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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234452, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881860

RESUMO

Spain is one of the countries that has suffered the most from the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the strain that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, there is a lack of information on the characteristics of this disease in the Spanish population. The objective of this study has been to characterize our patients from an epidemiological point of view and to identify the risk factors associated with mortality in our geographical area. We performed a prospective, longitudinal study on 188 hospitalized cases of SARS-Cov-2 infection in Hospital Universitari de Sant Joan, in Reus, Spain, admitted between 15th March 2020 and 30th April 2020. We recorded demographic data, signs and symptoms and comorbidities. We also calculated the Charlson and McCabe indices. A total of 43 deaths occurred during the study period. Deceased patients were older than the survivors (77.7 ± 13.1 vs. 62.8 ± 18.4 years; p < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses showed that fever, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, diabetes mellitus and cancer were the variables that showed independent and statistically significant associations with mortality. The Charlson index was more efficient than the McCabe index in discriminating between deceased and survivors. This is one of the first studies to describe the factors associated with mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Spain, and one of the few in the Mediterranean area. We identified the main factors independently associated with mortality in our population. Further studies are needed to complete and confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
2.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 144: 111606, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738368

RESUMO

Polyphenols from Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications but the metabolites responsible for such effects are unknown. We aimed to elucidate which of the potential plasma metabolites from a polyphenol-enriched HS (PEHS) extract contributed for the reversion of glucolipotoxicity-induced metabolic stress using 3T3-L1 adipocyte and INS 832/13 pancreatic ß-cell models under glucolipotoxic conditions. PEHS extract, quercetin (Q) and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA) showed stronger capacity to decrease glucolipotoxicity-induced ROS generation than ascorbic acid or chlorogenic acid. PEHS extract, Q and Q3GA decreased secretion of cytokines (leptin, TNF-α, IGF-1, IL-6, VEGF, IL-1α, IL-1ß and CCL2) and reduced CCL2 expression at transcriptional level. In addition, PEHS extract, Q and Q3GA reduced triglyceride accumulation, which occurred through fatty acid synthase (FASN) downregulation, AMPK activation and mitochondrial mass and biogenesis restoration via PPARα upregulation. Electron microscopy confirmed that PEHS extract and Q3GA decreased mitochondrial remodeling and mitophagy. Virtual screening leads us to postulate that Q and Q3GA might act as agonists of these protein targets at specific sites. These data suggest that Q and Q3GA may be the main responsible compounds for the capacity of PEHS extract to revert glucolipotoxicity-induced metabolic stress through AMPK-mediated decrease in fat storage and increase in fatty acid oxidation, though other compounds of the extract may contribute to this capacity.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11954, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686726

RESUMO

Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) has been associated with chronic metabolic diseases. We aimed to investigate whether Ccl2 gene overexpression is involved in the regulation of signaling pathways in metabolic organs. Biochemical and histological analyses were used to explore tissue damage in cisgenic mice that overexpressed the Ccl2 gene. Metabolites from energy and one-carbon metabolism in liver and muscle extracts were measured by targeted metabolomics. Western blot analysis was used to explore the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. Ccl2 overexpression resulted in steatosis, decreased AMPK activity and altered mitochondrial dynamics in the liver. These changes were associated with decreased oxidative phosphorylation and alterations in the citric acid cycle and transmethylation. In contrast, AMPK activity and its downstream mediators were increased in muscle, where we observed an increase in oxidative phosphorylation and increased concentrations of different metabolites associated with ATP synthesis. In conclusion, Ccl2 overexpression induces distinct metabolic alterations in the liver and muscle that affect mitochondrial dynamics and the regulation of energy sensors involved in cell homeostasis. These data suggest that CCL2 may be a therapeutic target in metabolic diseases.

