant syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC). The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) genomic alteration has been conclusively shown to contribute to FH deficiency when occurring with another FH germline alteration. However, a sufficiently large dataset has been lacking to conclusively determine its clinical significance to cancer predisposition in the heterozygous state. We reviewed a series of 7,571 patients with cancer who received germline results through MSK-IMPACT testing at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. The FH c.1431_1433dupAAA (p.Lys477dup) variant was detected in 24 individuals, none of whom was affected with renal cancer. Eleven of the 372 patients with renal cancer were identified to carried pathogenic FH variants associated with HLRCC. None of these 372 patients with renal cancer carried the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA variant. Our data indicate the FH c.1431_1433dupAAA is not associated with cancer including renal cell carcinoma.

7.
Blood Adv ; 3(7): 1039-1046, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940639

RESUMO

Recent studies have identified germline mutations in TP53, PAX5, ETV6, and IKZF1 in kindreds with familial acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), but the genetic basis of ALL in many kindreds is unknown despite mutational analysis of the exome. Here, we report a germline deletion of ETV6 identified by linkage and structural variant analysis of whole-genome sequencing data segregating in a kindred with thrombocytopenia, B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The 75-nt deletion removed the ETV6 exon 7 splice acceptor, resulting in exon skipping and protein truncation. The ETV6 deletion was also identified by optimal structural variant analysis of exome sequencing data. These findings identify a new mechanism of germline predisposition in ALL and implicate ETV6 germline variation in predisposition to lymphoma. Importantly, these data highlight the importance of germline structural variant analysis in the search for germline variants predisposing to familial leukemia.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-ets/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Exoma/genética , Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Trombocitopenia/genética
8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 824-828, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718883

RESUMO

Along with traditional effects of aging and carcinogen exposure-inherited DNA variation has substantial contribution to cancer risk. Extraordinary progress made in analysis of common variation with GWAS methodology does not provide sufficient resolution to understand rare variation. To fulfill missing classification for rare germline variation we assembled dataset of whole exome sequences from>2000 patients (selected cases tested negative for candidate genes and unselected cases) with different types of cancers (breast cancer, colon cancer, and cutaneous and ocular melanomas) matched to more than 7000 non-cancer controls and analyzed germline variation in known cancer predisposing genes to identify common properties of disease-associated DNA variation and aid the future searches for new cancer susceptibility genes. Cancer predisposing genes were divided into non-overlapping classes according to the mode of inheritance of the related cancer syndrome or known tumor suppressor activity. Out of all classes only genes linked to dominant syndromes presented significant rare germline variants enrichment in cases. Separate analysis of protein-truncating and missense variation in this list of genes confirmed significant prevalence of protein-truncating variants in cases only in loss-of-function tolerant genes (pLI < 0.1), while ultra-rare missense variants were significantly overrepresented in cases only in constrained genes (pLI > 0.9). In addition to findings in genetically enriched cases, we observed significant burden of rare variation in unselected cases, suggesting substantial role of inherited variation even in relatively late cancer manifestation. Taken together, our findings provide reference for distribution and types of DNA variation underlying inherited predisposition to some common cancer types.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA/genética , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32775946

RESUMO

Purpose: Mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and PTEN, diagnostic of Lynch and Cowden syndromes, respectively, represent the only established inherited predisposition genes in endometrial cancer to date. The prevalence of other cancer predisposition genes remains unclear. We sought the prevalence of pathogenic germline variants in unselected patients with endometrial cancer attending for surgical consultation. Patients and Methods: Patients were prospectively consented (4/2016-5/2017) to an IRB-approved protocol of tumor-normal sequencing via a custom next-generation sequencing panel (MSK-IMPACT) with return of germline results for >75 cancer predisposition genes. Tumors were assessed for microsatellite instability (MSI). Per institutional standards, all tumors underwent Lynch syndrome screening via IHC for MMR proteins. Results: Of 156 patients who consented to germline genetic testing, 118 (76%) had stage I disease. Tumors were endometrioid in 104 (67%), of which 60 (58%) were grade 1. Twenty-four pathogenic germline variants were identified in 22 patients (14%)-7 (4.5%) with highly penetrant cancer syndromes and 15 (9.6%) with variants in moderate-, low-penetrance, or recessive genes. Of these, 5 (21%) were in Lynch syndrome genes (2 MSH6, 2 PMS2, and 1 MLH1). All 5 tumors had concordant IHC staining; 2 (40%) were definitively MSI-high by next-generation sequencing. One patient had a known BRCA1 mutation; 1 had SMARCA4 deletion. The remaining 17 variants (71%) were incremental findings in moderate- and low-penetrance variants or genes associated with recessive disease. Conclusion: In unselected patients with predominantly low-risk, early-stage endometrial cancer, germline multi-gene panel testing identifies cancer predisposition gene variants in 14%. This finding may have implications for future cancer screening and risk-reduction recommendations. Universal IHC screening for Lynch syndrome successfully identifies the majority (71%) of high-penetrance germline mutations.

