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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(4): 854-868, 2019 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585109

RESUMO

Cadherins constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that mediate calcium-dependent cell-cell adhesion. The extracellular domain of cadherins consists of extracellular cadherin (EC) domains, separated by calcium binding sites. The EC interacts with other cadherin molecules in cis and in trans to mechanically hold apposing cell surfaces together. CDH2 encodes N-cadherin, whose essential roles in neural development include neuronal migration and axon pathfinding. However, CDH2 has not yet been linked to a Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorder. Here, we report de novo heterozygous pathogenic variants (seven missense, two frameshift) in CDH2 in nine individuals with a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, variable axon pathfinding defects (corpus callosum agenesis or hypoplasia, mirror movements, Duane anomaly), and ocular, cardiac, and genital anomalies. All seven missense variants (c.1057G>A [p.Asp353Asn]; c.1789G>A [p.Asp597Asn]; c.1789G>T [p.Asp597Tyr]; c.1802A>C [p.Asn601Thr]; c.1839C>G [p.Cys613Trp]; c.1880A>G [p.Asp627Gly]; c.2027A>G [p.Tyr676Cys]) result in substitution of highly conserved residues, and six of seven cluster within EC domains 4 and 5. Four of the substitutions affect the calcium-binding site in the EC4-EC5 interdomain. We show that cells expressing these variants in the EC4-EC5 domains have a defect in cell-cell adhesion; this defect includes impaired binding in trans with N-cadherin-WT expressed on apposing cells. The two frameshift variants (c.2563_2564delCT [p.Leu855Valfs∗4]; c.2564_2567dupTGTT [p.Leu856Phefs∗5]) are predicted to lead to a truncated cytoplasmic domain. Our study demonstrates that de novo heterozygous variants in CDH2 impair the adhesive activity of N-cadherin, resulting in a multisystemic developmental disorder, that could be named ACOG syndrome (agenesis of corpus callosum, axon pathfinding, cardiac, ocular, and genital defects).

2.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The X-chromosome gene USP9X encodes a deubiquitylating enzyme that has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders primarily in female subjects. USP9X escapes X inactivation, and in female subjects de novo heterozygous copy number loss or truncating mutations cause haploinsufficiency culminating in a recognizable syndrome with intellectual disability and signature brain and congenital abnormalities. In contrast, the involvement of USP9X in male neurodevelopmental disorders remains tentative. METHODS: We used clinically recommended guidelines to collect and interrogate the pathogenicity of 44 USP9X variants associated with neurodevelopmental disorders in males. Functional studies in patient-derived cell lines and mice were used to determine mechanisms of pathology. RESULTS: Twelve missense variants showed strong evidence of pathogenicity. We define a characteristic phenotype of the central nervous system (white matter disturbances, thin corpus callosum, and widened ventricles); global delay with significant alteration of speech, language, and behavior; hypotonia; joint hypermobility; visual system defects; and other common congenital and dysmorphic features. Comparison of in silico and phenotypical features align additional variants of unknown significance with likely pathogenicity. In support of partial loss-of-function mechanisms, using patient-derived cell lines, we show loss of only specific USP9X substrates that regulate neurodevelopmental signaling pathways and a united defect in transforming growth factor ß signaling. In addition, we find correlates of the male phenotype in Usp9x brain-specific knockout mice, and further resolve loss of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate the involvement of USP9X variants in a distinctive neurodevelopmental and behavioral syndrome in male subjects and identify plausible mechanisms of pathogenesis centered on disrupted transforming growth factor ß signaling and hippocampal function.

