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1.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(10)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34683867

RESUMO

Drug delivery devices used for aerosol therapy during mechanical ventilation to ease the symptoms of respiratory diseases provide beneficial treatment but can also pose challenges. Reflecting the significant changes in global guidance around aerosol usage and lung-protective ventilation strategies, seen in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, for the first time, we describe the drug delivery performance of commonly used devices under these conditions. Here, vibrating mesh nebuliser (VMN), jet nebuliser (JN) and pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) performance was assessed during simulated adult mechanical ventilation. Both standard test breathing patterns and those representatives of low tidal volume (LTV) ventilation with concurrent active and passive humidification were investigated. Drug delivery using a VMN was significantly greater than that with a JN and pMDI for both standard and LTV ventilation. Humidification type did not affect the delivered dose across all device types for standard ventilation. Significant variability in the pMDI dosing was evident, depending on the timing of actuation and the adapter type used. pMDI actuation synchronised with inspiration resulted in a higher delivered drug dose. The type of adapter used for pMDI actuation influenced drug delivery, with the highest dose observed using the CombiHaler.

2.
Drug Deliv ; 28(1): 1496-1500, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259091

RESUMO

COVID-19 can cause serious respiratory complications resulting in the need for invasive ventilatory support and concurrent aerosol therapy. Aerosol therapy is considered a high risk procedure for the transmission of patient derived infectious aerosol droplets. Critical-care workers are considered to be at a high risk of inhaling such infectious droplets. The objective of this work was to use noninvasive optical methods to visualize the potential release of aerosol droplets during aerosol therapy in a model of an invasively ventilated adult patient. The noninvasive Schlieren imaging technique was used to visualize the movement of air and aerosol. Three different aerosol delivery devices: (i) a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), (ii) a compressed air driven jet nebulizer (JN), and (iii) a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN), were used to deliver an aerosolized therapeutic at two different positions: (i) on the inspiratory limb at the wye and (ii) on the patient side of the wye, between the wye and endotracheal tube, to a simulated intubated adult patient. Irrespective of position, there was a significant release of air and aerosol from the ventilator circuit during aerosol delivery with the pMDI and the compressed air driven JN. There was no such release when aerosol therapy was delivered with a closed-circuit VMN. Selection of aerosol delivery device is a major determining factor in the release of infectious patient derived bioaerosol from an invasively mechanically ventilated patient receiving aerosol therapy.


Assuntos
Aerossóis , COVID-19 , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Inaladores Dosimetrados , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Terapia Respiratória , Aerossóis/administração & dosagem , Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/transmissão , Terapia Combinada , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/normas , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Projetos de Pesquisa , Terapia Respiratória/efeitos adversos , Terapia Respiratória/instrumentação , Terapia Respiratória/métodos , Gestão de Riscos , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(7): 592, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33987290

RESUMO

The risk of unintended inhalation of fugitive aerosols is becoming a topic of increasing interest in the healthcare arena. These fugitive aerosols may be bioaerosols, generated by the patient themselves through cough or sneeze, or they may be therapeutic medical aerosols, generated by therapeutic medical aerosol generators with the intent of delivery to a specific patient's respiratory tract. This review focus' on therapeutic aerosols in the intensive care unit (ICU) only, those typically generated by nebulisers. In the intensive care environment, patients are generally in receipt of ventilatory support, and the literature suggests that these different support interventions influence fugitive therapeutic medical aerosol emissions in a variety of ways. Predominant ventilatory support interventions include, but are not limited to, invasive mechanical ventilation (MV), non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV), high flow nasal therapy (HFNT), and supplemental oxygen delivery in spontaneously breathing patients. Further, factors such as nebuliser type, patient interface, patient breathing pattern, nebuliser position in the patient breathing circuit and medication formulation characteristics also have been shown to exert influence on aerosol concentrations and distance from the source. Here we present the state of the art knowledge in this, as yet, poorly described field of research, and identify the key risks, and subsequently, opportunities to mitigate the risks of unintended exposure of both patients and bystanders during and for periods following the administration of therapeutic aerosols.