4.
Theranostics ; 10(7): 3022-3034, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194852

RESUMO

Background and Purpose: The humoral immune response in cancer patients can be used for early detection of the disease. Autoantibodies raised against tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) are promising clinical biomarkers for reliable cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy monitoring. In this study, an electrochemical disposable multiplexed immunosensing platform able to integrate difficult- and easy-to-express colorectal cancer (CRC) TAAs is reported for the sensitive determination of eight CRC-specific autoantibodies. Methods: The electrochemical immunosensing approach involves the use of magnetic microcarriers (MBs) as solid supports modified with covalently immobilized HaloTag fusion proteins for the selective capture of specific autoantibodies. After magnetic capture of the modified MBs onto screen-printed carbon working electrodes, the amperometric responses measured using the hydroquinone (HQ)/H2O2 system were related to the levels of autoantibodies in plasma. Results: The biosensing platform was applied to the analysis of autoantibodies against 8 TAAs described for the first time in this work in plasma samples from healthy asymptomatic individuals (n=3), and patients with high-risk of developing CRC (n=3), and from patients already diagnosed with colorectal (n=3), lung (n=2) or breast (n=2) cancer. The developed bioplatform demonstrated an improved discrimination between CRC patients and controls (asymptomatic healthy individuals and breast and lung cancer patients) compared to an ELISA-like luminescence test. Conclusions: The proposed methodology uses a just-in-time produced protein in a simpler protocol, with low sample volume, and involves cost-effective instrumentation, which could be used in a high-throughput manner for reliable population screening to facilitate the detection of early CRC patients at affordable cost.

5.
Cytokine ; 126: 154923, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739217

RESUMO

Chemokines, particularly chemokine (C-C- motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), control leukocyte migration into the wall of the artery and regulate the traffic of inflammatory cells. CCL2 is bound to functional receptors (CCR2), but also to atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs), which do not induce cell migration but can modify chemokine gradients. Whether atherosclerosis alters CCL2 function by influencing the expression of these receptors remains unknown. In a necropsy study, we used immunohistochemistry to explore where and to what extent CCL2 and related receptors are present in diseased arteries that caused the death of men with coronary artery disease compared with unaffected arteries. CCL2 was marginally detected in normal arteries but was more frequently found in the intima. The expression of CCL2 and related receptors was significantly increased in diseased arteries with relative differences among the artery layers. The highest relative increases were those of CCL2 and ACKR1. CCL2 expression was associated with a significant predictive value of atherosclerosis. Findings suggest the need for further insight into receptor specificity or activity and the interplay among chemokines. CCL2-associated conventional and atypical receptors are overexpressed in atherosclerotic arteries, and these may suggest new potential therapeutic targets to locally modify the overall anti-inflammatory response.

6.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther ; 51(3): 374-387, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity can influence hepatic mitochondrial function, and cause non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Diagnosis and follow-up rely on invasive liver biopsy so blood-based markers are urgently required. AIM: To investigate whether values of circulating metabolites from energy and one-carbon (1-C) metabolism may: (a) reflect hepatic mitochondrial flexibility failure and (b) act as NASH biomarkers. METHODS: Patients with severe obesity undergoing bariatric surgery (n = 270) were investigated using quantitative targeted plasma metabolomics. Comparisons were with non-obese controls without liver disease (n = 50). Obese patients with NASH (n = 53) and without NASH (n = 130) representing extreme groups of liver disease were assessed to test the diagnostic ability of the measured circulating metabolites. Paired liver biopsy and plasma samples from NASH patients were available 1 year post-surgery and were evaluated to monitor metabolomic changes with liver damage resolution. RESULTS: We identified correlations between human liver metabolism and obesity. High-plasma α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) and lactate concentrations in NASH patients indicating citric acid cycle replenishment via glutaminolysis might also be a crucial point in NASH onset. Plasma measurements of α-KG, ß-hydroxybutyrate, pyruvate and oxaloacetate reduced the uncertainty in clinical diagnosis of NASH [area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.826] and predicted NASH resolution without ambiguity (AUC of 0.999). CONCLUSION: Changes in plasma mitochondrial metabolites appear to be associated with NASH. These metabolic responses may be dynamically remodelled following resolution of liver damage through massive weight loss.