3.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20092, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422574

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies, organised germline screening, independent of the personal and family cancer history, has been frequently proposed. Since ethnic and geographic populations significantly differ in their mutation spectra and prevalence, one critical prerequisite would be the knowledge of the expected carrier frequencies. OBJECTIVE: For the first time, in a retrospective non-cancer related cohort from a single Swiss genetic centre, we systematically assessed the prevalence of secondary findings in 19 genes (BRCA1/2 plus 17 non-BRCA genes) previously designated by the US National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) germline testing. DESIGN: A total of 400 individuals without a cancer diagnosis undergoing whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) from 2015 to 2017 at IMG Zurich were included after quality assessment. Among these, 180 were unaffected parental couples, 27 unaffected parental singles and 13 NDD index patients (mean age 43 years). The majority of the cohort was of Caucasian ethnicity (n = 336, 84.0%) and of Northwest European ancestry (n = 202, 50.5%), for 70 of whom (42.5%) an autochthonous Swiss descent was assumed. For WES filtering of rare, potentially actionable secondary variants in HBOC genes, an overall minor allele frequency (MAF) below 0.65% was used as cut-off. Each rare variant was manually evaluated according to the recommended ACGM-AMP standards, with some adaptations including “hypomorphic” as an additional distinct pathogenicity class. RESULTS: Overall, 526 rare secondary variants (339 different variants) were encountered, with the BRCA1/2 genes accounting for 27.2% of the total variant yield. If stratified for variant pathogenicity, for BRCA1/2, three pathogenic variants were found in three females of Italian ancestry (carrier frequency of 0.8%). In the non-BRCA genes, five carriers of (likely) pathogenic variants (1.3%) were identified, with two Swiss individuals harbouring the same CHEK2 Arg160Gly variant known to be recurrent among Caucasians. Hence, the overall carrier rate added up to 2.0%. Additionally, seven various hypomorphic HBOC predisposing alleles were detected in 22 individuals (5.5%). CONCLUSION: We provide the first evidence of a high prevalence of HBOC-related cancer susceptibility in the heterogeneous Swiss general population and relevant subpopulations, particularly in individuals of Italian descent. These pioneering data may substantiate population-based HBOC screening in Switzerland.

4.
J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab ; 32(9): 1027-1030, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271559

RESUMO

GATA6 gene variants come along with possible features such as pancreas agenesis/hypoplasia, neonatal diabetes and congenital heart defect. Congenital hypothyroidism, and hepatobiliary and gut abnormalities are also detectable. Children with congenital heart defects and neonatal diabetes were already described in 1970. GATA6 variants can be due to de novo variants or due to inherited variants. To date, 11 cases due to an inherited variant have been described. Herein we present a novel heterozygous GATA6 variant (c.1291C > T p.[Gln431*]) in a boy with transient neonatal diabetes, diaphragmatic hernia, congenital heart defect and early-onset scoliosis. The same variant was also present in the mother. At the age of 3 years, a random evaluation revealed a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level of 7.8% (62 mmol/mol) without any diabetes-related symptoms. He was started on insulin therapy and HbA1c normalized. A short review of the literature of hereditary cases of the GATA6 variant revealed the variable phenotypic spectrum and showed that patients with a mild phenotype are likely to have children with a more severe phenotype.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(6): 1210-1222, 2019 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079897

RESUMO

We delineate a KMT2E-related neurodevelopmental disorder on the basis of 38 individuals in 36 families. This study includes 31 distinct heterozygous variants in KMT2E (28 ascertained from Matchmaker Exchange and three previously reported), and four individuals with chromosome 7q22.2-22.23 microdeletions encompassing KMT2E (one previously reported). Almost all variants occurred de novo, and most were truncating. Most affected individuals with protein-truncating variants presented with mild intellectual disability. One-quarter of individuals met criteria for autism. Additional common features include macrocephaly, hypotonia, functional gastrointestinal abnormalities, and a subtle facial gestalt. Epilepsy was present in about one-fifth of individuals with truncating variants and was responsive to treatment with anti-epileptic medications in almost all. More than 70% of the individuals were male, and expressivity was variable by sex; epilepsy was more common in females and autism more common in males. The four individuals with microdeletions encompassing KMT2E generally presented similarly to those with truncating variants, but the degree of developmental delay was greater. The group of four individuals with missense variants in KMT2E presented with the most severe developmental delays. Epilepsy was present in all individuals with missense variants, often manifesting as treatment-resistant infantile epileptic encephalopathy. Microcephaly was also common in this group. Haploinsufficiency versus gain-of-function or dominant-negative effects specific to these missense variants in KMT2E might explain this divergence in phenotype, but requires independent validation. Disruptive variants in KMT2E are an under-recognized cause of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2043-2058, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30842647

