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1.
Langmuir ; 37(2): 603-604, 2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461298
2.
Langmuir ; 36(48): 14849-14863, 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241688

RESUMO

In this work, we study the effect of the deformation field on the physical aging behavior of an aqueous Carbopol dispersion. It is composed of soft swollen particles of gel that get deformed and acquire a polygonal shape, with flat interfaces rendering the dispersion a soft solid-like consistency as filled volume fraction approaches unity. It has been proposed that owing to release of stored elastic energy in the deformed particles, Carbopol dispersion undergoes microstructural evolution that is reminiscent of physical aging in soft glassy materials. We observe that application of moderate magnitude of oscillatory strain to Carbopol dispersion slows down its relaxation dynamics, thereby showing characteristics of overaging. On the other hand, the sufficiently high magnitude of strain makes the relaxation dynamics faster, causing rejuvenation. We also solve the soft glassy rheology model, which, when subjected to the same flow field, corroborates with experimental observations on the Carbopol dispersion. This behavior, therefore, suggests that in a system of jammed soft particles of Carbopol, the particles occupying shallow energy wells upon application of moderate strain field adjust themselves in such a manner that they predominantly occupy the deeper energy wells leading to observe the overaging dynamics.

3.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci ; 282: 102179, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622151

RESUMO

A review is presented on the topic of two-step yielding observed in complex fluids that cover a broad variety of materials ranging from colloidal gels, attractive glasses, emulsions, suspensions, and several commercial paste-like materials. The common features in various systems displaying two-step yielding behavior are the presence of two characteristic forces between the interacting particles or two varying representative length or time scales. This focused review aims to provide physical insights, mechanistic understanding of the two-step yielding and other associated rheological consequences of this nonlinear behavior. A discussion is provided on the microstructural details with an overview of different experimental systems exhibiting double-yielding studied so far highlighting the similarities and differences among them. Particularly, the effects of continuous phase properties, dispersed particle phase factors (size, shape, softness and surface charge) and external force field (electric, magnetic, thermal and shear flows) on two-step yielding are considered.

4.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(22): 224002, 2020 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015220

RESUMO

In this work, we investigate the physical origin of ergodicity breaking in an aqueous colloidal dispersion of synthetic hectorite clay, LAPONITE®, by performing dissolution and rheological experiments with monovalent salt and tetrasodium pyrophosphate solution. We also study the effect of pH and nature of interface, nitrogen and paraffin oil on the same. Dissolution experiments carried out for dispersions with both the interfaces show similar results. However, for samples with a nitrogen interface, all the effects are observed to get expedited in time compared to a paraffin oil interface. When kept in contact with water, 1.5 wt.% and 2.8 wt.% colloidal dispersion at pH 10 swells at small ages, while it does not swell at large ages. The solution of tetrasodium pyrophosphate, interestingly, dissolves the entire colloidal dispersion sample with pH 10 irrespective of the concentration of clay. Experiments carried out on colloidal dispersions prepared in water having pH 13 demonstrate no effect of water as well as sodium pyrophosphate solution on the same suggesting a possibility of the presence of negative charge on edge at that pH. We believe that all the behaviors observed for samples at pH 10 can be explained by an attractive gel microstructure formed by edge-to-face contact. Furthermore, the absence of swelling in old colloidal dispersion at pH 10 and dissolution of the same by sodium pyrophosphate solution cannot be explained by merely repulsive interactions. This behavior suggests that attractive interactions originating from edge-to-face contact play an important role in causing ergodicity breaking in the colloidal dispersions at pH 10 at all the ages irrespective of the clay concentration. We further substantiate the presence of a fractal network structure formed by interparticle edge-face association using rheological tools and cryo-TEM imaging. We also conduct a comprehensive study of the effect of tetrasodium pyrophosphate on the sol-gel transition of LAPONITE® dispersion.

5.
Langmuir ; 35(33): 10927-10936, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31347847

RESUMO

Bijels (bicontinuous interfacially jammed emulsion gels) have the potential to be useful in many different applications due to their internal connectivity and the possibility of efficient mass transport through the channels. Recently, new methods of making the bijel have been proposed, which simplify the fabrication process, making commercial application more realistic. Here, we study the flow properties of bijels prepared by mixing alone using oscillatory rheology combined with confocal microscopy and also squeezing flow experiments. We found that the bijel undergoes a two-step yielding process where the first step corresponds to the fluidizing of the interface, allowing the motion of the structure, and the second step corresponds to the breaking of the structure. In the squeeze flow experiments, the yield stress of the bijel is observed to show a power law dependence on squeezing speed. However, when stress in excess of yield stress is plotted against shear rate, all the different squeeze flow data show a superposition.

