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2.
J Pathol ; 2020 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338262

RESUMO

We reported previously that high numbers of mast cells in benign (extra-tumoral) regions of the prostate are associated with worse outcomes after radical prostatectomy including biochemical recurrence and the development of metastases. Herein, with a cohort of 384 men, we performed mast cell subtyping and report that higher minimum number of the tryptase-only (MCT ) subset of extra-tumoral mast cells is associated with increased risk of biochemical recurrence (comparing highest to lowest tertiles: HR 2.32, 95% CI 1.37-3.93; P-trend = 0.002), metastases (HR 3.62, 95% CI 1.75-7.47; P-trend 0.001), and death from prostate cancer (HR 2.87, 95% CI 1.19-6.95; P-trend = 0.02). Preliminary RNA sequencing and comparison of benign versus cancer tissue mast cells revealed differential expression of additional site-specific genes. We further demonstrate that the genes CXCR4 and TFE3 are more highly expressed in tumor-infiltrating mast cells as well as other tumor-infiltrating immune cells and in tumor cells, respectively, and represent an altered tumor microenvironment. KIT variants were also differentially expressed in benign versus cancer tissue mast cells, with KIT variant 1 (GNNK+ ) mast cells identified as more prevalent in extra-tumoral regions of the prostate. Finally, using an established mouse model, we found that mast cells do not infiltrate Hi-Myc tumors, providing a model to specifically examine the role of extra-tumoral mast cells in tumorigenesis. Hi-Myc mice crossed to mast cell knockout (Wsh) mice and aged to 1 year revealed a higher degree of pre-invasive lesions and invasive cancer in wild-type mice versus heterozygous and knockout mice. This suggests a dosage effect where higher numbers of extra-tumoral mast cells resulted in higher cancer invasion. Overall, our studies provide further evidence for a role of extra-tumoral mast cells in driving adverse prostate cancer outcomes. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 396, 2020 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood. METHODS: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models. RESULTS: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m2) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355185

RESUMO

In our prior studies, obesity was associated with shorter telomeres in prostate cancer-associated stromal (CAS) cells, and shorter CAS telomeres were associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death. To determine whether the association between obesity and shorter CAS telomeres is replicable, we conducted a pooled analysis of 790 men who were surgically treated for prostate cancer, whose tissue samples were arrayed on five tissue microarray (TMA) sets. Telomere signal was measured using a quantitative telomere-specific FISH assay and normalized to 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole for 351 CAS cells (mean) per man; men were assigned their median value. Weight and height at surgery, collected via questionnaire or medical record, were used to calculate body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) and categorize men as normal (<25), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30), or obese (≥30). Analyses were stratified by grade and stage. Men were divided into tertiles of TMA- (overall) or TMA- and disease aggressiveness- (stratified) specific distributions; short CAS telomere status was defined by the bottom two tertiles. We used generalized linear mixed models to estimate the association between obesity and short CAS telomeres, adjusting for age, race, TMA set, pathologic stage, and grade. Obesity was not associated with short CAS telomeres overall, or among men with nonaggressive disease. Among men with aggressive disease (Gleason≥4+3 and stage>T2), obese men had a 3-fold increased odds of short CAS telomeres (OR: 3.06; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-8.75; P trend = 0.045) when compared with normal weight men. Telomere shortening in prostate stromal cells may be one mechanism through which lifestyle influences lethal prostate carcinogenesis. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: This study investigates a potential mechanism underlying the association between obesity and prostate cancer death. Among men with aggressive prostate cancer, obesity was associated with shorter telomeres prostate cancer associated stromal cells, and shorter CAS telomeres have been associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer death.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the era of widespread prostate-specific antigen testing, it is important to focus etiologic research on the outcome of aggressive prostate cancer, but studies have defined this outcome differently. We aimed to develop an evidence-based consensus definition of aggressive prostate cancer using clinical features at diagnosis for etiologic epidemiologic research. METHODS: Among prostate cancer cases diagnosed in 2007 in the U.S. SEER-18 database with follow-up through 2017, we compared the performance of categorizations of aggressive prostate cancer in discriminating fatal prostate cancer within 10 years of diagnosis, placing the most emphasis on sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). RESULTS: In our case population (n = 55,900), 3,073 men died of prostate cancer within 10 years. Among 12 definitions that included TNM stage and Gleason score, sensitivities ranged from 0.64 to 0.89 and PPVs ranged from 0.09 to 0.23. We propose defining aggressive prostate cancer as diagnosis of stage T4 or N1 or M1 or Gleason score ≥8 prostate cancer, as this definition had one of the higher PPVs (0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.24) and reasonable sensitivity (0.66, 95% CI 0.64-0.67) for prostate cancer death within 10 years. Results were similar across sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that etiologic epidemiologic studies of prostate cancer report results for this definition of aggressive prostate cancer. We also recommend that studies separately report results for advanced stage (T4 or N1 or M1), high grade (Gleason score ≥8), and fatal prostate cancer. Use of this comprehensive set of endpoints will facilitate comparison of results from different studies and help elucidate prostate cancer etiology.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2617-2625, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity has been associated with longer chronic disease-free life expectancy, but specific cancer types have not been investigated. We examined whether leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (LTPA) and television (TV) viewing were associated with life expectancy cancer-free. METHODS: We included 14,508 participants without a cancer history from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. We used multistate survival models to separately examine associations of LTPA (no LTPA,

