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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13847, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554864

RESUMO

The Guaymas Basin spreading center, at 2000 m depth in the Gulf of California, is overlain by a thick sedimentary cover. Across the basin, localized temperature anomalies, with active methane venting and seep fauna exist in response to magma emplacement into sediments. These sites evolve over thousands of years as magma freezes into doleritic sills and the system cools. Although several cool sites resembling cold seeps have been characterized, the hydrothermally active stage of an off-axis site was lacking good examples. Here, we present a multidisciplinary characterization of Ringvent, an ~1 km wide circular mound where hydrothermal activity persists ~28 km northwest of the spreading center. Ringvent provides a new type of intermediate-stage hydrothermal system where off-axis hydrothermal activity has attenuated since its formation, but remains evident in thermal anomalies, hydrothermal biota coexisting with seep fauna, and porewater biogeochemical signatures indicative of hydrothermal circulation. Due to their broad potential distribution, small size and limited life span, such sites are hard to find and characterize, but they provide critical missing links to understand the complex evolution of hydrothermal systems.

2.
ISME J ; 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562384

RESUMO

Most autotrophs use the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle for carbon fixation. In contrast, all currently described autotrophs from the Campylobacterota (previously Epsilonproteobacteria) use the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle (rTCA) instead. We discovered campylobacterotal epibionts ("Candidatus Thiobarba") of deep-sea mussels that have acquired a complete CBB cycle and may have lost most key genes of the rTCA cycle. Intriguingly, the phylogenies of campylobacterotal CBB cycle genes suggest they were acquired in multiple transfers from Gammaproteobacteria closely related to sulfur-oxidizing endosymbionts associated with the mussels, as well as from Betaproteobacteria. We hypothesize that "Ca. Thiobarba" switched from the rTCA cycle to a fully functional CBB cycle during its evolution, by acquiring genes from multiple sources, including co-occurring symbionts. We also found key CBB cycle genes in free-living Campylobacterota, suggesting that the CBB cycle may be more widespread in this phylum than previously known. Metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics confirmed high expression of CBB cycle genes in mussel-associated "Ca. Thiobarba". Direct stable isotope fingerprinting showed that "Ca. Thiobarba" has typical CBB signatures, suggesting that it uses this cycle for carbon fixation. Our discovery calls into question current assumptions about the distribution of carbon fixation pathways in microbial lineages, and the interpretation of stable isotope measurements in the environment.

3.
Nature ; 568(7750): 108-111, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918404

RESUMO

Ethane is the second most abundant component of natural gas in addition to methane, and-similar to methane-is chemically unreactive. The biological consumption of ethane under anoxic conditions was suggested by geochemical profiles at marine hydrocarbon seeps1-3, and through ethane-dependent sulfate reduction in slurries4-7. Nevertheless, the microorganisms and reactions that catalyse this process have to date remained unknown8. Here we describe ethane-oxidizing archaea that were obtained by specific enrichment over ten years, and analyse these archaea using phylogeny-based fluorescence analyses, proteogenomics and metabolite studies. The co-culture, which oxidized ethane completely while reducing sulfate to sulfide, was dominated by an archaeon that we name 'Candidatus Argoarchaeum ethanivorans'; other members were sulfate-reducing Deltaproteobacteria. The genome of Ca. Argoarchaeum contains all of the genes that are necessary for a functional methyl-coenzyme M reductase, and all subunits were detected in protein extracts. Accordingly, ethyl-coenzyme M (ethyl-CoM) was identified as an intermediate by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This indicated that Ca. Argoarchaeum initiates ethane oxidation by ethyl-CoM formation, analogous to the recently described butane activation by 'Candidatus Syntrophoarchaeum'9. Proteogenomics further suggests that oxidation of intermediary acetyl-CoA to CO2 occurs through the oxidative Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. The identification of an archaeon that uses ethane (C2H6) fills a gap in our knowledge of microorganisms that specifically oxidize members of the homologous alkane series (CnH2n+2) without oxygen. Detection of phylogenetic and functional gene markers related to those of Ca. Argoarchaeum at deep-sea gas seeps10-12 suggests that archaea that are able to oxidize ethane through ethyl-CoM are widespread members of the local communities fostered by venting gaseous alkanes around these seeps.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Archaea/metabolismo , Etano/metabolismo , Anaerobiose , Archaea/classificação , Archaea/enzimologia , Archaea/genética , Deltaproteobacteria/metabolismo , Etano/química , Gases/química , Gases/metabolismo , Golfo do México , Metano/biossíntese , Oxirredução , Oxirredutases/genética , Oxirredutases/isolamento & purificação , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Sulfatos/metabolismo , Sulfetos/metabolismo
4.
Environ Microbiol ; 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209867