6.
Soft Matter ; 15(28): 5739-5747, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268461

RESUMO

In the present study, the adhesive and viscoelastic properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based nanocomposite pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with embedded electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers as fillers were investigated. PDMS nanocomposite adhesive films using PAN and PVA nanofibers were synthesized by dispersing fillers in the matrix by a solvent mixing process. The adhesion strength and reusability of the prepared nanocomposite PSA films were measured using peel tests as the fraction of nanofibers in the polymer matrix is increased. The variations of the adhesive properties of the PSAs as function of the type and loading of filler were related to their rheological properties in terms of shear and elastic moduli. Although 3-fold enhancement of the adhesion strength was achieved with 0.5 wt% loading for both types (PAN and PVA) of nanocomposites as compared to elastic PDMS, the composite adhesive with PAN nanofibers can provide a superior balance of rheological properties, resulting in improved reusability over other PSAs. The differences in the adhesion and viscoelastic properties of the composite PSAs are attributed to the polymer chemistry, processability, and architecture of the electrospun nanofibers in the soft PDMS matrix.

7.
Soft Matter ; 15(24): 4915-4920, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168543

RESUMO

Yielding transition in isotropic soft materials under the superposition of orthogonal deformation fields is known to follow von Mises' criterion. However, in anisotropic soft materials, von Mises' criterion fails owing to the preferred directions associated with the system. In this work we study a model anisotropic yield stress system: electrorheological (ER) fluids which show structural formation in the direction of an electric field. We subject the ER fluids to the superposition of orthogonal stress fields which leads to different yield stress values. We obtain a yielding state diagram by plotting the normalized rotational shear stress against the normalized radial shear stress corresponding to a yield point for a given electric field. Remarkably, the state diagram validates the Hill yielding criterion, which is a general yielding criterion for materials with anisotropy along three orthogonal directions, originally developed for metallic systems. Validation of Hill's criterion suggests the universality of its application in anisotropic systems including conventional anisotropic soft materials having yield stress.

8.
Indian J Microbiol ; 59(1): 3-12, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30728625

RESUMO

Biofilm is a mode of living employed by many pathogenic and environmental microbes to proliferate as multicellular aggregates on inert inanimate or biological substrates. Several microbial diseases are associated with biofilms that pose challenges in treatment with antibiotics targeting individual cells. Bacteria in biofilms secrete exopolymeric substances that contribute to architectural stability and provide a secure niche to inhabiting cells. Quorum sensing (QS) plays essential roles in biofilm development. Pathogenic bacteria in biofilms utilize QS mechanisms to activate virulence and develop antibiotic resistance. This review is a brief overview of biofilm research and provides updates on recent understandings on biofilm development, antibiotic resistance and transmission, and importance of QS mechanisms. Strategies to combat biofilm associated diseases including anti-biofilm substances, quorum quenching molecules, bio-surfactants and competitive inhibitors are briefly discussed. The review concludes with updates on recent approaches utilized for biofilm inhibition and provides perspectives for further research in the field.

9.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 8(3): 495-505, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30276147

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of thermal processing and antioxidant formulation variables on the abuse deterrence performance of a high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer. Methods: A 24 factorial design with one categorical factor (antioxidant type) and three continuous factors (curing time, curing temperature, % antioxidant) was used. Abuse deterrence performance was evaluated using solution viscosity, surface melting temperature, and mechanical strength. Thermal degradation of PEO powders before compaction was also studied using DSC, FTIR spectroscopy, and viscosity analysis. Results: Our results showed that curing temperature and type of antioxidant can significantly affect the deterrence performance of PEO. The main effect plot for viscosity shows the most prominent factors affecting viscosity are curing temperature and type of antioxidant. However, curvature in the linear model obtained was not sufficient to completely describe the behavior. For surface melting temperature, butylated hydroxytoluene was associated with higher surface melting temperatures compared to ascorbic acid. Additionally, higher percent of antioxidant resulted in higher melting temperature. Particle size distribution to indicate mechanical strength showed no significant effects of tested factors. This suggests that comminution method has more prominent effect on tablet fragment size than the formulation and processing factors studied. Conclusion: While heat confers the mechanical strength to the polymer, it can diminish its physical stability and solution state viscosity. The experimental studies showed that prolonged exposure to high temperatures, even in the presence of antioxidants, can severely hamper polymer deterrence performance in both solid and solution states.

