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1.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505457

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the use of hormone therapy (HT), morbidity and reproductive outcomes of women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) due to FSH resistant ovaries (FSHRO). DESIGN: A prospective follow-up study in a university-based tertiary clinic setting METHODS: Twenty-six women with an inactivating A189V FSH receptor mutation were investigated by means of a health questionnaire and clinical examination. Twenty-two returned the health questionnaire and fourteen were clinically examined. Main outcome measures in the health questionnaire were reported HT, morbidity, medication and infertility treatment outcomes. In the clinical study, risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were compared to age-matched controls from a national population survey (FINRISK). Average number of controls was 326 per FSHRO subject (range 178-430). Bone mineral density and whole-body composition were analyzed with DXA. Psychological and sexual well-being was assessed with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI21), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7) and female sexual function Index (FSFI) questionnaires. RESULTS: HT was initiated late (median 18 years of age) compared with normal puberty and the median time of use was shorter (20-22 years) than the normal fertile period. Osteopenia was detected in 9/14 of the FSHRO women despite HT. No major risk factors for CVD or diabetes were found. CONCLUSIONS: HT of twenty years seems to be associated with a similar cardiovascular and metabolic risk factor profile as in the population control group. However, optimal bone health may require an early-onset and longer period of HT, which would better correspond to the natural fertile period.

3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: FTND (FagerstrÓ§m test for nicotine dependence) and TTFC (time to smoke first cigarette in the morning) are common measures of nicotine dependence (ND). However, genome-wide meta-analysis for these phenotypes has not been reported. METHODS: Genome-wide meta-analyses for FTND (N = 19,431) and TTFC (N = 18,567) phenotypes were conducted for adult smokers of European ancestry from 14 independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found that SORBS2 on 4q35 (p = 4.05 × 10-8), BG182718 on 11q22 (p = 1.02 × 10-8), and AA333164 on 14q21 (p = 4.11 × 10-9) were associated with TTFC phenotype. We attempted replication of leading candidates with independent samples (FTND, N = 7010 and TTFC, N = 10 061), however, due to limited power of the replication samples, the replication of these new loci did not reach significance. In gene-based analyses, COPB2 was found associated with FTND phenotype, and TFCP2L1, RELN, and INO80C were associated with TTFC phenotype. In pathway and network analyses, we found that the interconnected interactions among the endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, MAPK signaling, and chemokine signaling pathways were involved in ND. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified several promising candidates for both FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and further verification of these candidates was necessary. Candidates supported by both FTND and TTFC (CHRNA4, THSD7B, RBFOX1, and ZNF804A) were associated with addiction to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, and were associated with autism and schizophrenia. We also identified novel pathways involved in cigarette smoking. The pathway interactions highlighted the importance of receptor recycling and internalization in ND. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking and ND is critical to develop effective prevention and treatment. Our study identified novel candidates and biological pathways involved in FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and this will facilitate further investigation of these candidates and pathways.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(1): 15-28, 2019 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178129

RESUMO

Circulating levels of adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted protein associated with cardiovascular and metabolic risk, are highly heritable. To gain insights into the biology that regulates adiponectin levels, we performed an exome array meta-analysis of 265,780 genetic variants in 67,739 individuals of European, Hispanic, African American, and East Asian ancestry. We identified 20 loci associated with adiponectin, including 11 that had been reported previously (p < 2 × 10-7). Comparison of exome array variants to regional linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) results detected candidate variants (r2 > .60) spanning as much as 900 kb. To identify potential genes and mechanisms through which the previously unreported association signals act to affect adiponectin levels, we assessed cross-trait associations, expression quantitative trait loci in subcutaneous adipose, and biological pathways of nearby genes. Eight of the nine loci were also associated (p < 1 × 10-4) with at least one obesity or lipid trait. Candidate genes include PRKAR2A, PTH1R, and HDAC9, which have been suggested to play roles in adipocyte differentiation or bone marrow adipose tissue. Taken together, these findings provide further insights into the processes that influence circulating adiponectin levels.