RESUMO

One carbon (C1) metabolism plays an important role in marine carbon cycling but the dynamics and modes of C1 transformations are not fully understood. We made contemporaneous measurements of methylamine and methanol metabolism to elucidate the role of C1 compounds as sources of carbon, energy and nitrogen. Methanol and methylamine were predominantly used as an energy source in offshore waters (oxidation rate constant: kmethanol : 0.02-0.10 day-1 ; kmethylamine : 0.01-0.18 day-1 ), but were also important sources of biomass carbon in coastal waters (assimilation rate constant: kmethanol : 0.04-0.10 day-1 ; kmethylamine : 0.01-0.05 day-1 ). The relative extent of assimilation versus oxidation for these substrates correlated positively with chlorophyll, nutrients and heterotrophic bacterial production. Methanol oxidation and assimilation were stimulated significantly by nutrient addition. In contrast, methylamine metabolism was inhibited by ammonium or nitrate, suggesting that methylamine served as a nitrogen source. A preliminary metagenomic survey revealed a diverse population of putative C1-utilizing microorganisms. These results show that the remineralization of methylamine could provide both C and N sources for microbes. Both methanol and methylamine contribute to microbial energetic and carbon substrate demands with a distinctly different signature in nearshore versus offshore environments.

5.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9057, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955123

RESUMO

More than 2,000 historic shipwrecks spanning 500 years of history, rest on the Gulf of Mexico seafloor. Shipwrecks serve as artificial reefs and hotspots of biodiversity by providing hard substrate, something rare in deep ocean regions. The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill discharged crude oil into the deep Gulf. Because of physical, biological, and chemical interactions, DWH oil was deposited on the seafloor, where historic shipwrecks are present. This study examined sediment microbiomes at seven historic shipwrecks. Steel-hulled, World War II-era shipwrecks and wooden-hulled, 19th century shipwrecks within and outside of the surface oiled area and subsurface plume were examined. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequence libraries, sediment radiocarbon age data, sedimentation rates, and hydrocarbons revealed that the German U-boat U-166 and the wooden-hulled sailing vessel known as the Mardi Gras Wreck, both in the Mississippi Canyon leasing area, were exposed to deposited oil during a rapid sedimentation event. Impacts to shipwreck microbiomes included a significant increase in Piscirickettsiaceae-related sequences in surface sediments, and reduced biodiversity relative to unimpacted sites. This study is the first to address the impact of the spill on shipwreck-associated microbiomes, and to explore how shipwrecks themselves influence microbiome diversity in the deep sea.

7.
Cell ; 172(6): 1336-1336.e1, 2018 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522751

RESUMO

Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria are phylogenetically and physiologically diverse and employ layered strategies to sense hydrocarbons, respond transcriptionally, and then move toward an oil source. They then produce biopolymers that increase hydrocarbon bioavailability. This SnapShot highlights how these bacteria respond to and then remove hydrocarbon contaminants from the environment. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 23, 2018 01 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29295998

RESUMO

Size generally dictates metabolic requirements, trophic level, and consequently, ecosystem structure, where inefficient energy transfer leads to bottom-heavy ecosystem structure and biomass decreases as individual size (or trophic level) increases. However, many animals deviate from simple size-based predictions by either adopting generalist predatory behavior, or feeding lower in the trophic web than predicted from their size. Here we show that generalist predatory behavior and lower trophic feeding at large body size increase overall biomass and shift ecosystems from a bottom-heavy pyramid to a top-heavy hourglass shape, with the most biomass accounted for by the largest animals. These effects could be especially dramatic in the ocean, where primary producers are the smallest components of the ecosystem. This approach makes it possible to explore and predict, in the past and in the future, the structure of ocean ecosystems without biomass extraction and other impacts.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Peixes/fisiologia , Cadeia Alimentar , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Antozoários/classificação , Antozoários/fisiologia , Biomassa , Tamanho Corporal , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Pesqueiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesqueiros/tendências , Peixes/classificação , Oceanos e Mares , Plâncton/classificação , Plâncton/fisiologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia
9.
Extremophiles ; 21(5): 891-901, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28681112