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(3): 432-444, 2020 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758450

RESUMO

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano/genética , Medição de Risco , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
8.
Prostate ; 80(12): 1012-1023, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small cell neuroendocrine (NE) carcinomas of the prostate classically lose androgen receptor (AR) expression, may harbor loss of the RB1, TP53, and PTEN tumor suppressor genes, and are associated with a poor prognosis. However usual-type adenocarcinomas may also contain areas of NE differentiation, and in this context the molecular features and biological significance are less certain. METHODS: We examined the molecular phenotype and oncologic outcomes of primary prostate adenocarcinomas with ≥5% NE differentiation (≥5% chromogranin A-positive NE cells in any given tumor spot on tissue microarray) using three independent study sets: a set of tumors with paneth cell-like NE differentiation (n = 26), a retrospective case-cohort of intermediate- and high-risk patients enriched for adverse outcomes (n = 267), and primary tumors from a retrospective series of men with eventual castration-resistant metastatic prostate cancer (CRPC) treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (n = 55). RESULTS: Benign NE cells expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels compared with paired benign luminal cells (P < .001). Similarly, paneth-like NE carcinoma cells or carcinoma cells expressing chromogranin A expressed significantly lower quantified AR levels than paired non-NE carcinoma cells (P < .001). Quantified ERG protein expression, was also lower in chromogranin A-labeled adenocarcinoma cells compared with unlabeled cells (P < .001) and tumors with NE differentiation showed lower gene expression scores for AR activity compared with those without. Despite evidence of lower AR signaling, adenocarcinomas with NE differentiation did not differ by prevalence of TP53 missense mutations, or PTEN or RB1 loss, compared with those without NE differentiation. Finally, NE differentiation was not associated with time to metastasis in intermediate- and high-risk patients (P = .6 on multivariate analysis), nor with progression-free survival in patients with CRPC treated with abiraterone or enzalutamide (P = .9). CONCLUSION: NE differentiation in usual-type primary prostate adenocarcinoma is a molecularly and clinically distinct form of lineage plasticity from that occurring in small cell NE carcinoma.


Assuntos
Células Neuroendócrinas/patologia , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/genética , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/metabolismo , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/patologia , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Neuroendócrinas/metabolismo , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/genética , Tumores Neuroendócrinos/metabolismo , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/genética , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/biossíntese , Receptores Androgênicos/genética , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/metabolismo
10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(9): 942-950, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219380

RESUMO

Few studies have comprehensively investigated the association of 2 key kidney disease measures, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), with cancer incidence. In 8,935 participants at the baseline (1996-1998) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we quantified the associations of eGFR (based on creatinine and cystatin C) and ACR with cancer risk using Cox regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Due to changing guidelines for prostate cancer screening during the follow-up period, we investigated overall cancer, overall nonprostate cancer, and site-specific cancer. During a median follow-up of 14.7 years, 2,030 incident cancer cases occurred. In demographically adjusted models, low eGFR and high ACR were associated with cancer incidence (both overall and overall nonprostate cancer). These associations were attenuated after adjusting for other shared risk factors, with a significant association remaining only for ACR (≥103 compared with 5 mg/g) and overall nonprostate cancer. For site-specific cancer, only high ACR showed a significant association with lung and urinary tract cancers. Of these, the association between ACR and lung cancer appeared most robust in several sensitivity analyses. Kidney disease measures, particularly high ACR, were independently associated with cancer risk. The association between ACR and lung cancer was uniquely robust, warranting future studies to explore potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/urina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Creatinina/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Cistatina C/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(5): 511-516, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144680