5.
Respir Med ; 154: 34-39, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207539

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to describe how the prevalence of subjects exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has changed from 1992 to 2012 in Finland. We also investigated the association between ETS and chronic bronchitis and cause-specific and all-cause mortality. METHODS: The study population is composed of 38 494 subjects aged 25-74 years who participated in the National FINRISK Study between 1992 and 2012. Each survey included a standardized questionnaire on exposure to ETS, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, smoking habits and other risk factors, and clinical measurements at the study site. Data on mortality was obtained from the National Causes of Death Register. RESULTS: In 2012, 5% of the participants were exposed to ETS compared to 25% in 1992. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for ETS exposure in 2012 compared with that in 1992 was 0.27, p < 0.001. Exposure to ETS was more common in men than in women and among smokers than in non-smokers. Exposure to ETS was in turn associated with chronic bronchitis, OR 1.63 (95% confidence interval 1.49-1.78), - also separately both at work (OR 1.36) and at home (OR 1.69). Subjects with exposure to ETS had significantly increased all-cause (hazard ratio = HR 1.15, 1.05-1.26) and cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.26, 1.07-1.47). However, when stratified by smoking ETS was associated with all-cause mortality only in smokers (HR 1.31, 1.15-1.48). CONCLUSION: The proportion of subjects exposed to ETS decreased substantially during the study. Additionally, ETS exposure was associated with chronic bronchitis throughout the study and increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9219, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239477

RESUMO

Benefit of physical activity in prevention of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unclear. We aimed to clarify this by studying how different types of physical activity associate with SAH risk. By following 65 521 population-based FINRISK participants prospectively from medical and autopsy registries since 1972 until 2014, we detected 543 incident SAHs. At baseline, we measured leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and commuting physical activity (CPA) levels. The Cox model adjusted for all well-known SAH risk factors and for socioeconomic status, provided hazard ratios (HRs) for physical activity variables. Every 30-minute increase in weekly LTPA decreased SAH risk linearly in men and women HR = 0.95 (95% CI = 0.90-1.00). CPA reduced SAH risk as well, but the association diminished as participants retired. In contrast, individuals with moderate (1.41, 1.04-1.92) and high OPA (1.34, 0.99-1.81) had elevated SAH risk. Protective association of LTPA persisted in all age and hypertension groups, and was even greater in current smokers 0.88 (0.81-0.96) than non-smokers (p = 0.04 for difference). Commuting and leisure time physical activity seem to reduce SAH risk in men and women and is most beneficial for smokers. Future intervention studies should investigate whether physical activity can reduce the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms.

7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2154, 2019 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089142

RESUMO

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, and has a strong heritable basis. We report a genome-wide association analysis of 34,627 CRC cases and 71,379 controls of European ancestry that identifies SNPs at 31 new CRC risk loci. We also identify eight independent risk SNPs at the new and previously reported European CRC loci, and a further nine CRC SNPs at loci previously only identified in Asian populations. We use in situ promoter capture Hi-C (CHi-C), gene expression, and in silico annotation methods to identify likely target genes of CRC SNPs. Whilst these new SNP associations implicate target genes that are enriched for known CRC pathways such as Wnt and BMP, they also highlight novel pathways with no prior links to colorectal tumourigenesis. These findings provide further insight into CRC susceptibility and enhance the prospects of applying genetic risk scores to personalised screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
8.
Am J Hypertens ; 32(8): 734-741, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nighttime blood pressure (BP) and nondipping pattern are strongly associated with hypertensive end-organ damage. However, no previous studies have compared the diagnostic agreement between ambulatory and home monitoring in detecting these BP patterns in the general population. METHODS: We studied a population-based sample of 180 persons aged 32-80 years. The study protocol included 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, home daytime measurements over 7 days, home nighttime measurements (6 measurements over 2 consecutive nights using a timer-equipped home device), and ultrasound measurements for left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). We defined nondipping as a <10% reduction in nighttime BP compared with daytime BP, and nighttime hypertension as BP ≥ 120/70 mm Hg. RESULTS: The agreement between ambulatory and home monitoring for detecting nighttime hypertension was good (80%, κ = 0.56, P < 0.001). However, their agreement in detecting nondipping status was poor (54%, κ = 0.12, P = 0.09). The magnitude of ambulatory systolic BP dipping percent was 1.7% higher than on home monitoring (P = 0.004), whereas no difference was observed for diastolic BP dipping (difference: 0.7%, P = 0.33). LVMI and IMT were significantly greater among individuals with nighttime hypertension than in normotensive individuals, irrespective of the measurement method. However, only ambulatory nondippers, but not home nondippers, had more advanced end-organ damage than dippers. CONCLUSION: We observed a good agreement between ambulatory and home BP monitoring in detecting nighttime hypertension in the general population. Two-night home monitoring could offer an inexpensive and feasible method for the diagnosis of nighttime hypertension.