4.
Antibiotics (Basel) ; 10(5)2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919035

RESUMO

Lung disease is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). CF patients inhale antibiotics regularly as treatment against persistent bacterial infections. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of clinical intervention on aerosol therapy during the escalation of care using a bench model of adult CF. Droplet size analysis of selected antibiotics was completed in tandem with the delivered aerosol dose (% of total dose) assessments in simulations of various interventions providing oxygen supplementation or ventilatory support. Results highlight the variability of aerosolised dose delivery. In the homecare setting, the vibrating mesh nebuliser (VMN) delivered significantly more than the jet nebuliser (JN) (16.15 ± 0.86% versus 6.51 ± 2.15%). In the hospital setting, using VMN only, significant variability was seen across clinical interventions. In the emergency department, VMN plus mouthpiece (no supplemental oxygen) was seen to deliver (29.02 ± 1.41%) versus low flow nasal therapy (10 L per minute (LPM) oxygen) (1.81 ± 0.47%) and high flow nasal therapy (50 LPM oxygen) (3.36 ± 0.34%). In the ward/intensive care unit, non-invasive ventilation recorded 19.02 ± 0.28%, versus 22.64 ± 1.88% of the dose delivered during invasive mechanical ventilation. These results will have application in the design of intervention-appropriate aerosol therapy strategies and will be of use to researchers developing new therapeutics for application in cystic fibrosis and beyond.

5.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 8(1)2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for alternative short-term, reliable means to aid in the treatment of patients requiring ventilatory support. Concurrent aerosol drug delivery is often prescribed to such patients. As such, this study examines one such short-term option, the disposable gas-powered transport ventilator to effectively deliver aerosol therapy. Factors such as aerosol generator type, patient breathing pattern, humidification and nebuliser position within the respiratory circuit were also examined. METHODS: Aerosol drug delivery characterisation was undertaken using two different disposable transport ventilators (DTVs). Two different nebuliser types, a closed circuit vibrating mesh nebuliser (VMN) and an open circuit jet nebuliser (JN), at different locations in a respiratory circuit, proximal and distal to an endotracheal tube (ETT), with and without passive humidification, were evaluated in simulated adult and paediatric patients. RESULTS: Placement of a nebuliser proximal to the ETT (VMN: 25.19%-34.15% and JN: 3.14%-8.92%), and the addition of a heat and moisture exchange filter (VMN: 32.37%-40.43% and JN: 5.60%-9.91%) resulted in the largest potential lung dose in the adult patient model. Irrespective of nebuliser position and humidification in the respiratory circuit, use of the VMN resulted in the largest potential lung dose (%). A similar trend was recorded in the paediatric model data, where the largest potential lung dose was recorded with both nebuliser types placed proximal to the ETT (VMN: 8.12%-10.89% and JN: 2.15%-3.82%). However, the addition of a heat and moisture exchange filter had no statistically significant effect on the potential lung dose (%) a paediatric patient would receive (p>>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that transport ventilators, such as DTVs, can be used concurrently with aerosol generators to effectively deliver aerosolised medication in both adult and paediatric patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Equipamentos Descartáveis , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Respiração Artificial/instrumentação , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Aerossóis , Albuterol/uso terapêutico , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Curr Opin Psychol ; 37: 152-157, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588325

RESUMO

Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is an intervention with demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness for individuals with borderline personality disorder. In recent years, research has shifted focus to the evaluation of DBT implementation in routine clinical settings. In this article, we consider the empirical evidence that guides clinicians and managers in health services with local implementation of DBT in community settings. Research on this topic has most recently advanced to the evaluation of coordinated implementation efforts. Although coordinated implementation has merit, it does not mitigate all implementation challenges. Consideration of implementation facilitators and barriers in DBT can also be applied to other evidence-based interventions for BPD and for adaptations for individuals with early-stage symptomatology. Ongoing research and evaluation in these areas is recommended.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Saúde Pública
7.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(2)2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540764

RESUMO

COVID-19 may lead to serious respiratory complications which may necessitate ventilatory support. There is concern surrounding potential release of patient-derived bioaerosol during nebuliser drug refill, which could impact the health of caregivers. Consequently, mesh nebulisers have been recommended by various clinical practice guidelines. Currently, there is a lack of empirical data describing the potential for release of patient-derived bioaerosol during drug refill. This study examined the release of simulated patient-derived bioaerosol, and the effect on positive end expiratory pressure during nebuliser refill during mechanical ventilation of a simulated patient. During jet nebuliser refill, the positive end expiratory pressure decreased from 4.5 to 0 cm H2O. No loss in pressure was noted during vibrating mesh nebuliser refill. A median particle number concentration of 710 particles cm-3 above ambient was detected when refilling the jet nebuliser in comparison to no increase above ambient detected when using the vibrating mesh nebuliser. The jet nebuliser with the endotracheal tube clamped resulted in 60 particles cm-3 above ambient levels. This study confirms that choice of nebuliser impacts both the potential for patient-derived bioaerosol release and the ability to maintain ventilator circuit pressures and validates the recommended use of mesh nebulisers during mechanical ventilation.