RESUMO

Extremely cold microbial habitats on Earth (those below -30 °C) are rare and have not been surveyed for microbes as extensively as environments in the 0 to -20 °C range. Using cryoprotected growth media incubated at -5 °C, we enriched a cold-active Pseudomonas species from -50 °C ice collected from a utility tunnel for wastewater pipes under Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica. The isolate, strain UC-1, is related to other cold-active Pseudomonas species, most notably P. psychrophila, and grew at -5 °C to +34-37 °C; growth of UC-1 at +3 °C was significantly faster than at +34 °C. Strain UC-1 synthesized a surface exopolymer and high levels of unsaturated fatty acids under cold growth conditions. A 16S rRNA gene diversity screen of the ice sample that yielded strain UC-1 revealed over 1200 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) distributed across eight major classes of Bacteria. Many of the OTUs were Clostridia and Bacteriodia and some of these were probably of wastewater origin. However, a significant fraction of the OTUs were Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria of likely environmental origin. Our results shed light on the lower temperature limits to life and the possible existence of functional microbial communities in ultra-cold environments.


Assuntos
Frio Extremo , Microbiota , Pseudomonas/metabolismo , Águas Residuárias/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Regiões Antárticas , Clostridium/genética , Clostridium/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/metabolismo , Proteobactérias/genética , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Pseudomonas/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
10.
Environ Pollut ; 229: 329-338, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28605720

RESUMO

In April of 2010, the Macondo well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico resulted in an unprecedented release of oil into the water column at a depth of approximately 1500 m. A time series of surface and subsurface sediment samples were collected to the northwest of the well from 2010 to 2013 for molecular biomarker and bulk carbon isotopic analyses. While no clear trend was observed in subsurface sediments, surface sediments (0-3 cm) showed a clear pattern with total concentrations of n-alkanes, unresolved complex mixture (UCM), and petroleum biomarkers (terpanes, hopanes, steranes) increasing from May to September 2010, peaking in late November 2010, and strongly decreasing in the subsequent years. The peak in hydrocarbon concentrations were corroborated by higher organic carbon contents, more depleted Δ14C values and biomarker ratios similar to those of the initial MC252 crude oil reported in the literature. These results indicate that at least part of oil discharged from the accident sedimented to the seafloor in subsequent months, resulting in an apparent accumulation of hydrocarbons on the seabed by the end of 2010. Sediment resuspension and transport or biodegradation may account for the decrease in sedimented oil quantities in the years following the Macondo well spill.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Poluição por Petróleo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Alcanos/metabolismo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Sedimentos Geológicos/química , Golfo do México , Petróleo/análise
11.
J Biomol Tech ; 28(1): 31-39, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28337070

RESUMO

The Extreme Microbiome Project (XMP) is a project launched by the Association of Biomolecular Resource Facilities Metagenomics Research Group (ABRF MGRG) that focuses on whole genome shotgun sequencing of extreme and unique environments using a wide variety of biomolecular techniques. The goals are multifaceted, including development and refinement of new techniques for the following: 1) the detection and characterization of novel microbes, 2) the evaluation of nucleic acid techniques for extremophilic samples, and 3) the identification and implementation of the appropriate bioinformatics pipelines. Here, we highlight the different ongoing projects that we have been working on, as well as details on the various methods we use to characterize the microbiome and metagenome of these complex samples. In particular, we present data of a novel multienzyme extraction protocol that we developed, called Polyzyme or MetaPolyZyme. Presently, the XMP is characterizing sample sites around the world with the intent of discovering new species, genes, and gene clusters. Once a project site is complete, the resulting data will be publically available. Sites include Lake Hillier in Western Australia, the "Door to Hell" crater in Turkmenistan, deep ocean brine lakes of the Gulf of Mexico, deep ocean sediments from Greenland, permafrost tunnels in Alaska, ancient microbial biofilms from Antarctica, Blue Lagoon Iceland, Ethiopian toxic hot springs, and the acidic hypersaline ponds in Western Australia.