7.
J Proteomics ; 213: 103605, 2020 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841666

RESUMO

We investigated the alterations in the plasma concentrations of energy-balance-related metabolites in patients with lung (LC) or head & neck (HNC) cancer and the changes on these parameters induced by radiotherapy. The study was conducted in 33 patients with non-small cell LC and 28 patients with HNC. We analyzed the concentrations of 17 metabolites involved in glycolysis, citric acid cycle and amino acid metabolism using targeted gas chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. For comparison, a control group of 50 healthy individuals was included in the present study. Patients with LC or HNC had significant alterations in the plasma levels of several energy-balance-related metabolites. Radiotherapy partially normalized these alterations in patients with LC, but not in those with HNC. The measurement of plasma glutamate concentration was an excellent predictor of the presence of LC or HNC, with sensitivity >90% and specificity >80%. Also, associations with disease prognosis were observed with plasma glutamate, amino acids and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. SIGNIFICANCE: This study analyzed the changes produced in the plasma concentrations of energy-balance-related metabolites in patients with lung cancer or head and neck cancer. The results obtained identified glutamate as the parameter with the highest discrimination capacity between patients and the control group. The relationships between various metabolites and clinical outcomes were also analyzed. These results extend the knowledge of metabolic alterations in cancer, thus facilitating the search for biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

8.
J Clin Med ; 8(12)2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31835708

RESUMO

The proliferative capacity of residual breast cancer (BC) disease indicates the existence of partial treatment resistance and higher probability of tumor recurrence. We explored the therapeutic potential of adding neoadjuvant metformin as an innovative strategy to decrease the proliferative potential of residual BC cells in patients failing to achieve pathological complete response (pCR) after pre-operative therapy. We performed a prospective analysis involving the intention-to-treat population of the (Metformin and Trastuzumab in Neoadjuvancy) METTEN study, a randomized multicenter phase II trial of women with primary, non-metastatic (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) HER2-positive BC evaluating the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of oral metformin (850 mg twice-daily) for 24 weeks combined with anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy and trastuzumab (arm A) or equivalent regimen without metformin (arm B), before surgery. We centrally evaluated the proliferation marker Ki67 on sequential core biopsies using visual assessment (VA) and an (Food and Drug Administration) FDA-cleared automated digital image analysis (ADIA) algorithm. ADIA-based pre-operative values of high Ki67 (≥20%), but not those from VA, significantly predicted the occurrence of pCR in both arms irrespective of the hormone receptor status (p = 0.024 and 0.120, respectively). Changes in Ki67 in residual tumors of non-pCR patients were significantly higher in the metformin-containing arm (p = 0.025), with half of all patients exhibiting high Ki67 at baseline moving into the low-Ki67 (<20%) category after neoadjuvant treatment. By contrast, no statistically significant changes in Ki67 occurred in residual tumors of the control treatment arm (p = 0.293). There is an urgent need for innovative therapeutic strategies aiming to provide the protective effects of decreasing Ki67 after neoadjuvant treatment even if pCR is not achieved. Metformin would be evaluated as a safe candidate to decrease the aggressiveness of residual disease after neoadjuvant (pre-operative) systemic therapy of BC patients.

9.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(16): 6591-6601, 2019 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444969

RESUMO

Therapeutic strategies targeting the hallmarks of aging can be broadly grouped into four categories, namely systemic (blood) factors, metabolic manipulation (diet regimens and dietary restriction mimetics), suppression of cellular senescence (senolytics), and cellular reprogramming, which likely have common characteristics and mechanisms of action. In evaluating the potential synergism of combining such strategies, however, we should consider the possibility of constraining trade-off phenotypes such as impairment in wound healing and immune response, tissue dysfunction and tumorigenesis. Moreover, we are rapidly learning that the benefit/risk ratio of aging-targeted interventions largely depends on intra- and inter-individual variations of susceptibility to the healthspan-, resilience-, and/or lifespan-promoting effects of the interventions. Here, we exemplify how computationally-generated proxies of the efficacy of a given lifespan/healthspan-promoting approach can predict the impact of baseline epigenetic heterogeneity on the positive outcomes of ketogenic diet and mTOR inhibition as single or combined anti-aging strategies. We therefore propose that stochastic biomathematical modeling and computational simulation platforms should be developed as in silico strategies to accelerate the performance of clinical trials targeting human aging, and to provide personalized approaches and robust biomarkers of healthy aging at the individual-to-population levels.