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Microcephaly is a sign of many genetic conditions but has been rarely systematically evaluated. We therefore comprehensively studied the clinical and genetic landscape of an unselected cohort of patients with microcephaly. METHODS: We performed clinical assessment, high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis, exome sequencing, and functional studies in 62 patients (58% with primary microcephaly [PM], 27% with secondary microcephaly [SM], and 15% of unknown onset). RESULTS: We found severity of developmental delay/intellectual disability correlating with severity of microcephaly in PM, but not SM. We detected causative variants in 48.4% of patients and found divergent inheritance and variant pattern for PM (mainly recessive and likely gene-disrupting [LGD]) versus SM (all dominant de novo and evenly LGD or missense). While centrosome-related pathways were solely identified in PM, transcriptional regulation was the most frequently affected pathway in both SM and PM. Unexpectedly, we found causative variants in different mitochondria-related genes accounting for ~5% of patients, which emphasizes their role even in syndromic PM. Additionally, we delineated novel candidate genes involved in centrosome-related pathway (SPAG5, TEDC1), Wnt signaling (VPS26A, ZNRF3), and RNA trafficking (DDX1). CONCLUSION: Our findings enable improved evaluation and genetic counseling of PM and SM patients and further elucidate microcephaly pathways.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 701-708, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879638

RESUMO

Developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD and ID) are heterogeneous phenotypes that arise in many rare monogenic disorders. Because of this rarity, developing cohorts with enough individuals to robustly identify disease-associated genes is challenging. Social-media platforms that facilitate data sharing among sequencing labs can help to address this challenge. Through one such tool, GeneMatcher, we identified nine DD- and/or ID-affected probands with a rare, heterozygous variant in the gene encoding the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRSK2. All probands have a speech delay, and most present with intellectual disability, motor delay, behavioral issues, and autism. Six of the nine variants are predicted to result in loss of function, and computational modeling predicts that the remaining three missense variants are damaging to BRSK2 structure and function. All nine variants are absent from large variant databases, and BRSK2 is, in general, relatively intolerant to protein-altering variation among humans. In all six probands for whom parents were available, the mutations were found to have arisen de novo. Five of these de novo variants were from cohorts with at least 400 sequenced probands; collectively, the cohorts span 3,429 probands, and the observed rate of de novo variation in these cohorts is significantly higher than the estimated background-mutation rate (p = 2.46 × 10-6). We also find that exome sequencing provides lower coverage and appears less sensitive to rare variation in BRSK2 than does genome sequencing; this fact most likely reduces BRSK2's visibility in many clinical and research sequencing efforts. Altogether, our results implicate damaging variation in BRSK2 as a source of neurodevelopmental disease.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 747-759, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664714

RESUMO

CYFIP2, encoding the evolutionary highly conserved cytoplasmic FMRP interacting protein 2, has previously been proposed as a candidate gene for intellectual disability and autism because of its important role linking FMRP-dependent transcription regulation and actin polymerization via the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC). Recently, de novo variants affecting the amino acid p.Arg87 of CYFIP2 were reported in four individuals with epileptic encephalopathy. We here report 12 independent patients harboring a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 broadening the molecular and clinical spectrum of a novel CYFIP2-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Using trio whole-exome or -genome sequencing, we identified 12 independent patients carrying a total of eight distinct de novo variants in CYFIP2 with a shared phenotype of intellectual disability, seizures, and muscular hypotonia. We detected seven different missense variants, of which two occurred recurrently (p.(Arg87Cys) and p.(Ile664Met)), and a splice donor variant in the last intron for which we showed exon skipping in the transcript. The latter is expected to escape nonsense-mediated mRNA decay resulting in a truncated protein. Despite the large spacing in the primary structure, the variants spatially cluster in the tertiary structure and are all predicted to weaken the interaction with WAVE1 or NCKAP1 of the actin polymerization regulating WRC-complex. Preliminary genotype-phenotype correlation indicates a profound phenotype in p.Arg87 substitutions and a more variable phenotype in other alterations. This study evidenced a variety of de novo variants in CYFIP2 as a novel cause of mostly severe intellectual disability with seizures and muscular hypotonia.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(3): 408-421, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552426