9.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 28, 2019 03 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30894189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emotional eating (i.e. eating in response to negative emotions) has been suggested to be one mechanism linking depression and subsequent development of obesity. However, studies have rarely examined this mediation effect in a prospective setting and its dependence on other factors linked to stress and its management. We used a population-based prospective cohort of adults and aimed to examine 1) whether emotional eating mediated the associations between depression and 7-year change in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), and 2) whether gender, age, night sleep duration or physical activity moderated these associations. METHODS: Participants were Finnish 25- to 74-year-olds who attended the DILGOM study at baseline in 2007 and follow-up in 2014. At baseline (n = 5024), height, weight and WC were measured in a health examination. At follow-up (n = 3735), height, weight and WC were based on measured or self-reported information. Depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression Scale), emotional eating (Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire-R18), physical activity and night sleep duration were self-reported. Age- and gender-adjusted structural equation models with full information maximum likelihood estimator were used in the analyses. RESULTS: Depression and emotional eating were positively associated and they both predicted higher 7-year increase in BMI (R2 = 0.048) and WC (R2 = 0.045). The effects of depression on change in BMI and WC were mediated by emotional eating. Night sleep duration moderated the associations of emotional eating, while age moderated the associations of depression. More specifically, emotional eating predicted higher BMI (P = 0.007 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.026, respectively) gain in shorter sleepers (7 h or less), but not in longer sleepers (9 h or more). Depression predicted higher BMI (P < 0.001 for the interaction) and WC (P = 0.065, respectively) increase in younger participants, but not in older participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer support for the hypothesis that emotional eating is one behavioural mechanism between depression and development of obesity and abdominal obesity. Moreover, adults with a combination of shorter night sleep duration and higher emotional eating may be particularly vulnerable to weight gain. Future research should examine the clinical significance of our observations by tailoring weight management programs according to these characteristics.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Emoções , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Ganho de Peso
10.
Int J Public Health ; 64(6): 853-860, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30906956

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking is declining, but it is unevenly distributed among population groups. Our aim was to examine the socio-economic differences in smoking during 1978-2016 in Finland, a country with a history of strict tobacco control policy. METHODS: Annual population-based random sample data of 25-64-year-olds from 1978 to 2016 (N = 104,315) were used. Response rate varied between 84 and 40%. In addition to logistic regression analysis, absolute and relative educational differences in smoking were examined. RESULTS: Smoking was more prevalent among the less educated but declined in all educational groups during the study period. Both absolute and relative differences in smoking between the less and highly educated were larger at the end of the study period than at the beginning. Cigarette price seemed to have a larger effect on the smoking among the less educated. CONCLUSIONS: Socio-economic differences in smoking among the Finnish adult population have increased since the 1970s until 2016. Further actions are needed, especially focusing on lower socio-economic positions, to tackle inequalities in health. They should include support for smoking cessation and larger cigarette tax increases.