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A comparison of stage at cancer diagnosis and cancer treatment rates between people with HIV (PWH) and the general US population is needed to identify any disparities by HIV status. METHODS: We compared 236 PWH in clinical care diagnosed with cancer from 1997 to 2014 to a sample from NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, presumed to be HIV negative. We performed G-computation using random forest methods to estimate stage and treatment percent differences (PD) by HIV. We conducted sensitivity analyses among non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC), by sex and by CD4 ≤ 200 or > 200 cells/mm3. RESULTS: PWH were less likely to be diagnosed at localized stage (PD = - 16%; 95% CI - 21, - 11) and more likely to be diagnosed at regional stage (PD = 14%; 95% CI 8, 19) than those in SEER. Cancer treatment rates were 13% lower among PWH as compared to SEER (95% CI - 18, - 8). The difference in percent receiving cancer treatment was more pronounced for those with lower CD4 at cancer diagnosis (PD -15%; 95% CI - 27, - 6). Lower treatment rates were observed among NADC, males, and women with CD4 ≤ 200. CONCLUSION: Cancer care for PWH could be improved by diagnosis at earlier stages and increasing rates of cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Programa de SEER , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 676-680, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black men have worse prostate cancer outcomes following treatment than White men even when accounting for prognostic factors. However, biological explanations for this racial disparity have not been fully identified. We previously showed that more variable telomere lengths among cancer cells and shorter telomere lengths in cancer-associated stromal (CAS) cells individually and together ("telomere biomarker") are associated with prostate cancer-related death in surgically treated men independent of currently used prognostic indicators. Here, we hypothesize that Black-White differences in the telomere biomarker and/or in its components may help explain the racial disparity in prostate cancer outcomes. METHODS: Black [higher grade (Gleason ≥4+3) = 34 and lower grade = 93] and White (higher grade = 34 and lower grade = 89) surgically treated men were frequency matched on age, pathologic stage, and grade. We measured telomere lengths in cancer and CAS cells using a robust telomere-specific FISH assay. Tissue microarray and grade-specific distributional cutoff points without regard to race were evaluated. RESULTS: Among men with higher grade disease, the proportion of Black men (47.1%) with more variable cancer cell telomere lengths was 2.3-times higher (P = 0.02) than that in White men (20.6%). In contrast, among men with lower grade disease, cancer cell telomere length variability did not differ by race. The proportion of men with shorter CAS cell telomeres did not differ by race for either higher or lower grade disease. CONCLUSIONS: A greater proportion of Black men with higher grade disease have an adverse prostate cancer cell telomere phenotype than White men with higher grade disease. IMPACT: Our findings suggest a possible explanation for the racial disparity in prostate cancer outcomes.

13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(3): 668-675, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given our previous findings that low intratumoral and high extratumoral mast cell numbers are associated with higher risk of biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy, we now assessed this relationship with race and the development of metastases. METHODS: We stained for mast cell tryptase via IHC and fluorescent immunolabeling in 885 men across multiple tissue microarray sets designed to assess biomarkers in association with race and prostate cancer outcomes (median follow-up, 7.0 years). RESULTS: Intratumoral and extratumoral mast cell counts were significantly lower in tissues from African-American compared with European-American men, but not within strata of cancer grade. There was no association between mast cell counts and ERG positivity, PTEN loss, or TP53 missense mutation. Higher minimum extratumoral mast cells were associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence [comparing highest with lowest tertiles: HR, 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.29; P trend = 0.01]; this pattern was similar among European-American and African-American men and by grade of disease. There was no significant association between minimum intratumoral mast cell count and biochemical recurrence, overall or within strata of race and grade. Finally, high minimum number of extratumoral mast cells was associated with prostate cancer metastases (comparing highest with lowest tertiles: HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.24-3.63; P trend = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: High extratumoral mast cell numbers are associated with biochemical recurrence and the development of metastases after radical prostatectomy. IMPACT: Higher numbers of benign tissue mast cells are associated with a higher risk of adverse outcomes after radical prostatectomy, including metastatic prostate cancer.