10.
Langmuir ; 34(44): 13079-13103, 2018 11 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180583

RESUMO

Synthetic hectorite clay Laponite RD/XLG is composed of disk-shaped nanoparticles that acquire dissimilar charges when suspended in an aqueous medium. Owing to their property to spontaneously self-assemble, Laponite is used as a rheology modifier in a variety of commercial water-based products. In particular, an aqueous dispersion of Laponite undergoes a liquid-to-solid transition at about 1 vol % concentration. The evolution of the physical properties as the dispersion transforms to the solid state is reminiscent of physical aging in molecular as well as colloidal glasses. The corresponding soft glassy dynamics of an aqueous Laponite dispersion, including the rheological behavior, has been extensively studied in the literature. In this feature article, we take an overview of recent advances in understanding soft glassy dynamics and various efforts taken to understand the peculiar rheological behavior. Furthermore, the continuously developing microstructure that is responsible for the eventual formation of a soft solid state that supports its own weight against gravity has also been a topic of intense debate and discussion. In particularly, extensive experimental and theoretical studies lead to two types of microstructures for this system: an attractive gel-like or a repulsive glass-like structure. We carefully examine and critically analyze the literature and propose a state (phase) diagram that suggests an aqueous Laponite dispersion to be present in an attractive gel state.

11.
Soft Matter ; 14(38): 7829-7838, 2018 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191946

RESUMO

We investigate surface and sub-surface nanomechanical properties of nanocomposites based on a crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer and electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers. Fabrication of PDMS substrates with anisotropy with respect to surface elasticity and their characterization in terms of local nanomechanical properties are important for many areas of adhesion applications. PDMS nanocomposite substrates with variations in surface elasticity over large areas are prepared by controllably embedding electrospun PAN nanofibers (∼600 nm) in a PDMS matrix using the solution casting technique. Variations of local surface stiffness properties of prepared composites are measured using force spectroscopy and force mapping modes of atomic force microscopy and compared with their macroscopic (bulk) mechanical properties. Since the surface of the prepared nanocomposite is elastically non-homogeneous, our studies are mainly focused on the investigation of the hysteresis (plasticity index) between loading and unloading curves which is a measure of energy dissipation in AFM indentation experiments. The distribution of the local plasticity index in the PAN/PDMS composites is related to the specific organization of electrospun nanofibers at the surface and sub-surface layers of the PDMS matrix. We observed that embedding 0.1-1% PAN nanofibers induces anti-plasticization effects for lower (0.1%) and higher (1%) concentrations of PAN nanofibers which represent the formation of interpenetrating networks and mat-like blended structures of PAN nanofibers within the PDMS matrix.

12.
Langmuir ; 34(12): 3767-3774, 2018 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29505263

RESUMO

Fabrication of large area, multiscale microtextured surfaces engineered for antiadhesion properties remains a challenge. Compared to an elastic surface, viscoelastic solids show much higher surface stickiness, tack, and adhesion owing to the increased contact area and energy dissipation. Here, we show a simple, low cost, large-area and high throughput method with roll-to-roll compatibility to fabricate multiscale, rough microstructures resistant to adhesion in a viscoelastic layer by controlled tearing of viscous film. Even a high adhesive strength viscoelastic solid layer, such as partially cured PDMS, is made nonsticky simply by its controlled tearing. The torn surface shows a fracture induced, self-organized leaflike micropattern resistant to sticking. The topography and adhesion strength of these structures are readily tuned by changing the tearing speed and the film thickness. The microtexture displays a springlike recovery, low adhesive strength, and easy release properties even under the high applied loads.