11.
JACC Heart Fail ; 7(3): 204-213, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates differences between women and men in heart failure (HF) risk and mortality. BACKGROUND: Sex differences in HF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS: In 78,657 individuals (median 49.5 years of age; age range 24.1 to 98.7 years; 51.7% women) from community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani, Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe) consortium, the association between incident HF and mortality, the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular diseases, biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP]; N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) with incident HF, and their attributable risks were tested in women vs. men. RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, fewer HF cases were observed in women (n = 2,399 [5.9%]) than in men (n = 2,771 [7.3%]). HF incidence increased markedly after 60 years of age, initially with a more rapid increase in men, whereas incidence in women exceeded that of men after 85 years of age. HF onset substantially increased mortality risk in both sexes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed the following sex differences for the association with incident HF: systolic blood pressure hazard ratio (HR) according to SD in women of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.14) versus HR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.24) in men; heart rate HR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.03) in women versus HR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13) in men; CRP HR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.20) in women versus HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.24 to 1.41) in men; and NT-proBNP HR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.74) in women versus HR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.05) in men. Population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 59.0% in women and 62.9% in men. CONCLUSIONS: Women had a lower risk for HF than men. Sex differences were seen for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, CRP, and NT-proBNP, with a lower HF risk in women.

12.
COPD ; 16(1): 45-50, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821178

RESUMO

In the present study we aimed to investigate the incidence and predictors of spirometry based airway obstruction in a representative population-based sample. Altogether 3,863 subjects, 1,651 males and 2,212 females aged ≥30 years had normal spirometry in year 2000. Fifty-three percent of them were never and 23% current smokers. A re-spirometry was performed 11 years later. Several characteristics, such as level of education, use of alcohol, physical activity, diet using Alternate healthy eating (AHEI) index, body mass index, circumwaist, sensitive C reactive protein (CRP) and cotinine of the laboratory values and co-morbidities including asthma, allergic rhinitis, sleep apnoea and chronic bronchitis, as potential risk factors for airway obstruction were evaluated. Using forced expiratory volume in one second/ forced vital capacity below the lower limit of normal, we observed 124 new cases of airway obstruction showing a cumulative 11-year incidence of 3.2% and corresponding to an incidence rate of 5.6/1,000 per year (PY). The incidence rate was higher in men than in women (6.3/1,000 PY vs. 5.0/1,000 PY, respectively). The strongest risk factors were current smoking (Odds ratio [OR] 2.5) and previously diagnosed asthma (OR 2.1). Sensitive CRP associated with the increased risk and high AHEI index with the decreased risk of airway obstruction. Using the similar study approach our findings on the incidence of airway obstruction are in line with the previously published figures in Europe. We were able to confirm the recent findings on the protective effect of healthy diet.

13.
Eur J Public Health ; 29(4): 626-630, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30753423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objective was to measure preventable premature loss of life in countries from same geographical area but with considerable differences in social and economic development. By comparing inter-country differences and similarities in premature mortality, acceleration of health-in-all-policies is enhanced. METHODS: Preventable premature deaths were described by Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL). Data consisted of death registers for 2003, 2009 and 2013. PYLL-rates were age-standardized by using standard OECD population from 1980 and expressed as sum of lost life years per 100 000 citizens. RESULTS: In Northern Dimension area, PYLL-rates had declined from 2003 to 2013. In 2013, worst PYLL-rate was in Belarus 9851 and best in Sweden 2511. PYLL-rates among men were twice as high as among women. Most premature losses (1023) were due to external causes. Malignant neoplasms came second (921) and vascular diseases third (816). Alcohol was also an important cause (270) and country differences were over 10-fold. CONCLUSIONS: In ND-area, the overall development of public health has been good during 2003-13. Nevertheless, for all countries foci for public health improvement and learning from each other could be identified. Examining the health of populations in countries from relatively similar geographical area with different social history and cultures can provide them with evidence-based tools for health-in-all-policies to advocate health promotion and disease prevention. Gender differences due to preventable premature deaths are striking. The higher the national PYLL-rate, the bigger the PYLL-rate difference between men and women and the loss of human capital.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422703