RESUMO

Early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EE) and combined developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (DEE) are clinically and genetically heterogeneous severely devastating conditions. Recent studies emphasized de novo variants as major underlying cause suggesting a generally low-recurrence risk. In order to better understand the full genetic landscape of EE and DEE, we performed high-resolution chromosomal microarray analysis in combination with whole-exome sequencing in 63 deeply phenotyped independent patients. After bioinformatic filtering for rare variants, diagnostic yield was improved for recessive disorders by manual data curation as well as molecular modeling of missense variants and untargeted plasma-metabolomics in selected patients. In total, we yielded a diagnosis in ∼42% of cases with causative copy number variants in 6 patients (∼10%) and causative sequence variants in 16 established disease genes in 20 patients (∼32%), including compound heterozygosity for causative sequence and copy number variants in one patient. In total, 38% of diagnosed cases were caused by recessive genes, of which two cases escaped automatic calling due to one allele occurring de novo. Notably, we found the recessive gene SPATA5 causative in as much as 3% of our cohort, indicating that it may have been underdiagnosed in previous studies. We further support candidacy for neurodevelopmental disorders of four previously described genes (PIK3AP1, GTF3C3, UFC1, and WRAP53), three of which also followed a recessive inheritance pattern. Our results therefore confirm the importance of de novo causative gene variants in EE/DEE, but additionally illustrate the major role of mostly compound heterozygous or hemizygous recessive inheritance and consequently high-recurrence risk.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Epilepsia/genética , Taxa de Mutação , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Exoma , Feminino , Genes Recessivos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(6): 948-967, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526868

RESUMO

Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous conditions due to defects in genes involved in development and function of the nervous system. Individuals with NDD, in addition to their primary neurodevelopmental phenotype, may also have accompanying syndromic features that can be very helpful diagnostically especially those with recognizable facial appearance. In this study, we describe ten similarly affected individuals from six unrelated families of different ethnic origins having bi-allelic truncating variants in TMEM94, which encodes for an uncharacterized transmembrane nuclear protein that is highly conserved across mammals. The affected individuals manifested with global developmental delay/intellectual disability, and dysmorphic facial features including triangular face, deep set eyes, broad nasal root and tip and anteverted nostrils, thick arched eye brows, hypertrichosis, pointed chin, and hypertelorism. Birthweight in the upper normal range was observed in most, and all but one had congenital heart defects (CHD). Gene expression analysis in available cells from affected individuals showed reduced expression of TMEM94. Global transcriptome profiling using microarray and RNA sequencing revealed several dysregulated genes essential for cell growth, proliferation and survival that are predicted to have an impact on cardiotoxicity hematological system and neurodevelopment. Loss of Tmem94 in mouse model generated by CRISPR/Cas9 was embryonic lethal and led to craniofacial and cardiac abnormalities and abnormal neuronal migration pattern, suggesting that this gene is important in craniofacial, cardiovascular, and nervous system development. Our study suggests the genetic etiology of a recognizable dysmorphic syndrome with NDD and CHD and highlights the role of TMEM94 in early development.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertelorismo/genética , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 305-316, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057029