10.
Hum Genet ; 137(4): 343-355, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29705978

RESUMO

While increasingly large reference panels for genome-wide imputation have been recently made available, the degree to which imputation accuracy can be enhanced by population-specific reference panels remains an open question. Here, we sequenced at full-depth (≥ 30×), across two platforms (Illumina X Ten and Complete Genomics, Inc.), a moderately large (n = 738) cohort of samples drawn from the Ashkenazi Jewish population. We developed a series of quality control steps to optimize sensitivity, specificity, and comprehensiveness of variant calls in the reference panel, and then tested the accuracy of imputation against target cohorts drawn from the same population. Quality control (QC) thresholds for the Illumina X Ten platform were identified that permitted highly accurate calling of single nucleotide variants across 94% of the genome. QC procedures also identified numerous regions that are poorly mapped using current reference or alternate assemblies. After stringent QC, the population-specific reference panel produced more accurate and comprehensive imputation results relative to publicly available, large cosmopolitan reference panels, especially in the range of rare variants that may be most critical to further progress in mapping of complex phenotypes. The population-specific reference panel also permitted enhanced filtering of clinically irrelevant variants from personal genomes.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Judeus/genética , Padrões de Referência , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas , Genoma Humano/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos
11.
Cancer Res ; 78(10): 2747-2759, 2018 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29559475

RESUMO

Given the frequent and largely incurable occurrence of multiple myeloma, identification of germline genetic mutations that predispose cells to multiple myeloma may provide insight into disease etiology and the developmental mechanisms of its cell of origin, the plasma cell (PC). Here, we identified familial and early-onset multiple myeloma kindreds with truncating mutations in lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A), an epigenetic transcriptional repressor that primarily demethylates histone H3 on lysine 4 and regulates hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. In addition, we found higher rates of germline truncating and predicted deleterious missense KDM1A mutations in patients with multiple myeloma unselected for family history compared with controls. Both monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma cells have significantly lower KDM1A transcript levels compared with normal PCs. Transcriptome analysis of multiple myeloma cells from KDM1A mutation carriers shows enrichment of pathways and MYC target genes previously associated with myeloma pathogenesis. In mice, antigen challenge followed by pharmacologic inhibition of KDM1A promoted PC expansion, enhanced secondary immune response, elicited appearance of serum paraprotein, and mediated upregulation of MYC transcriptional targets. These changes are consistent with the development of MGUS. Collectively, our findings show that KDM1A is the first autosomal-dominant multiple myeloma germline predisposition gene providing new insights into its mechanistic roles as a tumor suppressor during post-germinal center B-cell differentiation.Significance: KDM1A is the first germline autosomal dominant predisposition gene identified in multiple myeloma and provides new insights into multiple myeloma etiology and the mechanistic role of KDM1A as a tumor suppressor during post-germinal center B-cell differentiation. Cancer Res; 78(10); 2747-59. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Histona Desmetilases/genética , Gamopatia Monoclonal de Significância Indeterminada/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclina D2/biossíntese , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Células Germinativas/patologia , Histona Desmetilases/antagonistas & inibidores , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Paraproteínas/análise , Plasmócitos/patologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética
12.
PLoS Genet ; 14(2): e1007111, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389935

RESUMO

The high-risk pedigree (HRP) design is an established strategy to discover rare, highly-penetrant, Mendelian-like causal variants. Its success, however, in complex traits has been modest, largely due to challenges of genetic heterogeneity and complex inheritance models. We describe a HRP strategy that addresses intra-familial heterogeneity, and identifies inherited segments important for mapping regulatory risk. We apply this new Shared Genomic Segment (SGS) method in 11 extended, Utah, multiple myeloma (MM) HRPs, and subsequent exome sequencing in SGS regions of interest in 1063 MM / MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance-a precursor to MM) cases and 964 controls from a jointly-called collaborative resource, including cases from the initial 11 HRPs. One genome-wide significant 1.8 Mb shared segment was found at 6q16. Exome sequencing in this region revealed predicted deleterious variants in USP45 (p.Gln691* and p.Gln621Glu), a gene known to influence DNA repair through endonuclease regulation. Additionally, a 1.2 Mb segment at 1p36.11 is inherited in two Utah HRPs, with coding variants identified in ARID1A (p.Ser90Gly and p.Met890Val), a key gene in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Our results provide compelling statistical and genetic evidence for segregating risk variants for MM. In addition, we demonstrate a novel strategy to use large HRPs for risk-variant discovery more generally in complex traits.