RESUMO

Higher physical activity is associated with a reduced hazard for a plethora of diseases. It has remained unknown how the two primary physical activity associated health effects, improved physical performance and change in body composition, independently modulate metabolic profiles towards a reduced risk for adverse outcomes.Here, we utilized a prospective cohort of 664 young men undergoing military service. We studied the metabolic associations of changes in muscle performance and body composition during military service (range 6-12 months). We subsequently replicated our results for body composition change in 234 population-based samples with a 7-year follow-up.We found that increased physical performance was associated with reduced very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) related measures (change in VLDL cholesterol, Beta=-0.135, 95%CI=-0.217;-0.054, P=1.2x10-3) and lower inflammation (change in Glycoprotein acetyls, Beta=-0.138, 95% CI=-0.217;-0.059, P=6.5x10-4), independent of change in body composition. Lower body fat percentage, independent of change in muscle performance, was associated with metabolic changes including lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol measures (change in LDL cholesterol, Beta=-0.193, 95%CI=-0.295;-0.090, P=2.5x10-4), increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol measures (change in large HDL cholesterol, Beta=0.316, 95% CI=0.205;0.427, P=3.7x10-8) and decreased concentrations of amino acids (change in leucine concentration, Beta=-0.236, 95%CI=-0.341;-0.132, P=1.0x10-5) that are type 2 diabetes biomarkers. Importantly, all body fat percentage associations were replicated in a general population-based cohort.Our findings indicate that improved muscle performance showed weaker associations on the metabolic profiles than change in body composition and reduction in body fat percentage reduces cardiometabolic risk mediated by atherogenic lipoprotein particles and branched-chain and aromatic amino acid concentrations.

16.
Respir Med ; 142: 29-35, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30170798

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The present study examines how trends in the prevalence of asthma during the past three decades associate with hospitalization and mortality during the same period. METHODS: Altogether 54 320 subjects aged 25-74 years were examined in seven independent cross-sectional population surveys repeated every five years between 1982 and 2012 in Finland. The study protocol included a standardized questionnaire on self-reported asthma, smoking habits and other risk factors, and clinical measurements at the study site. Data on hospitalizations were obtained from the Care Register for Health Care, and data on mortality from the National Causes of Death register. RESULTS: During the study, the prevalence of asthma increased - especially in women. In asthmatic compared with non-asthmatic subjects, hospitalization was significantly higher for all causes, respiratory causes, cardiovascular causes and lung cancer. In addition, particularly in asthmatic subjects, mean yearly hospital days in the 5-year periods after each survey diminished. In asthmatic subjects, the decrease in yearly all-cause hospital days was from 4.45 (between 1982 and 1987) to 1.11 (between 2012 and 2015) and in subjects without asthma the corresponding decrease was from 1.77 to 0.60 (p < 0.001). Similarly between 1982 and 2015, COPD hospitalization decreased more in asthmatic than in non-asthmatic subjects. Generally in the present study, all-cause mortality decreased between 1982 and 2015, though mortality in asthmatic subjects compared with non-asthmatics was higher from all causes, respiratory causes and lung cancer. CONCLUSION: There was an increasing trend in the prevalence of asthma and a declining trend in hospitalization, especially in asthmatic subjects.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191268

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) represent an emerging global public health challenge. In Germany, about 6.7 million adults are affected by diabetes according to national health surveys, including 1.3 million with undiagnosed diabetes. Complications of diabetes result in an increasing burden for individuals and society as well as enormous costs for the health care system. In response, the Federal Ministry of Health commissioned the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) to implement a diabetes surveillance system and the Federal Center for Health Education (BZgA) to develop a diabetes prevention strategy. In a two-day workshop jointly organized by the RKI and the BZgA, representatives from public health institutes in seven countries shared their expertise and knowledge on diabetes prevention and surveillance. Day one focused on NCD surveillance systems and emphasized both the strengthening of sustainable data sources and the timely and targeted dissemination of results using innovative formats. The second day focused on diabetes prevention strategies and highlighted the importance of involving all relevant stakeholders in the development process to facilitate its acceptance and implementation. Furthermore, the effective translation of prevention measures into real-world settings requires data from surveillance systems to identify high-risk groups and evaluate the effect of measures at the population level based on analyses of time trends in risk factors and disease outcomes. Overall, the workshop highlighted the close link between diabetes prevention strategies and surveillance systems. It was generally stated that only robust data enables effective prevention measures to encounter the increasing burden from diabetes and other NCDs.