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing combined with international data sharing has enormously facilitated identification of new disease-associated genes and mutations. This is particularly true for genetically extremely heterogeneous entities such as neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Through exome sequencing and world-wide collaborations, we identified and assembled 20 individuals with de novo variants in FBXO11. They present with mild to severe developmental delay associated with a range of features including short (4/20) or tall (2/20) stature, obesity (5/20), microcephaly (4/19) or macrocephaly (2/19), behavioral problems (17/20), seizures (5/20), cleft lip or palate or bifid uvula (3/20), and minor skeletal anomalies. FBXO11 encodes a member of the F-Box protein family, constituting a subunit of an E3-ubiquitin ligase complex. This complex is involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus in controlling critical biological processes by regulating protein turnover. The identified de novo aberrations comprise two large deletions, ten likely gene disrupting variants, and eight missense variants distributed throughout FBXO11. Structural modeling for missense variants located in the CASH or the Zinc-finger UBR domains suggests destabilization of the protein. This, in combination with the observed spectrum and localization of identified variants and the lack of apparent genotype-phenotype correlations, is compatible with loss of function or haploinsufficiency as an underlying mechanism. We implicate de novo missense and likely gene disrupting variants in FBXO11 in a neurodevelopmental disorder with variable intellectual disability and various other features.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 959-964, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737001

RESUMO

Primrose syndrome (PS) is a rare disorder characterized by macrocephaly, tall stature, intellectual disability, autistic traits, and disturbances of glucose metabolism with insulin-resistant diabetes and distal muscle wasting occurring in adulthood. The disorder is caused by functional dysregulation of ZBTB20, a transcriptional repressor controlling energetic metabolism and developmental programs. ZBTB20 maps in a genomic region that is deleted in the 3q13.31 microdeletion syndrome, which explains the clinical overlap between the two disorders. A narrow spectrum of amino acid substitutions in a restricted region of ZBTB20 encompassing the first and second zinc-finger motifs have been reported thus far. Here, we characterize clinically and functionally the first truncating mutation [(c.1024delC; p.(Gln342Serfs*42)] and a missense change affecting the third zinc-finger motif of the protein [(c.1931C > T; p.(Thr644Ile)]. Our data document that both mutations have dominant negative impact on wild-type ZBTB20, providing further evidence of the specific behavior of PS-causing mutations on ZBTB20 function.

13.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 197-209, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29321670

RESUMO

Acrocallosal syndrome (ACLS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder caused by KIF7 defects and belongs to the heterogeneous group of ciliopathies related to Joubert syndrome (JBTS). While ACLS is characterized by macrocephaly, prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, and hypertelorism, facial dysmorphism has not been emphasized in JBTS cohorts with molecular diagnosis. To evaluate the specificity and etiology of ACLS craniofacial features, we performed whole exome or targeted Sanger sequencing in patients with the aforementioned overlapping craniofacial appearance but variable additional ciliopathy features followed by functional studies. We found (likely) pathogenic variants of KIF7 in 5 out of 9 families, including the original ACLS patients, and delineated 1000 to 4000-year-old Swiss founder alleles. Three of the remaining families had (likely) pathogenic variants in the JBTS gene C5orf42, and one patient had a novel de novo frameshift variant in SHH known to cause autosomal dominant holoprosencephaly. In accordance with the patients' craniofacial anomalies, we showed facial midline widening after silencing of C5orf42 in chicken embryos. We further supported the link between KIF7, SHH, and C5orf42 by demonstrating abnormal primary cilia and diminished response to a SHH agonist in fibroblasts of C5orf42-mutated patients, as well as axonal pathfinding errors in C5orf42-silenced chicken embryos similar to those observed after perturbation of Shh signaling. Our findings, therefore, suggest that beside the neurodevelopmental features, macrocephaly and facial widening are likely more general signs of disturbed SHH signaling. Nevertheless, long-term follow-up revealed that C5orf42-mutated patients showed catch-up development and fainting of facial features contrary to KIF7-mutated patients.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(6): 985-994, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198724