10.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 8(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295833

RESUMO

We investigated alterations in the levels of the antioxidant paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and the lipoprotein profile (analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance) in patients with lung cancer (LC) or head and neck cancer (HNC), and the effects produced thereon by radiotherapy (RT). We included 33 patients with LC and 28 patients with HNC. Before irradiation, and one month after completion of RT, blood samples were obtained. The control group was composed of 50 healthy subjects. Patients had significantly lower serum PON1 activity and concentration before RT than the control group. PON1-related variables were good predictors of the presence of LC or HNC, with analytical sensitivities and specificities greater than 80%. Patients showed a significant increase in the number of particles of all subclasses of very-low-density lipoproteins (large, medium and small). However, these changes were not maintained when adjusted for age, sex, and other clinical and demographic variables. Irradiation was associated with a significant increase in PON1 concentration and, only in patients with HNC, with an increase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentration. Our results suggest that determinations of the levels of PON1-related variables may constitute good biomarkers for the evaluation of these diseases. Studies with a larger number of patients are needed to fully confirm this hypothesis.

11.
Metabolism ; 99: 81-89, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279739

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic alterations, such as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are frequently associated with obesity. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of these alterations and to identify molecules that could be used as potential therapeutic targets, we investigated the modulation of hepatic indices of oxidative stress and inflammation in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). METHODS: Patients (n = 436) attending our obesity clinic underwent LSG for weight loss. We obtained a diagnostic intraoperative liver biopsy, and a sub-cohort (n = 120) agreed to a 1-year follow-up that included donation of blood samples and additional liver biopsies. Selected key molecules in blood and liver tissue were used to investigate the hepatic alterations in obesity, and their response to LSG. RESULTS: One year post-surgery, the prevalence of diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension decreased significantly. LSG improved liver histology features in all patients. Improvement was greater in severe cases of NAFLD including those with steatohepatitis, bridging fibrosis or cirrhosis. Significant pre-surgery differences in plasma, and liver markers of oxidative stress and inflammation (including chemokine C-C motif ligand 2, paraoxonase-1, galectin-3, and sonic hedgehog) were observed between patients with, and those without, NASH; post-surgery indicated consistent improvements in these parameters. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that the histology and liver function of patients with morbid obesity are significantly improved after LSG via mechanisms that involve the reduction of oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. These data encourage the use of LSG as a therapeutic option to improve, or resolve, NAFLD.


Assuntos
Gastrectomia/métodos , Inflamação/terapia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/cirurgia , Estresse Oxidativo , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/cirurgia , Laparoscopia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/terapia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 132: 110645, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254591

RESUMO

The flavonolignan silibinin is the major component of the extract isolated from the seeds of the milk thistle (Silybum marianum). Herein, we performed an in silico analysis focusing on the molecular docking of the putative atomic interactions between silibinin and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an adenosine triphosphate-dependent molecular chaperone differentially expressed in response to microenvironmental stress. Time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer was employed to measure the capacity of silibinin to inhibit Hsp90 binding to other co-chaperones with enzymatic activity. Whereas silibinin is predicted to interact with several pockets in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Hsp90α and ß, its highest-ranking docked poses significantly overlap with those of novobiocin, a well-characterized Hsp90 CTD-targeting inhibitor. The net biochemical effect of silibinin was to inhibit the efficiency of Hsp90α/ß CTD binding to its co-chaperone PPID/cyclophilin D in the low millimolar range, equivalent to that observed for novobiocin. The hepatotoxicant behavior of silibinin solely occurred at concentrations several thousand times higher than those of the Hsp90 N-terminal inhibitor geldanamycin. Silibinin might be viewed as a non-hepatotoxic, novobiocin-like Hsp90 inhibitor that binds the CTD to induce changes in Hsp90 conformation and alter Hsp90-co-chaperone-client interactions, thereby providing new paths to developing safe and efficacious Hsp90 inhibitors.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/metabolismo , Silibina/metabolismo , Silibina/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sítios de Ligação , Ciclofilinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/química , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Novobiocina/química , Novobiocina/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Multimerização Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Silibina/química , Superóxidos/metabolismo
14.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 131: 110529, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150784