8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 594470, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193445

RESUMO

Recent evidence indicates that local immune responses and tissue resident memory T cells (TRM) are critical for protection against respiratory infections but there is little information on the contributions of upper and lower respiratory tract (URT and LRT) immunity. To provide a rational basis for designing methods for optimal delivery of vaccines to the respiratory tract in a large animal model, we investigated the distribution of droplets generated by a mucosal atomization device (MAD) and two vibrating mesh nebulizers (VMNs) and the immune responses induced by delivery of influenza virus by MAD in pigs. We showed that droplets containing the drug albuterol, a radiolabel (99mTc-DTPA), or a model influenza virus vaccine (S-FLU) have similar aerosol characteristics. 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy showed that VMNs deliver droplets with uniform distribution throughout the lungs as well as the URT. Surprisingly MAD administration (1ml/nostril) also delivered a high proportion of the dose to the lungs, albeit concentrated in a small area. After MAD administration of influenza virus, antigen specific T cells were found at high frequency in nasal turbinates, trachea, broncho-alveolar lavage, lungs, tracheobronchial nodes, and blood. Anti-influenza antibodies were detected in serum, BAL and nasal swabs. We conclude that the pig is useful for investigating optimal targeting of vaccines to the respiratory tract.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Suínos/virologia , Imunidade Adaptativa , Administração Intranasal , Aerossóis , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Suínos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
9.
Crisis ; : 1-14, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33063542

RESUMO

Background: Infectious disease-related public health emergencies (epidemics) may increase suicide risk, and high-quality evidence is needed to guide an international response. Aims: We investigated the potential impacts of epidemics on suicide-related outcomes. Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, PsyArXiv, medRxiv, and bioRxiv from inception to May 13-16, 2020. Inclusion criteria: primary studies, reviews, and meta-analyses; reporting the impact of epidemics; with a primary outcome of suicide, suicidal behavior, suicidal ideation, and/or self-harm. Exclusion criteria: not concerned with suicide-related outcomes; not suitable for data extraction. PROSPERO registration: #CRD42020187013. Results: Eight primary papers were included, examining the effects of five epidemics on suicide-related outcomes. There was evidence of increased suicide rates among older adults during SARS and in the year following the epidemic (possibly motivated by social disconnectedness, fears of virus infection, and concern about burdening others) and associations between SARS/Ebola exposure and increased suicide attempts. A preprint study reported associations between COVID-19 distress and past-month suicidal ideation. Limitations: Few studies have investigated the topic; these are of relatively low methodological quality. Conclusion: Findings support an association between previous epidemics and increased risk of suicide-related outcomes. Research is needed to investigate the impact of COVID-19 on suicide outcomes.