Assuntos
Microbiologia Ambiental , Microbiota/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Ambientes Extremos , Metagenoma , Tipagem Molecular/normas , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Padrões de Referência , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
12.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 409(4): 971-978, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888309

RESUMO

At the onset of the 2010 Gulf oil spill, analytical methods for the quantification of the surfactants in Corexit did not exist in the peer-reviewed literature. To date, only a single study reports the presence of bis-(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (DOSS) in deep-sea Gulf sediment collected in 2010 from a single location. There are no data on the occurrence of DOSS in association with settling solids (i.e., sediment-trap solids). To address this data gap, DOSS was initially quantified by liquid chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in sediment and sediment-trap solids collected from multiple sites in the Gulf between 2010 and 2013. However, interferences confounded analyses using only a quadrupole (MS/MS) system; therefore, a LC-high mass accuracy quadruple time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) method was developed. The LC-QTOF method was validated and applied to eight representative samples of sediment and of sediment-trap solids. The presented method quantifies DOSS in solids of marine origin at concentrations above the limit of quantification of 0.23 µg kg-1 with recoveries of 97 ± 20 % (mean ± 95 CI). Gulf sediment and sediment-trap solids gave DOSS concentrations of

13.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 1384, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27679609

RESUMO

A major fraction of the petroleum hydrocarbons discharged during the 2010 Macondo oil spill became associated with and sank to the seafloor as marine snow flocs. This sedimentation pulse induced the development of distinct bacterial communities. Between May 2010 and July 2011, full-length 16S rRNA gene clone libraries demonstrated bacterial community succession in oil-polluted sediment samples near the wellhead area. Libraries from early May 2010, before the sedimentation event, served as the baseline control. Freshly deposited oil-derived marine snow was collected on the surface of sediment cores in September 2010, and was characterized by abundantly detected members of the marine Roseobacter cluster within the Alphaproteobacteria. Samples collected in mid-October 2010 closest to the wellhead contained members of the sulfate-reducing, anaerobic bacterial families Desulfobacteraceae and Desulfobulbaceae within the Deltaproteobacteria, suggesting that the oil-derived sedimentation pulse triggered bacterial oxygen consumption and created patchy anaerobic microniches that favored sulfate-reducing bacteria. Phylotypes of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading genus Cycloclasticus, previously found both in surface oil slicks and the deep hydrocarbon plume, were also found in oil-derived marine snow flocs sedimenting on the seafloor in September 2010, and in surficial sediments collected in October and November 2010, but not in any of the control samples. Due to the relative recalcitrance and stability of polycyclic aromatic compounds, Cycloclasticus represents the most persistent microbial marker of seafloor hydrocarbon deposition that we could identify in this dataset. The bacterial imprint of the DWH oil spill had diminished in late November 2010, when the bacterial communities in oil-impacted sediment samples collected near the Macondo wellhead began to resemble their pre-spill counterparts and spatial controls. Samples collected in summer of 2011 did not show a consistent bacterial community signature, suggesting that the bacterial community was no longer shaped by the DWH fallout of oil-derived marine snow, but instead by location-specific and seasonal factors.

14.
Front Microbiol ; 7: 1173, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27536274

RESUMO

"Candidatus Marithrix" is a recently described lineage within the group of large sulfur bacteria (Beggiatoaceae, Gammaproteobacteria). This genus of bacteria comprises vacuolated, attached-living filaments that inhabit the sediment surface around vent and seep sites in the marine environment. A single filament is ca. 100 µm in diameter, several millimeters long, and consists of hundreds of clonal cells, which are considered highly polyploid. Based on these characteristics, "Candidatus Marithrix" was used as a model organism for the assessment of genomic plasticity along segments of a single filament using next generation sequencing to possibly identify hotspots of microevolution. Using six consecutive segments of a single filament sampled from a mud volcano in the Gulf of Mexico, we recovered ca. 90% of the "Candidatus Marithrix" genome in each segment. There was a high level of genome conservation along the filament with average nucleotide identities between 99.98 and 100%. Different approaches to assemble all reads into a complete consensus genome could not fill the gaps. Each of the six segment datasets encoded merely a few hundred unique nucleotides and 5 or less unique genes-the residual content was redundant in all datasets. Besides the overall high genomic identity, we identified a similar number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the clonal segments, which are comparable to numbers reported for other clonal organisms. An increase of SNPs with greater distance of filament segments was not observed. The polyploidy of the cells was apparent when analyzing the heterogeneity of reads within a segment. Here, a strong increase in single nucleotide variants, or "intrasegmental sequence heterogeneity" (ISH) events, was observed. These sites may represent hotspots for genome plasticity, and possibly microevolution, since two thirds of these variants were not co-localized across the genome copies of the multicellular filament.