14.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(2): 227-235, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804663

RESUMO

Importance: Immunologic decline associated with cancer treatment in people with HIV is not well characterized. Quantifying excess mortality associated with cancer treatment-related immunosuppression may help inform cancer treatment guidelines for persons with HIV. Objective: To estimate the association between cancer treatment and CD4 count and HIV RNA level in persons with HIV and between posttreatment CD4 count and HIV RNA trajectories and all-cause mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational cohort study included 196 adults with HIV who had an incident first cancer and available cancer treatment data while in the care of The Johns Hopkins HIV Clinic from January 1, 1997, through March 1, 2016. The study hypothesized that chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in people with HIV would increase HIV RNA levels owing to treatment tolerability issues and would be associated with a larger initial decline in CD4 count and slower CD4 recovery compared with surgery or other treatment. An additional hypothesis was that these CD4 count declines would be associated with higher mortality independent of baseline CD4 count, antiretroviral therapy use, and risk due to the underlying cancer. Data were analyzed from December 1, 2017, through April 1, 2018. Exposures: Initial cancer treatment category (chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy vs surgery or other treatment). Main Outcomes and Measures: Post-cancer treatment longitudinal CD4 count, longitudinal HIV RNA level, and all-cause mortality. Results: Among the 196 participants (135 [68.9%] male; median age, 50 [interquartile range, 43-55] years), chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy decreased initial CD4 count by 203 cells/µL (95% CI, 92-306 cells/µL) among those with a baseline CD4 count of greater than 500 cells/µL. The decline for those with a baseline CD4 count of no greater than 350 cells/µL was 45 cells/µL (interaction estimate, 158 cells/µL; 95% CI, 31-276 cells/µL). Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy had no detrimental association with HIV RNA levels. After initial cancer treatment, every 100 cells/µL decrease in CD4 count resulted in a 27% increase in mortality (hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08-1.53), adjusting for HIV RNA level. No significant increase in mortality was associated with a unit increase in log10 HIV RNA after adjusting for CD4 count (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.94-1.65). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy was associated with significantly reduced initial CD4 count in adults with HIV compared with surgery or other treatment. Lower CD4 count after cancer treatment was associated with an increased hazard of mortality. Further research is necessary on the immunosuppressive effects of cancer treatment in adults with HIV and whether health care professionals must consider the balance of cancer treatment efficacy against the potential cost of further immunosuppression. Monitoring of immune status may also be helpful given the decrease in CD4 count after treatment and the already immunocompromised state of patients with HIV.

15.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 36(2): 116-118, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679394

RESUMO

A total of 236 people with HIV (PWH) with cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 2014 in the Johns Hopkins HIV Clinical Cohort (JHHCC) were compared with a sample from NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, presumed to be HIV negative. Using G-computation with random survival forest methods, we estimated 5-year restricted mean survival time (RMST) differences by HIV status. Sensitivity analyses were performed among non-AIDS defining cancers, males, females, and stratifying PWH by CD4 ≤ 200 or >200 cells/mm3 at cancer diagnosis. PWH with CD4 ≤ 200 cells/mm3 had decreased survival compared with those in SEER (-7 months; 95% CI = -13 to -2). Women with HIV and CD4 ≤ 200 cells/mm3 at cancer diagnosis had lower survival than SEER women (-10 months; 95% CI = -18 to -2). In the total population, there was no significant difference in 5-year RMST; however, women with HIV and low CD4 had higher mortality despite accounting for stage at diagnosis and first course of cancer treatment.

16.
Ann Epidemiol ; 38: 35-41, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540766

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Severe periodontal disease and edentulism have been previously reported to be significantly associated with cancer risk and mortality, including in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (2018); however, complex sources of confounding by socioeconomic status (SES), and characteristics correlated with SES, could have been present in earlier analyses. METHODS: To capture life course SES and its correlates, we generated a propensity score and included it, along with other potential confounders such as smoking and obesity, into a Cox regression model to examine the association between periodontal disease and cancer risk. In addition, we stratified the model with the propensity score by low and high SES. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Compared with our previous study, the associations for severe periodontitis and cancer incidence remained comparable after weighting by the propensity score (e.g., for total cancer: before weighting, hazard ratio = 1.24, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.42 vs. after weighting, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.44 when comparing severe periodontitis to no or mild periodontitis). Associations were comparable in low and high SES strata and statistically significant among participants with high SES. CONCLUSIONS: Complex sources of confounding by SES and its correlates are unlikely to fully account for the positive associations observed for periodontal disease and edentulism and cancer risk.