10.
J Neurosci ; 40(43): 8306-8328, 2020 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989097

RESUMO

The delicate balance among primate prefrontal networks is necessary for homeostasis and behavioral flexibility. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) is associated with cognition, while the most ventromedial subgenual cingulate area 25 (A25) is associated with emotion and emotional expression. Yet A25 is weakly connected with dlPFC, and it is unknown how the two regions communicate. In rhesus monkeys of both sexes, we investigated how these functionally distinct areas may interact through pregenual anterior cingulate area 32 (A32), which is strongly connected with both. We found that dlPFC innervated the deep layers of A32, while A32 innervated all layers of A25, mostly targeting spines of excitatory neurons. Approximately 20% of A32 terminations formed synapses on inhibitory neurons in A25, notably the powerful parvalbumin inhibitory neurons in the deep layers, and the disinhibitory calretinin neurons in the superficial layers. By innervating distinct inhibitory microenvironments in laminar compartments, A32 is positioned to tune activity in columns of A25. The circuitry of the sequential pathway indicates that when dlPFC is engaged, A32 can dampen A25 output through the parvalbumin inhibitory microsystem in the deep layers of A25. A32 thus may flexibly recruit or reduce activity in A25 to maintain emotional equilibrium, a process that is disrupted in depression. Moreover, pyramidal neurons in A25 had a heightened density of NMDARs, which are the targets of novel rapid-acting antidepressants. Pharmacologic antagonism of NMDARs in patients with depression may reduce excitability in A25, mimicking the effects of the neurotypical serial pathway identified here.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The anterior cingulate is a critical hub in prefrontal networks through connections with functionally distinct areas. Dorsolateral and polar prefrontal areas that are associated with complex cognition are connected with the anterior cingulate in a pattern that allows them to indirectly control downstream activity from the anterior cingulate to the subgenual cingulate, which is associated with heightened activity and negative affect in depression. This set of pathways provides a circuit mechanism for emotional regulation, with the anterior cingulate playing a balancing role for integration of cognitive and emotional processes. Disruption of these pathways may perturb network function and the ability to regulate cognitive and affective processes based on context.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Animais , Antidepressivos/farmacologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Calbindina 2/fisiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Parvalbuminas/fisiologia , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Sinapses/fisiologia
11.
Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann ; 28(6): 336-338, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32539424

RESUMO

Rapidly progressive epicardial hemorrhagic blebs during weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass after perimembranous ventricular septal defect closure has not been reported previously. Here, we describe the case of a 3-month-old baby with life-threatening epicardial hemorrhagic blebs and an interventricular septal hematoma after perimembranous ventricular septal defect patch closure.


Assuntos
Vesícula/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Hematoma/etiologia , Pericárdio/transplante , Vesícula/diagnóstico por imagem , Evolução Fatal , Comunicação Interventricular/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino
12.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 235, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The implementation of evidence-based interventions for borderline personality disorder in community settings is important given that individuals with this diagnosis are often extensive users of both inpatient and outpatient mental health services. Although work in this area is limited, previous studies have identified facilitators and barriers to successful DBT implementation. This study seeks to expand on previous work by evaluating a coordinated implementation of DBT in community settings at a national level. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) (Damschroder et al., Implementation Sci. 4:50, 2009) provided structural guidance for this national level coordinated implementation. METHODS: A mixed methods approach was utilised to explore the national multisite implementation of DBT from the perspective of team leaders and therapists who participated in the coordinated training and subsequent implementation of DBT. Qualitative interviews with DBT team leaders (n = 8) explored their experiences of implementing DBT in their local service and was analysed using content analysis. Quantitative surveys from DBT therapists (n = 74) examined their experience of multiple aspects of the implementation process including orienting the system, and preparations and support for implementation. Frequencies of responses were calculated. Written qualitative feedback was analysed using content analysis. RESULTS: Five themes were identified from the interview data: team formation, implementation preparation, client selection, service level challenges and team leader role. Participants identified team size and support for the team leader as key points for consideration in DBT implementation. Key challenges encountered were the lack of system support to facilitate phone coaching and a lack of allocated time to focus on DBT. Implementation facilitators included having dedicated team members and support from management. CONCLUSIONS: The barriers and facilitators identified in this study are broadly similar to those reported in previous research. Barriers and facilitators were identified across several domains of the CFIR and are consistent with a recently published DBT implementation Framework (Toms et al., Borderline Personal Disord Emot Dysregul. 6: 2, 2019). Future research should pay particular attention to the domain of characteristics of individuals involved in DBT implementation. The results highlight the importance of a mandated service plan for the coordinated implementation of an evidence-based treatment in a public health service. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT03180541; Registered June 7th 2017 'retrospectively registered'.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Humanos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021690