13.
Microb Pathog ; 115: 12-18, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29223452

RESUMO

In the present study, antimicrobial activity of a common Himalayan lichen viz. Bulbothrix setschwanensis (Zahlbr.) Hale extract in three common solvents (acetone, chloroform and methanol) was evaluated against six bacterial and seven fungal clinical strains. The acetone extract showed promising antimicrobial activity against S. aureus (1.56 mg/mL) and C. neoformans (6.25 mg/mL). Further, GC-MS analysis revealed 2,3-bis(2-methylpentanoyloxy)propyl 2-methylpentanoate and Ethyl 2-[(2R,3R,4aR,8aS)-3-hydroxy-2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a-octahydropyrano [3,2-b]pyran-2-yl]acetate as the predominant compounds. The combination of acetone extract with antibacterial drugs [kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RIF)] and antifungal drugs [amphotericin B (Amp B) and fluconazole (FLC)] showed lysis of S. aureus and C. neoformans at non-inhibitory concentration (FICI values were 0.31 for KAN, 0.18 for RIF, 0.37 for Amp B and 0.30 for FLC, respectively). Notably, the acetone extract confirmed cell wall damage of both S. aureus and C. neoformans cells and was clearly visualized under scanning electron microscopy (SEM), flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Besides this, the three extracts also have less significant cytotoxic activity at MIC concentrations against mammalian cells (HEK-293 and HeLa). This study for the first time suggests that the chemical compounds present in the acetone extract of B. setschwanensis could be used against S. aureus and C. neoformans infections.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus neoformans/efeitos dos fármacos , Líquens/química , Saccharomycetales/metabolismo , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Cryptococcus neoformans/citologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HEK293/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HeLa/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Cinética , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Staphylococcus aureus/citologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Astrophys Space Sci ; 363(12): 260, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30595606

RESUMO

We present the results of time-series photometric analysis of 15106 A-K type stars observed by the Kepler space mission. We identified 513 new rotational variables and measured their starspot rotation periods as a function of spectral type and discuss the distribution of their amplitudes. We examined the well-established period-color relationship that applies to stars of spectral types F5-K for all of these rotational variables and, interestingly, found that a similar period-color relationship appears to extend to stars of spectral types A7 to early-F too. This result is not consistent with the very foundation of the period-color relationship. We have characterized 350 new non-radial pulsating variables such as A- and F-type candidate δ Scuti, γ Doradus and hybrid stars, which increases the known candidate non-radial pulsators in the Kepler field significantly, by ∼20%. The relationship between two recently constructed observables, Energy and Efficiency , was also studied for the large sample of non-radial pulsators, which shows that the distribution in the logarithm of Energy ( log ( En ) ) can be used as a potential tool to distinguish between the non-radial pulsators, to some extent. Through visual inspection of the light curves and their corresponding frequency spectra, we found 23 new candidate red giant solar-like oscillators not previously reported in the literature. The basic physical parameters such as masses, radii and luminosities of these solar-like oscillators were also derived using asteroseismic relations. Electronic Supplementary Material: The online version of this article (10.1007/s10509-018-3480-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

15.
Langmuir ; 33(9): 2370-2377, 2017 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28209059

RESUMO

Investigating microstructure of suspensions with particles having anisotropic shape that share complex interactions is a challenging task leading to competing claims. This work investigates phase behavior of one such system: aqueous Laponite suspension, which is highly contested in the literature, using rheological and microscopic tools. Remarkably, we observe that over a broad range of Laponite (1.4 to 4 wt %) and salt concentrations (0 to 7 mM), the system overwhelmingly demonstrates all the rheological characteristics of the sol-gel transition leading to a percolated network. Analysis of the rheological response leads to fractal dimension that primarily depends on the Laponite concentration. We also obtain the activation energy for gelation, which is observed to decrease with increase in Laponite as well as salt concentration. Significantly, the cryo-TEM images of the postgel state clearly show the presence of a percolated network formed by interparticle bonds. The present work therefore conclusively establishes the system to be in an attractive gel state resolving a long-standing debate in the literature.

16.
Biotechnol Res Int ; 2017: 1925820, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29387490

RESUMO

The study aims to isolate the yeast strains that could be used effectively as baker's yeast and compare them with the commercial baker's yeast available in the market of Nepal. A total of 10 samples including locally available sources like fruits, Murcha, and a local tree "Dar" were collected from different localities of Bhaktapur, Kavre, and Syangja districts of Nepal, respectively. Following enrichment and fermentation of the samples, 26 yeast strains were isolated using selective medium Wallerstein Laboratory Nutrient Agar. From the differential tests which included morphological and microscopic observation and physiological and biochemical characterization such as nitrate reduction and lactose utilization tests, 8 strains were selected as possible Saccharomyces strain. The selected strains were further assessed for their efficient leavening ability by tests such as ethanol tolerance, osmotolerance, invertase test, and stress exclusion test. The three most potent strains ENG, MUR3B, and SUG1 isolated from grape, Murcha, and sugarcane, respectively, were used in the fermentation and baking of dough. These strains also carried a possibility of being used as industrial baker's yeast.