15.
Environ Pollut ; 216: 391-399, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27395442

RESUMO

Denitrification and anammox are key processes for reducing the external nitrogen loads delivered to coastal ecosystems, and these processes can be affected by pollutants. In this study, we investigated the effect of crude oil on denitrification and anammox. Controlled laboratory experiments were performed using sediment slurries from the Lima Estuary (NW Portugal). Anammox and denitrification rates were measured using (15)N-labeled NO3(-), and the production of (29)N2 and (30)N2 quantified by membrane inlet mass spectrometry. Results revealed that while denitrification rates were stimulated between 10 and 25 000 times after crude oil amendment, anammox activity was partially (between 2 and 5 times) or completely inhibited by the addition of crude oil when comparing to rates in unamended controls. Similar results were observed across four estuarine sediment types, despite their different physical-chemical characteristics. Moreover, N2O production was reduced by 2-36 times following crude oil addition. Further work is required to fully understand the mechanism(s) of the observed reduction in N2O production. This study represents one of the first contributions to the understanding of the impact of crude oil pollution on denitrification and anammox, with profound implications for the management of aquatic ecosystems regarding eutrophication (N-removal).


Assuntos
Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio/química , Óxido Nitroso/metabolismo , Petróleo/toxicidade , Compostos de Amônio/química , Anaerobiose , Ecossistema , Estuários , Oxirredução , Portugal
17.
ISME J ; 10(2): 400-15, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26230048

RESUMO

The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil well blowout generated an enormous plume of dispersed hydrocarbons that substantially altered the Gulf of Mexico's deep-sea microbial community. A significant enrichment of distinct microbial populations was observed, yet, little is known about the abundance and richness of specific microbial ecotypes involved in gas, oil and dispersant biodegradation in the wake of oil spills. Here, we document a previously unrecognized diversity of closely related taxa affiliating with Cycloclasticus, Colwellia and Oceanospirillaceae and describe their spatio-temporal distribution in the Gulf's deepwater, in close proximity to the discharge site and at increasing distance from it, before, during and after the discharge. A highly sensitive, computational method (oligotyping) applied to a data set generated from 454-tag pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene V4-V6 regions, enabled the detection of population dynamics at the sub-operational taxonomic unit level (0.2% sequence similarity). The biogeochemical signature of the deep-sea samples was assessed via total cell counts, concentrations of short-chain alkanes (C1-C5), nutrients, (colored) dissolved organic and inorganic carbon, as well as methane oxidation rates. Statistical analysis elucidated environmental factors that shaped ecologically relevant dynamics of oligotypes, which likely represent distinct ecotypes. Major hydrocarbon degraders, adapted to the slow-diffusive natural hydrocarbon seepage in the Gulf of Mexico, appeared unable to cope with the conditions encountered during the DWH spill or were outcompeted. In contrast, diverse, rare taxa increased rapidly in abundance, underscoring the importance of specialized sub-populations and potential ecotypes during massive deep-sea oil discharges and perhaps other large-scale perturbations.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , Hidrocarbonetos/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , México , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Indústria de Petróleo e Gás , Poluição por Petróleo , Filogenia , Água do Mar/química
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(48): 14900-5, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26553985