RESUMO

The health promoting effects of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) relate to its unique repertoire of phenolic compounds. Here, we used a chemoinformatics approach to computationally identify endogenous ligands and assign putative biomolecular targets to oleacein, one of the most abundant secoiridoids in EVOO. Using a structure-based virtual profiling software tool and reference databases containing more than 9000 binding sites protein cavities, we identified 996 putative oleacein targets involving more than 700 proteins. We subsequently identified the high-level functions of oleacein in terms of biomolecular interactions, signaling pathways, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Delineation of the oleacein target landscape revealed that the most significant modules affected by oleacein were associated with metabolic processes (e.g., glucose and lipid metabolism) and chromatin-modifying enzymatic activities (i.e., histone post-translational modifications). We experimentally confirmed that, in a low-micromolar physiological range (<20 µmol/l), oleacein was capable of inhibiting the catalytic activities of predicted metabolic and epigenetic targets including nicotinamide N-methyltransferase, ATP-citrate lyase, lysine-specific demethylase 6A, and N-methyltransferase 4. Our computational de-orphanization of oleacein provides new mechanisms through which EVOO biophenols might operate as chemical prototypes capable of modulating the biologic machinery of healthy aging.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/química , ATP Citrato (pro-S)-Liase/metabolismo , Aldeídos/química , Domínio Catalítico , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Epigenômica/métodos , Ontologia Genética/estatística & dados numéricos , Histona Desmetilases/química , Histona Desmetilases/metabolismo , Humanos , Informática/métodos , Metiltransferases/química , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferase/química , Nicotinamida N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Olea/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Fenóis/química , Ligação Proteica , Mapeamento de Interação de Proteínas , Software
15.
Cancer Metab ; 7: 3, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049200

RESUMO

Background: Serum and urine metabolites have been investigated for their use as cancer biomarkers. The specificity of candidate metabolites can be limited by the impact of other disorders on metabolite levels. In particular, the increasing incidence of obesity could become a significant confounding factor. Methods: Here we developed a multinomial classifier for the stratification of cancer, obesity and healthy phenotypes based on circulating glucose and formate levels. We quantified the classifier performance from the retrospective analysis of samples from breast cancer, lung cancer, obese individuals and healthy controls. Results: We discovered that circulating formate levels are significantly lower in breast and lung cancer patients than in healthy controls. However, the performance of a cancer classifier based on formate levels alone is limited because obese patients also have low serum formate levels. By introducing a multinomial classifier based on circulating glucose and formate levels, we were able to improve the classifier performance, reaching a true positive rate of 79% with a false positive rate of 8%. Conclusions: Circulating formate is reduced in HER2+ breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer and highly obese patients relative to healthy controls. Further studies are required to determine the relevance of these observations in other cancer types and diseases.

16.
Nutrients ; 11(5)2019 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31137923

RESUMO

Abstract: Postprandial lipemia can lead to an accumulation of atherogenic lipoproteins in the circulation associated with systemic low-grade inflammation and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Lifestyle and pharmacological treatments are usually prescribed for prevention. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), as an anti-atherogenic agent, is being taken into consideration due to its potential beneficial effects in lipid metabolism and its anti-inflammatory potency. To assess the effects of vitamin D3 in the postprandial lipid profile in obese, vitamin D-deficient women, a non-targeted lipidomics approach using liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of flight mass spectrometer was used to identify and quantitate a wide-range of circulating lipid species, including diglycerides, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, sphingomyelins and triglycerides. The most important changes were found in plasmatic sphingomyelin levels, which experience a decrease after vitamin D3 intake. Our results suggest a turnover of sphingomyelins, probably due to an increased activity of neutral sphingomyelinases, and, therefore, with implications in the clearance of chylomicrons, LDL and VLDL, decreasing postprandial inflammation and macrophage adherence to endothelia, potentially improving cardiovascular disease risk.


Assuntos
Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Lipidômica/métodos , Lipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Período Pós-Prandial , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico
17.
Cell ; 177(4): 881-895.e17, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31051106

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver is the most common liver disease worldwide. Here, we show that the mitochondrial protein mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) protects against liver disease. Reduced Mfn2 expression was detected in liver biopsies from patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Moreover, reduced Mfn2 levels were detected in mouse models of steatosis or NASH, and its re-expression in a NASH mouse model ameliorated the disease. Liver-specific ablation of Mfn2 in mice provoked inflammation, triglyceride accumulation, fibrosis, and liver cancer. We demonstrate that Mfn2 binds phosphatidylserine (PS) and can specifically extract PS into membrane domains, favoring PS transfer to mitochondria and mitochondrial phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) synthesis. Consequently, hepatic Mfn2 deficiency reduces PS transfer and phospholipid synthesis, leading to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the development of a NASH-like phenotype and liver cancer. Ablation of Mfn2 in liver reveals that disruption of ER-mitochondrial PS transfer is a new mechanism involved in the development of liver disease.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fosfatidilserinas/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/fisiologia , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Transporte Proteico/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
18.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(9): 2874-2888, 2019 05 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076561