17.
Soft Matter ; 12(39): 8167-8176, 2016 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27604578

RESUMO

We studied the aging dynamics of an aqueous suspension of LAPONITE®, a model time dependent soft glassy material, using a passive microrheology technique. This system is known to undergo physical aging during which its microstructure evolves progressively to explore lower free energy states. Optical microscopy is used to monitor the motion of micron-sized tracer probes embedded in a sample kept between two glass plates. The mean square displacements (MSD) obtained from the motion of the tracer particles show a systematic change from a purely diffusive behavior at short aging times to a subdiffusive behavior as the material ages. Interestingly, the MSDs at all the aging times as well as different LAPONITE® concentrations superpose remarkably to show a time-aging time master curve when the system is transformed from the real time domain to the effective time domain, which is obtained by rescaling the material clock to account for the age dependent relaxation time. The transformation of the master curve from the effective time domain to the real time domain leads to the prediction of the MSD in real time over a span of 5 decades when the measured data at individual aging times are only over 2 decades. Since the MSD obtained from microrheology is proportional to the creep compliance of a material, by using the Boltzmann superposition principle along with the convolution relation in the effective time domain, we predict the stress relaxation behavior of the system in real time. This work shows that the effective time approach applied to microrheology facilitates the prediction of long time creep and relaxation dynamics of a time dependent soft material by carrying out short time experiments at different aging times.

18.
J Chem Phys ; 144(24): 244504, 2016 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27369524

RESUMO

In this work, we solve the Soft Glassy Rheology (SGR) model under application of oscillatory deformation field with varying magnitudes of strain as well as frequency for different noise temperatures. In the glassy domain, the SGR model undergoes time evolution of elastic modulus. Increase in strain magnitude beyond the linear regime is observed to enhance the rate of aging as manifested by a faster evolution of elastic modulus with increase in strain amplitude due to overaging. However at higher strain magnitudes, the rejuvenation effect starts dominating over the aging, thereby reducing the rate at which elastic modulus evolves. We also plot the aging phase diagram describing an occurrence of the linear, the overaging, and the rejuvenation regimes as a function of strain and frequency for different noise temperatures. The aging phase diagram suggests that while the linear regime remains unaffected by the changes in frequency and noise temperature, the width of the overaging regime increases with increase in frequency and noise temperature. We also study the time evolution of the shapes of relaxation time spectra as a function of strain amplitude, which renders further insight into the overaging and the rejuvenation behavior. While the phenomenon of overaging is observed to be an inherent character of the SGR model, experimentally not all the materials demonstrate overaging. Such a discrepancy suggests that the energy well depths before and after a yielding event may not be completely uncorrelated as assumed in the SGR formalism.

19.
J Chromatogr Sci ; 54(9): 1670-1677, 2016 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27418361

RESUMO

A simple, sensitive and precise high-performance thin-layer chromatography method with densitometric detection was used for simultaneous determination of evernic (EV) and (+)-usnic acids (USN) in Usnea aciculifera (UA), U. ghattensis (UG), U. longissima (UL) and U. stigmatoides (US). This method was also validated according to the ICH guidelines. Separation and quantification was performed with the mobile phase toluene-1, 4-dioxane-formic acid (18:4.5:0.2, v/v/v) on silica gel 60F254 plates. The linearity for EV and USN was found in the 200-600 ng/band range. The limit of detection for EV and USN was 51.56 and 32.59 ng/band, while the limit of quantification was 156.23 and 98.76 ng/band, respectively. Intra- and interday precisions (n = 6) for EV and USN were 0.70-1.89 and 0.50-0.76 (%RSD), and 1.56-1.60 and 1.54-1.99 (%RSD), respectively. The mean percent recoveries were 99.66 and 99.87%, respectively, for EV and USN. However, USN was estimated in all four Usnea species but EV only in two species with varied quantity. Comparative antioxidant activity revealed that US is a better free radical scavenger in comparison with other three Usnea species. Furthermore, these results indicated that USN and EV are not solely responsible for antioxidant potential, but it may be due to synergistic effect.

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