RESUMO

Background: Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based intervention for borderline personality disorder (BPD) but is an intensive treatment with significant health service costs. Access to DBT can sometimes be restricted due to limited resources. Positive results have been reported for the use of DBT skills training (DBT-ST), one of the four modes of standard DBT, in the treatment of individuals with BPD who self-harm. This study evaluates DBT-ST for a subgroup of individuals attending community mental health services who may have a diagnosis of BPD (or emerging BPD traits) but who are not actively self-harming. Methods: Participants in this study were 100 adults attending community mental health services with a diagnosis of BPD, emerging BPD traits or emotion dysregulation who were not actively self-harming. The majority of participants were female (71%), aged 25-34 years (32%), single (48%) and unemployed (34%). Participants partook in a 24-week DBT-ST intervention delivered by DBT therapists. Outcome measures included the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), the DBT Ways of Coping Checklist (DBT-WCCL) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ). Measures were administered at pre-intervention, at the end of each skills module, and at post-intervention. Results: Significant reductions in emotion dysregulation (DERS) and dysfunctional coping (DBT-WCCL) scores were reported from pre- to post-intervention (p < .001). A significant increase in mindfulness scores (FFMQ) and DBT skill use (DBT-WCCL) was also observed (p < .001). However, the drop-out rate was high (49% at post-intervention). Discussion: The results of this uncontrolled study suggest that a standalone 24-week DBT-ST intervention may have a beneficial impact in terms of a reduction in emotion dysregulation and dysfunctional coping, and an increase in mindfulness and DBT skills use in patients with BPD/ emerging BPD traits who are not currently engaging in self-harm. Adequately powered randomised controlled trials are required to determine treatment efficacy in comparison to standard DBT for this population.

14.
Ir J Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2020 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973788

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous research indicates that dialectical behaviour therapy for adolescents (DBT-A) is effective in treating emotionally dysregulated adolescents with self-harm and/or suicidal ideation. As part of the DBT-A programme, parents attend the weekly skills group with their child. However, few studies have evaluated parental outcomes in DBT-A. This multi-site study aims to explore the outcomes and experiences of parents who participated in a 16-week DBT-A programme in Ireland. METHODS: This study was conducted in community-based child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) in the national public health system in Ireland. Participants were parent/guardians of adolescents attending a DBT-A programme in their local CAMHS. Participants attended the group skills component of the DBT-A programme. This study utilised a mixed methods approach where both quantitative and qualitative data were collected from participants. Self-report measures of burden, grief and parental stress were completed at pre-intervention, post-intervention and 16-week follow-up. Qualitative written feedback was obtained at post-intervention. The data were analysed using multi-level linear mixed-effects models and content analysis. RESULTS: One hundred participants (76% female) took part in this study. Significant decreases were reported for objective burden, subjective burden, grief and parental stress from pre- to post-intervention (p < 0.01). Participants reported that the skills component of DBT-A was useful in meeting their own needs and the needs of their child. DISCUSSION: DBT-A shows promise for parents as well as their adolescent child. Future studies should evaluate changes to family relationships following completion of the programme and also include controlled comparison groups.

15.
J Pers Disord ; 34(3): 377-393, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307826

RESUMO

Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an effective intervention for treating adults with emotional and behavioral dysregulation. The National DBT Project, Ireland was established in 2013 to coordinate the implementation of DBT across public community mental health settings at a national level. This study describes the implementation and evaluation of DBT across multiple independent sites in adult mental health services (AMHS). The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to guide this national implementation where barriers and facilitators to DBT implementation were considered. Nine AMHS teams completed DBT training and delivered the standard 12-month program. One hundred and ninety-six adults with borderline personality disorder participated in the program, and outcome measures were recorded at four time points. Significant reductions on outcome measures, including frequency of self-harm and suicidal ideation, were observed. This study highlights that DBT can be successfully implemented in community mental health settings as part of a coordinated implementation.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental/organização & administração , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético/métodos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Ir J Med Sci ; 189(2): 415-423, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482522

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This paper investigates the cost-effectiveness of dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) for treating individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) in a community setting in Ireland, in the short term. METHODS: Resource utilisation and effectiveness data were collected as part of the National DBT Project, Ireland, and are incorporated into a cost-effectiveness analysis. The perspective taken was that of the service provider and payer. Direct health resources were included and effectiveness was measured using the EQ-5D-5L questionnaire. To examine cost-effectiveness, incremental costs are compared with incremental quality-adjusted life years, to estimate an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was employed to investigate parameter uncertainty. Scenario analyses are employed to investigate cost-effectiveness of DBT with varying assumptions around effectiveness and costs. RESULTS: The baseline analysis reveals that DBT is more expensive and more effective than routine clinical care (without DBT). The low incremental cost-effectiveness ratio suggests DBT can be considered cost effective in the short term. In each scenario analyses considered, the probability that DBT is cost effective is greater than 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health care provision, including that of DBT, varies across jurisdictions, necessitating economic evaluations of current practice in community-based services, on a country-by-country basis, to inform resource allocation decisions. In line with previous research, the analysis here indicates DBT can be considered cost effective in the short term. Future data collection on alternative comparators and long-term outcomes associated with DBT is warranted to investigate the longer term cost-effectiveness of DBT.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício/métodos , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Irlanda , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31372226