RESUMO

Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) in chromosomal region 20p12 belongs to a gene superfamily encoding TGF-ß-signaling proteins involved in bone and cartilage biology. Monoallelic deletions of 20p12 are variably associated with cleft palate, short stature, and developmental delay. Here, we report a cranioskeletal phenotype due to monoallelic truncating and frameshift BMP2 variants and deletions in 12 individuals from eight unrelated families that share features of short stature, a recognizable craniofacial gestalt, skeletal anomalies, and congenital heart disease. De novo occurrence and autosomal-dominant inheritance of variants, including paternal mosaicism in two affected sisters who inherited a BMP2 splice-altering variant, were observed across all reported families. Additionally, we observed similarity to the human phenotype of short stature and skeletal anomalies in a heterozygous Bmp2-knockout mouse model, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of BMP2 could be the primary phenotypic determinant in individuals with predicted truncating variants and deletions encompassing BMP2. These findings demonstrate the important role of BMP2 in human craniofacial, skeletal, and cardiac development and confirm that individuals heterozygous for BMP2 truncating sequence variants or deletions display a consistent distinct phenotype characterized by short stature and skeletal and cardiac anomalies without neurological deficits.


Assuntos
Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 2/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Nanismo/genética , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Animais , Osso e Ossos/embriologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 20/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Coração/embriologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/genética
15.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0176363, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28463998

RESUMO

Mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction has been identified in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. Infantile cerebellar-retinal degeneration associated with mutations in the mitochondrial aconitase 2 gene (ACO2) has been recently described as a neurodegenerative disease of autosomal recessive inheritance. To date there is no biomarker for ACO2 deficiency and diagnosis relies on genetic analysis. Here we report global metabolic profiling in eight patients with ACO2 deficiency. Using an LC-MS-based metabolomics platform we have identified several metabolites with affected plasma concentrations including the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites cis-aconitate, isocitrate and alpha-ketoglutarate, as well as phosphoenolpyruvate and hydroxybutyrate. Taken together we report a diagnostic metabolic fingerprint for mitochondrial aconitase 2 deficiency.


Assuntos
Aconitato Hidratase/deficiência , Aconitato Hidratase/genética , Ácido Aconítico/sangue , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/sangue , Transtornos Heredodegenerativos do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico , Humanos , Hidroxibutiratos/sangue , Isocitratos/sangue , Ácidos Cetoglutáricos/sangue , Masculino , Metabolômica/métodos , Fosfoenolpiruvato/sangue
16.
J Med Genet ; 54(12): 809-814, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28391250

RESUMO

Vitamin-B6-dependent epilepsies are a heterogenous group of treatable disorders due to mutations in several genes (ALDH7A1, PNPO, ALPL or ALDH4A1). In neonatal seizures, defects in ALDH7A1 and PNPO explain a major fraction of cases. Very recently biallelic mutations in PROSC were shown to be a novel cause in five families. We identified four further unrelated patients harbouring a total of six different mutations, including four novel disease mutations. Vitamin B6 plasma profiles on pyridoxine did not enable the differentiation of patients with PROSC mutations. All four patients were normocephalic and had normal cranial imaging. Pyridoxine monotherapy allowed complete seizure control in one, while two patients had occasional febrile or afebrile seizures and one needed additional valproate therapy for photosensitive seizures. Two patients underwent a controlled pyridoxine withdrawal with signs of encephalopathy within a couple of days. Three had favourable outcome with normal intellectual properties at age 12.5, 15.5 and 30 years, respectively, while one child had marked developmental delay at age 27 months. The clinical and electroencephalographic phenotype in patients with PROSC mutations was indistinguishable from ALDH7A1 and PNPO deficiency. We therefore confirm PROSC as a novel gene for vitamin-B6-dependent epilepsy and delineate a non-specific plasma vitamin B6 profile under pyridoxine treatment.