RESUMO

Certain dietary interventions might improve the therapeutic index of cancer treatments. An alternative to the "drug plus diet" approach is the pharmacological reproduction of the metabolic traits of such diets. Here we explored the impact of adding metformin to an established therapeutic regimen on the systemic host metabolism of cancer patients. A panel of 11 serum metabolites including markers of mitochondrial function and intermediates/products of folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism were measured in paired baseline and post-treatment sera obtained from HER2-positive breast cancer patients randomized to receive either metformin combined with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and trastuzumab or an equivalent regimen without metformin. Metabolite profiles revealed a significant increase of the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate and of the TCA intermediate α-ketoglutarate in the metformin-containing arm. A significant relationship was found between the follow-up levels of homocysteine and the ability of treatment arms to achieve a pathological complete response (pCR). In the metformin-containing arm, patients with significant elevations of homocysteine tended to have a higher probability of pCR. The addition of metformin to an established anti-cancer therapeutic regimen causes a fasting-mimicking modification of systemic host metabolism. Circulating homocysteine could be explored as a clinical pharmacodynamic biomarker linking the antifolate-like activity of metformin and biological tumor response.

19.
Front Oncol ; 9: 193, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30984619

RESUMO

Background: The minor allele (C) of the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11212617, located near the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, has been associated with an increased likelihood of treatment success with metformin in type 2 diabetes. We herein investigated whether the same SNP would predict clinical response to neoadjuvant metformin in women with early breast cancer (BC). Methods: DNA was collected from 79 patients included in the intention-to-treat population of the METTEN study, a phase 2 clinical trial of HER2-positive BC patients randomized to receive either metformin combined with anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy and trastuzumab or equivalent regimen without metformin, before surgery. SNP rs11212617 genotyping was assessed using allelic discrimination by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: Logistic regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between the rs11212617 genotype and the ability of treatment arms to achieve a pathological complete response (pCR) in patients (odds ratio [OR]genotype×arm = 10.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-82.89, p = 0.028). In the metformin-containing arm, patients bearing the rs11212617 C allele had a significantly higher probability of pCR (OR A/C,C/C = 7.94, 95%CI: 1.60-39.42, p = 0.011). Conversely, no association was found between rs11212617 and clinical response in the reference arm (OR A/C,C/C = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.20-2.92, p = 0.700). After controlling for tumor size and hormone receptor status, the rs11212617 C allele remained a significant predictor of pCR solely in the metformin-containing arm. Conclusions: If reproducible, the rs11212617 C allele might warrant consideration as a predictive clinical biomarker to inform the personalized use of metformin in BC patients. Trial Registration: EU Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT number 2011-000490-30. Registered 28 February 2011, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2011-000490-30/ES.

20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935093

RESUMO

An ever-growing number of preclinical studies have investigated the tumoricidal activity of the milk thistle flavonolignan silibinin. The clinical value of silibinin as a bona fide anti-cancer therapy, however, remains uncertain with respect to its bioavailability and blood⁻brain barrier (BBB) permeability. To shed some light on the absorption and bioavailability of silibinin, we utilized the Caco-2 cell monolayer model of human intestinal absorption to evaluate the permeation properties of three different formulations of silibinin: silibinin-meglumine, a water-soluble form of silibinin complexed with the amino-sugar meglumine; silibinin-phosphatidylcholine, the phytolipid delivery system Siliphos; and Eurosil85/Euromed, a milk thistle extract that is the active component of the nutraceutical Legasil with enhanced bioavailability. Our approach predicted differential mechanisms of transport and blood⁻brain barrier permeabilities between the silibinin formulations tested. Our assessment might provide valuable information about an idoneous silibinin formulation capable of reaching target cancer tissues and accounting for the observed clinical effects of silibinin, including a recently reported meaningful central nervous system activity against brain metastases.


Assuntos
Silibina/metabolismo , Barreira Hematorretiniana/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cardo-Mariano/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
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