RESUMO

During the Deepwater Horizon oil well blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, the application of 7 million liters of chemical dispersants aimed to stimulate microbial crude oil degradation by increasing the bioavailability of oil compounds. However, the effects of dispersants on oil biodegradation rates are debated. In laboratory experiments, we simulated environmental conditions comparable to the hydrocarbon-rich, 1,100 m deep plume that formed during the Deepwater Horizon discharge. The presence of dispersant significantly altered the microbial community composition through selection for potential dispersant-degrading Colwellia, which also bloomed in situ in Gulf deep waters during the discharge. In contrast, oil addition to deepwater samples in the absence of dispersant stimulated growth of natural hydrocarbon-degrading Marinobacter. In these deepwater microcosm experiments, dispersants did not enhance heterotrophic microbial activity or hydrocarbon oxidation rates. An experiment with surface seawater from an anthropogenically derived oil slick corroborated the deepwater microcosm results as inhibition of hydrocarbon turnover was observed in the presence of dispersants, suggesting that the microcosm findings are broadly applicable across marine habitats. Extrapolating this comprehensive dataset to real world scenarios questions whether dispersants stimulate microbial oil degradation in deep ocean waters and instead highlights that dispersants can exert a negative effect on microbial hydrocarbon degradation rates.


Assuntos
Marinobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Poluição por Petróleo , Petróleo/metabolismo , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Microbiologia da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Golfo do México
19.
Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci ; 373(2052)2015 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26347539

RESUMO

Sustained release of methane (CH(4)) to the atmosphere from thawing Arctic permafrost may be a positive and significant feedback to climate warming. Atmospheric venting of CH(4) from the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS) was recently reported to be on par with flux from the Arctic tundra; however, the future scale of these releases remains unclear. Here, based on results of our latest observations, we show that CH(4) emissions from this shelf are likely to be determined by the state of subsea permafrost degradation. We observed CH(4) emissions from two previously understudied areas of the ESAS: the outer shelf, where subsea permafrost is predicted to be discontinuous or mostly degraded due to long submergence by seawater, and the near shore area, where deep/open taliks presumably form due to combined heating effects of seawater, river run-off, geothermal flux and pre-existing thermokarst. CH(4) emissions from these areas emerge from largely thawed sediments via strong flare-like ebullition, producing fluxes that are orders of magnitude greater than fluxes observed in background areas underlain by largely frozen sediments. We suggest that progression of subsea permafrost thawing and decrease in ice extent could result in a significant increase in CH(4) emissions from the ESAS.

20.
Ecology ; 96(3): 840-9, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26236879

RESUMO

Ecological zonation of salt marsh macrophytes is strongly influenced by hydrologic factors, but these factors are poorly understood. We examined groundwater flow patterns through surficial sediments in two saltmarshes in the southeastern United States to quantify hydrologic differences between distinct ecological zones. Both sites included tall- or medium-form Spartina alterniflora near the creek bank; short-form Spartina alterniflora in the mid-marsh; salt flats and Salicornia virginica in the high marsh; and Juncus roemarianus in brackish-to-fresh areas adjacent to uplands. Both sites had relatively small, sandy uplands and similar stratigraphy consisting of marsh muds overlying a deeper sand layer. We found significant hydrologic differences between the four ecological zones. In the zones colonized by S. alterniflora, the vertical flow direction oscillated with semi-diurnal tides. Net flow (14-day average) through the tall S. alterniflora zones was downward, whereas the short S. alterniflora zones included significant periods of net upward groundwater flow. An examination of tidal efficiency at these sites suggested that the net flow patterns rather than tidal damping controlled the width of the tall S. alterniflora zone. In contrast to the S. alterniflora zones, hypersaline zones populated by S. virginica were characterized by sustained periods (days) of continuous upward flow of saline water during neap tides. The fresher zone populated by J. roemarianus showed physical flow patterns that were similar to the hypersaline zones, but the upwelling porewaters were fresh rather than saline. These flow patterns were influenced by the hydrogeologic framework of the marshes, particularly differences in hydraulic head between the upland water table and the tidal creeks. We observed increases in hydraulic head of approximately 40 cm from the creek to the upland in the sand layers below both marshes, which is consistent with previous observations that sandy aquifers below fine-grained marsh soils act as conduits for flow from uplands to tidal creeks. This hydrologic framework supports relatively good drainage near the creek, increased waterlogging in the mid-marsh, and the development of hypersalinity adjacent to the freshwater upland. These hydrologic differences in turn support distinct ecological zones.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Magnoliopsida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salinidade , Solo/química , Movimentos da Água , Áreas Alagadas , Georgia , Plantas Tolerantes a Sal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , South Carolina
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