Assuntos
Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina/genética , Reparo do DNA/genética , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Linhagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Família , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
13.
JAMA ; 318(9): 825-835, 2017 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28873162

RESUMO

Importance: Guidelines for cancer genetic testing based on family history may miss clinically actionable genetic changes with established implications for cancer screening or prevention. Objective: To determine the proportion and potential clinical implications of inherited variants detected using simultaneous sequencing of the tumor and normal tissue ("tumor-normal sequencing") compared with genetic test results based on current guidelines. Design, Setting, and Participants: From January 2014 until May 2016 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 10 336 patients consented to tumor DNA sequencing. Since May 2015, 1040 of these patients with advanced cancer were referred by their oncologists for germline analysis of 76 cancer predisposition genes. Patients with clinically actionable inherited mutations whose genetic test results would not have been predicted by published decision rules were identified. Follow-up for potential clinical implications of mutation detection was through May 2017. Exposure: Tumor and germline sequencing compared with the predicted yield of targeted germline sequencing based on clinical guidelines. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of clinically actionable germline mutations detected by universal tumor-normal sequencing that would not have been detected by guideline-directed testing. Results: Of 1040 patients, the median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50.5-66 years), 65.3% were male, and 81.3% had stage IV disease at the time of genomic analysis, with prostate, renal, pancreatic, breast, and colon cancer as the most common diagnoses. Of the 1040 patients, 182 (17.5%; 95% CI, 15.3%-19.9%) had clinically actionable mutations conferring cancer susceptibility, including 149 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations; 101 patients tested (9.7%; 95% CI, 8.1%-11.7%) would not have had these mutations detected using clinical guidelines, including 65 with moderate- to high-penetrance mutations. Frequency of inherited mutations was related to case mix, stage, and founder mutations. Germline findings led to discussion or initiation of change to targeted therapy in 38 patients tested (3.7%) and predictive testing in the families of 13 individuals (1.3%), including 6 for whom genetic evaluation would not have been initiated by guideline-based testing. Conclusions and Relevance: In this referral population with selected advanced cancers, universal sequencing of a broad panel of cancer-related genes in paired germline and tumor DNA samples was associated with increased detection of individuals with potentially clinically significant heritable mutations over the predicted yield of targeted germline testing based on current clinical guidelines. Knowledge of these additional mutations can help guide therapeutic and preventive interventions, but whether all of these interventions would improve outcomes for patients with cancer or their family members requires further study. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01775072.


Assuntos
DNA de Neoplasias/análise , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/genética , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
JCO Precis Oncol ; 20172017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825054

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A long natural history and a predominant osseous pattern of metastatic spread are impediments to the adoption of precision medicine in patients with prostate cancer. To establish the feasibility of clinical genomic profiling in the disease, we performed targeted deep sequencing of tumor and normal DNA from patients with locoregional, metastatic non-castrate, and metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). METHODS: Patients consented to genomic analysis of their tumor and germline DNA. A hybridization capture-based clinical assay was employed to identify single nucleotide variations, small insertions and deletions, copy number alterations and structural rearrangements in over 300 cancer-related genes in tumors and matched normal blood. RESULTS: We successfully sequenced 504 tumors from 451 patients with prostate cancer. Potentially actionable alterations were identified in DNA damage repair (DDR), PI3K, and MAP kinase pathways. 27% of patients harbored a germline or a somatic alteration in a DDR gene that may predict for response to PARP inhibition. Profiling of matched tumors from individual patients revealed that somatic TP53 and BRCA2 alterations arose early in tumors from patients who eventually developed metastatic disease. In contrast, comparative analysis across disease states revealed that APC alterations were enriched in metastatic tumors, while ATM alterations were specifically enriched in CRPC. CONCLUSION: Through genomic profiling of prostate tumors representing the disease clinical spectrum, we identified a high frequency of potentially actionable alterations and possible drivers of disease initiation, metastasis and castration-resistance. Our findings support the routine use of tumor and germline DNA profiling for patients with advanced prostate cancer, for the purpose of guiding enrollment in targeted clinical trials and counseling families at increased risk of malignancy.