RESUMO

Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is considered to be a challenging condition for clinicians to treat. Clinicians routinely working with individuals who experience severe emotional dysregulation often do not receive appropriate training and support to work with this client group. This article describes an intervention, Clinician Connections (CC), which was developed to support practitioners who work with individuals with BPD. CC aims to increase practitioner's knowledge of BPD, develop a skillset to work with emotionally dysregulated individuals and enhance practitioner's self-efficacy with regard to working effectively with this client group. The aim of this study is to investigate the perceived utility and acceptability of CC, and identify areas for further development of the intervention. Method: A seven-hour CC workshop was provided to Emergency Department and community mental health clinicians. Three focus groups were completed following completion of the intervention with 13 clinicians (12 female; 1 male) and were audio recorded. The study utilised a thematic analysis framework. Results: Six master themes emerged from the focus group data which included 10 subordinate themes. The master themes identified were: the need for training; a new understanding; validation; barriers to applying new skills; overcoming barriers to skill application; and future direction: practical application of skills. Participants reflected on how their new understanding of transactions and their own experiences affects their practice. They also noted improved client interactions and client relationships resulting from the use of validation. While there was an increase in participants' self-efficacy in working with individuals with BPD, a need for further skills and practice was also highlighted. Conclusion: The evidence presented here suggests that CC is both beneficial and feasible. Qualitative feedback suggests there is a need for further support in the strengthening and generalisation of skills. Suggestions were made by practitioners regarding potential improvements to the delivery of the workshop. Future research could evaluate the changes made to CC and focus on a quantitative approach to quantify the impact of CC.

18.
Addict Sci Clin Pract ; 14(1): 28, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Treating severe emotional dysregulation and co-occurring substance misuse is challenging. Dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive and evidence-based treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). It has been hypothesised that the skills training, which is a facet of the full DBT programme, might be effective for people with severe emotional dysregulation and other co-occurring conditions, but who do not meet the criteria for BPD. However, there is limited research on standalone DBT skills training for people with substance misuse and emotional dysregulation. METHODS: A mixed methods study employing an explanatory sequential design was conducted where participants with a dual diagnosis (n = 64) were recruited from a community-based public addiction treatment service in Ireland between March 2015 and January 2018. DBT therapists screened potential participants against the study eligibility criteria. Quantitative self-report measures examining emotion regulation, mindfulness, adaptive and maladaptive coping responses including substance misuse, and qualitative feedback from participants were collected. Quantitative data were summarised by their mean and standard deviation and multilevel linear mixed effects models were used to estimate the mean change from baseline to post-intervention and the 6-month follow-up period. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data. RESULTS: Quantitative results indicated reductions in binge drinking and use of Class A, B and C drug use from pre-intervention (T1) to the 6-month follow-up (T3). Additionally, significant improvements were noted for mindfulness practice and DBT skills use from T1 to T3 (p < 0.001). There were also significant reductions in dysfunctional coping and emotional dysregulation from T1 to T3 (p < 0.001). Significant differences were identified from pre to post intervention in reported substance use, p = 0.002. However, there were no significant differences between pre-intervention and 6-month follow up reports of substance use or at post-intervention to 6 month follow up. Qualitative findings indicated three superordinate themes in relation to participants' experiences of a DBT skills training programme, adapted from standard DBT: (1) new lease of life; (2) need for continued formal aftercare and (3) programme improvements. Participants described reductions in substance misuse, while having increased confidence to use the DBT skills they had learned in the programme to deal with difficult emotions and life stressors. CONCLUSIONS: This DBT skills training programme, adapted from standard DBT, showed positive results for participants and appears effective in treating people with co-occurring disorders. Qualitative results of this mixed methods study corroborate the quantitative results indicating that the experiences of participants have been positive. The study indicates that a DBT skills programme may provide a useful therapeutic approach to managing co-occurring symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Personalidade Borderline/terapia , Terapia do Comportamento Dialético/métodos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Plena
19.
Pharmaceutics ; 11(6)2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nebulised medical aerosols are designed to deliver drugs to the lungs to aid in the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, an unintended consequence is the potential for fugitive emissions during patient treatment, which may pose a risk factor in both clinical and homecare settings. METHODS: The current study examined the potential for fugitive emissions, using albuterol sulphate as a tracer aerosol during high-flow therapy. A nasal cannula was connected to a head model or alternatively, a interface was connected to a tracheostomy tube in combination with a simulated adult and paediatric breathing profile. Two aerodynamic particle sizers (APS) recorded time-series aerosol concentrations and size distributions at two different distances relative to the simulated patient. RESULTS: The results showed that the quantity and characteristics of the fugitive emissions were influenced by the interface type, patient type and supplemental gas-flow rate. There was a trend in the adult scenarios; as the flow rate increased, the fugitive emissions and the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol both decreased. The fugitive emissions were comparable when using the adult breathing profiles for the nasal cannula and tracheostomy interfaces; however, there was a noticeable distinction between the two interfaces when compared for the paediatric breathing profiles. The highest recorded aerosol concentration was 0.370 ± 0.046 mg m-3 from the tracheostomy interface during simulated paediatric breathing with a gas-flow rate of 20 L/min. The averaged MMAD across all combinations ranged from 1.248 to 1.793 µm by the APS at a distance of 0.8 m away from the patient interface. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results highlight the potential for secondary inhalation of fugitive emissions released during simulated aerosol treatment with concurrent high-flow therapy. The findings will help in developing policy and best practice for risk mitigation from fugitive emissions.