18.
Biomolecules ; 8(3)2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30127326

RESUMO

Most studies reporting on the association of circulating testosterone levels with type 2 diabetes in men are of cross-sectional design. Reports on the relevance of altered testosterone levels in women are scarce. Here, we evaluate the role of low serum testosterone levels for incident diabetes in men and women in a population setting of 7706 subjects (3896 females). During a mean follow up time of 13.8 years, 7.8% developed type 2 diabetes. Significant correlations of testosterone with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (R = 0.21, p < 0.001), body-mass-index (R = -0.23, p < 0.001), and waist-to-hip-ratio (R = -0.21, p < 0.001) were found in men. No correlation was found with age in men; in women, the correlation was negligible (R = 0.04, p = 0.012). In men, low testosterone levels predicted high risk of type 2 diabetes, while in women this relationship was opposite. Men with low testosterone levels showed increased risk of future diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91⁻3.72, p < 0.001 in basic model; HR 1.56 95%, CI 1.10⁻2.21, p = 0.003). In women, low testosterone levels indicated lower risk with (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.37⁻0.77, p = 0.003), while the association lost significance in the fully adjusted model (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.49⁻1.05, p = 0.09). Low levels of testosterone predicted future diabetes in men. A borderline opposite association was found in women.

19.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 10131, 2018 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973669

RESUMO

Cold weather affects the respiratory epithelium and induces bronchial hyperresponsiveness. We hypothesized that individuals with allergic rhinitis or/and asthma experience cold weather-related functional disability (FD) and exacerbation of health problems (EH) more commonly than individuals without these. This was a population-based study of 7330 adults aged 25-74 years. The determinants of interest, including doctor-diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis, and the outcomes, including cold weather-related FD and EH, were measured using a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalences of cold-related FD and EH were 20.3% and 10.3%, respectively. In Poisson regression, the risk of FD increased in relation to both allergic rhinitis (adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) 1.19, 95% CI 1.04-1.37 among men; 1.26, 95% CI 1.08-1.46 among women), asthma (1.29, 0.93-1.80; 1.36, 0.92-2.02, respectively) and their combination (1.16, 0.90-1.50; 1.40, 1.12-1.76, respectively). Also the risk of cold weather-related EH was related to both allergic rhinitis (1.53, 1.15,-2.04 among men; 1.78, 1.43-2.21 among women), asthma (4.28, 2.88-6.36; 3.77, 2.67-5.34, respectively) and their combination (4.02, 2.89-5.59; 4.60, 3.69-5.73, respectively). We provide new evidence that subjects with allergic rhinitis or/and asthma are more susceptible to cold weather-related FD and EH than those without pre-existing respiratory diseases.

20.
Infect Immun ; 86(10)2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30037793

RESUMO

Pharyngeal tonsillitis is one of the most common upper respiratory tract infections, and group A streptococcus is the most important bacterial pathogen causing it. While most patients experience tonsillitis only rarely, a subset of patients suffers from recurrent or chronic tonsillitis or pharyngitis. The predisposing factors for recurring or chronic forms of this disease are not yet fully understood, but genetic predisposition has been suggested. A genetic association study using Illumina's Immunochip single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array was performed to search for new genetic biomarkers in pharyngeal tonsillitis. More than 100,000 SNPs relevant to immune-mediated diseases were analyzed in a cohort of 95 patients subjected to tonsillectomy due to recurrent/chronic tonsillitis and 504 controls. Genetic association between the cases and controls showed strongest association with two peaks in the HLA locus (odds ratio [OR], 3.7 to 4.7; P = 4.9 × 10-6 to 5.7 × 10-6). Further analysis with imputed classical HLA alleles suggested the known psoriasis risk allele HLA-C*06:02 as a risk factor for tonsillitis (P = 4.8 × 10-4; OR, 2.3). In addition, the imputed HLA haplotype HLA-C*06:02/HLA-B*57:01, a reported risk haplotype in psoriasis, had the strongest risk for tonsillitis (P = 3.2 × 10-4; OR, 6.5). These findings further support the previously reported link between streptococcal throat infections and psoriasis.

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