Assuntos
Epilepsia/etiologia , Epilepsia/metabolismo , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Proteínas/genética , Vitamina B 6/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Eletroencefalografia , Epilepsia/diagnóstico , Epilepsia/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Piridoxina/uso terapêutico , Vitamina B 6/sangue
18.
J Med Genet ; 54(1): 64-72, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27572252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruptions of the FOXP2 gene, encoding a forkhead transcription factor, are the first known monogenic cause of a speech and language disorder. So far, mainly chromosomal rearrangements such as translocations or larger deletions affecting FOXP2 have been reported. Intragenic deletions or convincingly pathogenic point mutations in FOXP2 have up to date only been reported in three families. We thus aimed at a further characterisation of the mutational and clinical spectrum. METHODS: Chromosomal microarray testing, trio exome sequencing, multigene panel sequencing and targeted sequencing of FOXP2 were performed in individuals with variable developmental disorders, and speech and language deficits. RESULTS: We identified four different truncating mutations, two novel missense mutations within the forkhead domain and an intragenic deletion in FOXP2 in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families. Mutations occurred de novo in four families and were inherited from an affected parent in the other four. All index patients presented with various manifestations of language and speech impairment. Apart from two individuals with normal onset of speech, age of first words was between 4 and 7 years. Articulation difficulties such as slurred speech, dyspraxia, stuttering and poor pronunciation were frequently noted. Motor development was normal or only mildly delayed. Mild cognitive impairment was reported for most individuals. CONCLUSIONS: By identifying intragenic deletions or mutations in 14 individuals from eight unrelated families with variable developmental delay/cognitive impairment and speech and language deficits, we considerably broaden the mutational and clinical spectrum associated with aberrations in FOXP2.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Transtornos da Linguagem/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Mutação Puntual/genética , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Distúrbios da Fala/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fala/fisiologia
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(2): 392-402, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26545172

RESUMO

Hypomorphic germline mutations in the PIGA (phosphatidylinositol glycan class A) gene recently were recognized as the cause of a clinically heterogeneous spectrum of X-linked disorders including (i) early onset epileptic encephalopathy with severe muscular hypotonia, dysmorphism, multiple congenital anomalies, and early death ("MCAHS2"), (ii) neurodegenerative encephalopathy with systemic iron overload (ferro-cerebro-cutaneous syndrome, "FCCS"), and (iii) intellectual disability and seizures without dysmorphism. Previous studies showed that the recurrent PIGA germline mutation c.1234C>T (p.Arg412*) leads to a clinical phenotype at the most severe end of the spectrum associated with early infantile lethality. We identified three additional individuals from two unrelated families with the same PIGA mutation. Major clinical findings include early onset intractable epileptic encephalopathy with a burst-suppression pattern on EEG, generalized muscular hypotonia, structural brain abnormalities, macrocephaly and increased birth weight, joint contractures, coarse facial features, widely spaced eyes, a short nose with anteverted nares, gingival overgrowth, a wide mouth, short limbs with short distal phalanges, and a small penis. Based on the phenotypic overlap with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 2 (SGBS2), we hypothesized that both disorders might have the same underlying cause. We were able to confirm the same c.1234C>T (p.Arg412*) mutation in the DNA sample from an affected fetus of the original family affected with SGBS2. We conclude that the recurrent PIGA germline mutation c.1234C>T leads to a recognizable clinical phenotype with a poor prognosis and is the cause of SGBS2.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo
20.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 39(1): 131-7, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174906

RESUMO

Clinical metabolomics has emerged as a powerful tool to study human metabolism in health and disease. Comparative statistical analysis of untargeted metabolic profiles can reveal perturbations of metabolite levels in diseases and thus has the potential to identify novel biomarkers. Here we have applied a simultaneous genetic-metabolomic approach in twin boys with epileptic encephalopathy of unclear etiology. Clinical exome sequencing identified a novel missense mutation in the spermine synthase gene (SMS) that causes Snyder-Robinson syndrome (SRS). Untargeted plasma metabolome analysis revealed significantly elevated levels of N(8)-acetylspermidine, a precursor derivative of spermine biosynthesis, as a potential novel plasma biomarker for SRS. This result was verified in a third patient with genetically confirmed SRS. This study illustrates the potential of metabolomics as a translational technique to support exome data on a functional and clinical level.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/sangue , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Plasma/metabolismo , Espermidina/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Metaboloma/genética , Metabolômica/métodos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Linhagem , Espermidina/sangue , Espermina Sintase/genética
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