20.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 7(1): 20, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945044

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current clinical practice during high-flow nasal therapy (HFNT) involves utilization of a nasal cannula to provide humidification, with a facemask placed over the cannula to deliver aerosol. Few studies have compared aerosol delivery across various delivery interfaces during HFNT. The objective of this study was to address this gap in the literature and evaluate aerosol delivery using two nebulizer types across different drug delivery interfaces, nasal cannula, facemask, and mouthpiece, during simulated adult HFNT. METHODS: A facemask or mouthpiece and/or a nasal cannula were positioned on an anatomically correct adult head model. The head model was connected to a breathing simulator via a collection filter. Both healthy breathing pattern and distressed breathing patterns were utilized. Aerosol dose was determined by quantifying the mass of drug captured on a filter positioned distal to the trachea. RESULTS: During simulated healthy breathing, a significantly greater aerosol dose was observed when the vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) was integrated with HFNT alone, supplying aerosol and humidified air simultaneously (2.88 ± 0.15%), as opposed to using with a facemask (0.33 ± 0.07%, 1.62 ± 0.46%, and 1.07 ± 0.25% at 0 L/min (LPM), 2LPM, and 6LPM, respectively) or mouthpiece (0.56 ± 0.13%, 2.16 ± 0.06%, and 1.82 ± 0.41% at 0LPM, 2LPM, and 6LPM). In addition, aerosol delivery was also significantly greater when the VMN was integrated into simulated HFNT (2.88 ± 0.15%), in comparison with using the jet nebulizer (JN) with a facemask (0.82 ± 0.16%) or a mouthpiece (0.86 ± 0.11%). During simulated distressed breathing, a significantly greater aerosol dose was observed when the VMN was integrated with HFNT, supplying aerosol and humidified air simultaneously (6.81 ± 0.45%), compared with using a facemask (0.86 ± 0.04%, 2.96 ± 0.26%, and 4.23 ± 0.93% at 0LPM, 2LPM, and 6LPM) or mouthpiece (0.73 ± 0.37%, 0.97 ± 0.20%, and 3.11 ± 0.53% at 0LPM, 2LPM, and 6LPM, respectively). Aerosol delivery was also greater when the VMN was integrated into HFNT (6.81 ± 0.45%), in comparison with using the JN with a facemask (5.72 ± 0.71%) or a mouthpiece (0.69 ± 0.53%). Furthermore, across all drug delivery interfaces, and in line with previous reports, aerosol delivery was greater during simulated distressed breathing, in comparison with simulated healthy adult breathing. CONCLUSIONS: This article will be of considerable benefit in enhancing the understanding of aerosol delivery during HFNT, an increasingly adopted therapeutic intervention by healthcare professionals.

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