Assuntos
Arcada Edêntula/epidemiologia , Boca Edêntula/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças Periodontais/epidemiologia , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1259-1261, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263056

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting that intraprostatic inflammation influences prostate cancer development. Uric acid crystals depositing in the prostate could result in injury and inflammation, increasing prostate cancer risk. METHODS: Included were 6,574 men ages 45-64 years who enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study in 1987 to 1989. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate the association of serum urate concentration alone and to improve accuracy, jointly with a genetic risk score (GRS, N = 4,983) derived from variants predictive of urate concentration, with prostate cancer (N = 813) risk. RESULTS: Serum urate concentration or joint categories of urate concentration and GRS were not associated with prostate cancer risk (P trend for quartiles = 0.3). Results were generally similar by race and after excluding users of medications that influence uric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Serum urate alone and with a urate-associated GRS were not associated with prostate cancer risk. IMPACT: It is unlikely that circulating urate concentration influences prostate cancer development.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
18.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(8): 791-797, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165420

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported that taller people have an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association of two height components-leg length and sitting height-with CRC risk in 14,532 individuals aged 45-64 years in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. METHODS: Anthropometrics were measured at baseline (1987-1989). Incident CRC cases (n = 382) were ascertained from 1987 to 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for CRC and colon cancer across quintiles of sex-specific leg length and sitting height. RESULTS: The highest (versus the lowest) quintile of leg length was associated with a 36% greater CRC risk (p-trend = 0.04), and 51% greater colon cancer risk (p-trend = 0.01). For the top four quintiles combined, risk was increased by 34% for CRC and by 45% for colon cancer versus the lowest quintile. Total height and sitting height were not significantly associated with CRC or colon cancer risk. A small number of cases (n = 57) limited our ability to conduct subgroup analyses for rectal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: A positive association of leg length with CRC and colon cancer risk suggests that biological mechanisms leading to greater leg length during puberty may explain the association between taller height and CRC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Perna (Membro)/anatomia & histologia , Aterosclerose/epidemiologia , Estatura , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(8): 1292-1299, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Laboratory and epidemiologic research suggests a protective role of magnesium in colorectal cancer development. We estimated the associations of serum and dietary magnesium with colorectal cancer incidence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. METHODS: Serum magnesium concentration was measured in blood collected twice (1987-1989 and 1990-1992) and averaged. Dietary magnesium was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire administered twice (1987-1989 and 1993-1995) and averaged. For both dietary and serum magnesium, the averaged measures were categorized into quintiles for analysis. Analyses included 315 colorectal cancer cases among 13,009 participants for serum magnesium (followed for a median of 20.4 years), and 256 cases among 10,971 participants for dietary magnesium (followed for a median of 17.5 years). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) of colorectal cancer for the highest four quintiles compared with the first quintile of serum magnesium were as follows: Q2: 0.70 (0.49-0.99); Q3: 0.68 (0.47-1.00); Q4: 0.87 (0.62-1.21); and Q5: 0.79 (0.57-1.11; P trend = 0.04). An inverse association was present in females (HR for Q5 vs. Q1: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.36-0.98, P trend = 0.01), but not males (HR for Q5 vs. Q1: 1.10, 95% CI: 0.67-1.79, P trend = 0.92; P interaction = 0.34). Dietary magnesium was not statistically significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a higher risk of colorectal cancer with lower serum magnesium among females, but not males. IMPACT: If our findings are confirmed, maintaining adequate serum magnesium levels may be important for colorectal cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Magnésio/sangue , Neoplasias Colorretais/dietoterapia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Hum Pathol ; 87: 95-102, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30851334

RESUMO

The makeup of the tumor immune microenvironment may be associated with tumor somatic genomic alterations and plays a key role in tumor progression and response to immunotherapy. We examined the association of tumor-infiltrating T-cell density with TP53 status in surgically treated primary prostate cancer using 3 independent tissue microarray sets, including one set of tumors from grade-matched patients of European American or African American ancestry (n = 391), a retrospective case-cohort of intermediate- and high-risk patients enriched for adverse outcomes (n = 267), and a set of tumors with primary Gleason pattern 5 (n = 77). The presence of TP53 missense mutation, indicated by p53 nuclear accumulation using a genetically validated assay, was significantly associated with increased CD3+ T-cell density (median, 341 versus 231 CD3+ T cells/mm2; P = .004) in the matched European American and African American ancestry patient sets. The same association was present in patients of both ancestries when analyzed separately, despite the fact that p53 nuclear accumulation was less frequent among African American compared with European American tumors (7% versus 3%, P = .2). The validation cohorts of intermediate/high-risk and primary Gleason pattern 5 patients corroborated the association of increased CD3+ T-cell density with presence of p53 nuclear accumulation. In a pooled analysis of all sets, adjusting for clinicopathological variables, CD3+ and CD8+, but not FOXP3+, T-cell densities remained significantly higher in tumors with p53 nuclear accumulation compared with those without. TP53 mutation is associated with higher tumor-infiltrating T-cell density, which may be relevant in future clinical trials of immunotherapy in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos
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