15.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14175, 2017 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28165464

RESUMO

Several chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) susceptibility loci have been reported; however, much of the heritable risk remains unidentified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of six genome-wide association studies, imputed using a merged reference panel of 1,000 Genomes and UK10K data, totalling 6,200 cases and 17,598 controls after replication. We identify nine risk loci at 1p36.11 (rs34676223, P=5.04 × 10-13), 1q42.13 (rs41271473, P=1.06 × 10-10), 4q24 (rs71597109, P=1.37 × 10-10), 4q35.1 (rs57214277, P=3.69 × 10-8), 6p21.31 (rs3800461, P=1.97 × 10-8), 11q23.2 (rs61904987, P=2.64 × 10-11), 18q21.1 (rs1036935, P=3.27 × 10-8), 19p13.3 (rs7254272, P=4.67 × 10-8) and 22q13.33 (rs140522, P=2.70 × 10-9). These new and established risk loci map to areas of active chromatin and show an over-representation of transcription factor binding for the key determinants of B-cell development and immune response.


Assuntos
Formação de Anticorpos/genética , Cromossomos Humanos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Clin Oncol ; 34(34): 4071-4078, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27621404

RESUMO

Purpose Massively parallel sequencing allows simultaneous testing of multiple genes associated with cancer susceptibility. Guidelines are available for variant classification; however, interpretation of these guidelines by laboratories and providers may differ and lead to conflicting reporting and, potentially, to inappropriate medical management. We describe conflicting variant interpretations between Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-approved commercial clinical laboratories, as reported to the Prospective Registry of Multiplex Testing (PROMPT), an online genetic registry. Methods Clinical data and genetic testing results were gathered from 1,191 individuals tested for inherited cancer susceptibility and self-enrolled in PROMPT between September 2014 and October 2015. Overall, 518 participants (603 genetic variants) had a result interpreted by more than one laboratory, including at least one submitted to ClinVar, and these were used as the final cohort for the current analysis. Results Of the 603 variants, 221 (37%) were classified as a variant of uncertain significance (VUS), 191 (32%) as pathogenic, and 34 (6%) as benign. The interpretation differed among reporting laboratories for 155 (26%). Conflicting interpretations were most frequently reported for CHEK2 and ATM, followed by RAD51C, PALB2, BARD1, NBN, and BRIP1. Among all participants, 56 of 518 (11%) had a variant with conflicting interpretations ranging from pathogenic/likely pathogenic to VUS, a discrepancy that may alter medical management. Conclusions Conflicting interpretation of genetic findings from multiplex panel testing used in clinical practice is frequent and may have implications for medical management decisions.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/normas , Variação Genética , Genética Médica/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Laboratórios/normas , Neoplasias/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros
17.
PLoS One ; 11(1): e0146435, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751797

RESUMO

We tested for germline variants showing association to colon cancer metastasis using a genome-wide association study that compared Ashkenazi Jewish individuals with stage IV metastatic colon cancers versus those with stage I or II non-metastatic colon cancers. In a two-stage study design, we demonstrated significant association to developing metastatic disease for rs60745952, that in Ashkenazi discovery and validation cohorts, respectively, showed an odds ratio (OR) = 2.3 (P = 2.73E-06) and OR = 1.89 (P = 8.05E-04) (exceeding validation threshold of 0.0044). Significant association to metastatic colon cancer was further confirmed by a meta-analysis of rs60745952 in these datasets plus an additional Ashkenazi validation cohort (OR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.28-2.87), and by a permutation test that demonstrated a significantly longer haplotype surrounding rs60745952 in the stage IV samples. rs60745952, located in an intergenic region on chromosome 4q31.1, and not previously associated with cancer, is, thus, a germline genetic marker for susceptibility to developing colon cancer metastases among Ashkenazi Jews.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 4/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/patologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Metástase Neoplásica/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/etnologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Judeus , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Metástase Neoplásica/patologia , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
JAMA Oncol ; 2(1): 104-11, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26556299

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: Tumor genetic sequencing identifies potentially targetable genetic alterations with therapeutic implications. Analysis has concentrated on detecting tumor-specific variants, but recognition of germline variants may prove valuable as well. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the burden of germline variants identified through routine clinical tumor sequencing. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients with advanced cancer diagnoses eligible for studies of targeted agents at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center are offered tumor-normal sequencing with MSK-IMPACT, a 341-gene panel. We surveyed the germline variants seen in 187 overlapping genes with Mendelian disease associations in 1566 patients who had undergone tumor profiling between March and October 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The number of presumed pathogenic germline variants (PPGVs) and variants of uncertain significance per person in 187 genes associated with single-gene disorders and the proportions of individuals with PPGVs in clinically relevant gene subsets, in genes consistent with known tumor phenotypes, and in genes with evidence of second somatic hits in their tumors. RESULTS: The mean age of the 1566 patients was 58 years, and 54% were women. Presumed pathogenic germline variants in known Mendelian disease-associated genes were identified in 246 of 1566 patients (15.7%; 95% CI, 14.0%-17.6%), including 198 individuals with mutations in genes associated with cancer susceptibility. Germline findings in cancer susceptibility genes were concordant with the individual's cancer type in only 81 of 198 cases (40.9%; 95% CI, 34.3%-47.9%). In individuals with PPGVs retained in the tumor, somatic alteration of the other allele was seen in 39 of 182 cases (21.4%; 95% CI, 16.1%-28.0%), of which 13 cases did not show a known correlation of the germline mutation and a known syndrome. Mutations in non-cancer-related Mendelian disease genes were seen in 55 of 1566 cases (3.5%; 95% CI, 27.1%-45.4%). Almost every individual had more than 1 variant of uncertain significance (1565 of 1566 patients; 99.9%; 95% CI, 99.6%-99.9%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Germline variants are common in individuals undergoing tumor-normal sequencing and may reveal otherwise unsuspected syndromic associations.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS One ; 9(2): e89253, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24586633

RESUMO

Epilepsy constitutes a heterogeneous group of disorders that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures due to widely different etiologies. Multidrug resistance remains a major issue in clinical epileptology, where one third of patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. Role of efflux transporters in multidrug resistant epilepsy has been attributed to drug-resistant epilepsy although, with discrepant observation in genetic studies. These discrepancies could be attributed to variety of factors such as variable definition of the anti-epileptic drug (AED)-resistance, variable epilepsy phenotypes and ethnicities among the studies. In the present study we inquired the role of multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants in determining AED-resistance and susceptibility to epilepsy in three well-characterized cohorts comprising of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype for AED-resistant epilepsy); juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) (prototype for AED-responsive epilepsy); and healthy non-epileptic controls, in 738 subjects of Malayalam speaking south Indian ancestry. ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants were not found to be associated with drug resistance when AED-resistant and AED-responsive cohorts were compared. However, a significant association was observed between ABCB1 (C3435T) rs1045642 and risk of having epilepsy (MTLE-HS and JME pooled cohort; genotypic p-value = 0.0002; allelic p-value = 0.004). This association was seen persistent with MTLE-HS (genotypic p-value = 0.0008; allelic p-value = 0.004) and also with JME (genotypic p-value = 0.01; allelic p-value = 0.05) cohort individually. In-silico functional prediction indicated that ABCB1 rs1045642 has a deleterious impact on protein coding function and in splicing regulation. We conclude that the ABCB1 and ABCG2 variants do not confer to AED-resistance in the study population. However, ABCB1 rs1045642 increases vulnerability to epilepsy with greater tendency for MTLE-HS in south Indian ancestry from Kerala.


Assuntos
Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Pharmacogenet Genomics ; 23(11): 605-10, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24061200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are known to target the GABA(A) receptor through positive allosteric modulation of the receptors, thereby enhancing GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition. The large diversity of GABA(A) receptors has been reported in the central nervous system; some of these have been implicated in epilepsy susceptibility and AED resistance, which we aimed to examine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in GABA(A) receptor subunit subtype genes namely; rs2279020 (GABRA1), rs3219151 (GABRA6), rs2229944 (GABRB2), and rs211037 (GABRG2) with predisposition to epilepsy and AED resistance. This was assessed in three cohorts of ethnically matched South Indian ancestry: mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS) (prototype of AED-resistant epilepsy syndrome), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (prototype of AED-responsive epilepsy syndrome), and nonepilepsy controls. RESULTS: A significant allelic (P=0.0006, odds ratio=1.6, 95% confidence interval=1.22-2.08) and genotypic (P=0.001) association of a synonymous variant in GABRG2, rs211037 (Asn196Asn) was observed with epilepsy irrespective of its phenotype, that is, MTLE-HS or juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. However, this association was not retained in epilepsy patients with a history of febrile seizures. The GABA(A) receptor subunit subtype genes were not found to have any association with AED resistance. In-silico analysis indicated that rs211037 plays a significant role in the transcriptional regulation and splicing regulation. CONCLUSION: We could substantiate that among the GABA(A) receptor subunit gene cluster polymorphisms, the GABRG2, rs211037 predisposes susceptibility to epilepsy, irrespective of its phenotype, but not to AED resistance.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Epilepsia/genética , Receptores de GABA-A/genética , Convulsões Febris/tratamento farmacológico , Convulsões Febris/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia do Lobo Temporal/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Epilepsia Mioclônica Juvenil/tratamento farmacológico , Epilepsia Mioclônica Juvenil/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esclerose , Adulto Jovem
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