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1.
Am J Health Behav ; 43(6): 1016-1029, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662162

RESUMO

Objective: In this study, we evaluated whether exercise prior to memory encoding or during memory consolidation can influence episodic memory function after being exposed to a stressful environment. Methods: We conducted 3 between-group randomized controlled experiments among young adults. We assessed episodic memory (via logic memory task) at the beginning of the experiment and approximately 45 minutes later. Across the 3 experiments, we varied the temporal period (eg, before memory encoding or during consolidation) of the acute bout of exercise (15-minute moderate-intensity exercise) and psychological stress induction. Results: Across all 3 experiments there was a statistically significant main effect for time for memory function, but there were no time x group interaction effects. Conclusion: Memory declined across the 2 assessment periods, but for all 3 experiments, exercise was not associated with memory function after being exposed to a stressful stimulus.

2.
J Lifestyle Med ; 9(1): 60-66, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918835

RESUMO

Background: The purpose of this study was to examine the prospective association of personality typology on changes in sitting (sedentary) time. Methods: Young adults (N = 126; Mage = 21.6 yrs) completed self-report assessments of personality and sitting time at baseline and at an approximate 5-month follow-up. At baseline, personality was assessed via the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) questionnaire. At both baseline and the follow- up period, sitting time was self-reported using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. Results: Both extraversion (ß = -5.8; 95% CI: -11.7, 0.21; p = 0.05) and conscientiousness (ß = -5.7; 95% CI: -11.3, -0.2; p = 0.04) were inversely associated with baseline sitting time. Regarding the prospective results, the only personality trait associated with changes in sitting time was openness to experience. Independent of changes in physical activity as well as other potential confounders, for every 1 unit increase in openness to experience, there was an associated 6.6 min/day increased change score in sitting time over the 5-month follow-up period (ß = 6.6; 95% CI: 0.13, 13.0; p = 0.04). Conclusion: Personality was differentially associated with sitting time based on the study design, with the personality trait of openness to experience being prospectively associated with increases in sitting time.

3.
Eur J Psychol ; 14(4): 880-896, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555591

RESUMO

To examine the prospective association of personality with individual behavior, multibehavior and clustered health behavior profiles. A prospective study design was employed. Two hundred young adults provided baseline data and 126 (mean age: 21.6 yrs) provide complete data for a 5-month follow-up assessment (63% response rate). Personality and health behaviors (and covariates) were assessed via validated questionnaires. A multibehavior index variable was created ranging from 0-5; two separate health behavior cluster indices were created, including high (4-5 behaviors) vs. low (2 or fewer) behavior adoption and an energy balance cluster (MVPA and diet). When examining MVPA as a continuous variable, the personality trait conscientiousness was prospectively associated with MVPA and a healthy diet. Extraversion was prospectively associated with high (vs. low) behavioral clustering (OR = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.00-1.40) and conscientiousness was prospectively associated with energy balance clustering (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.17). Extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience, and agreeableness were associated with select health-related behaviors. Further, extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with health behavior clustering.

4.
Am J Health Promot ; 32(1): 68-71, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29214822

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine whether meeting sleep guidelines (7-9 hours/night) is associated with better health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and reduced all-cause mortality risk. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 2005 to 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 13 423 adults. MEASURES: Sleep duration and HRQOL were assessed from self-report; covariates assessed via survey, examination, and laboratory data; and mortality assessed through 2011 via matching from the National Death Index. ANALYSIS: Cox proportional hazard regression and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, race-ethnicity, body mass index, education, smoking, white blood cell level, iron level, red blood cell distribution width, mean platelet volume, blood pressure, diabetes, coronary artery disease, physical activity, and depression, those meeting sleep guidelines had an 19% reduced risk of premature all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.67-0.99; P = .04). After adjustments, those meeting sleep guidelines had better HRQOL (ß = -0.30; 95% CI: -0.38 to -0.21; P < .001). Results for the ordinal regression and Cox proportional analyses were similar in unadjusted and minimally adjusted models. CONCLUSION: Obtaining optimal levels of sleep is associated with better HRQOL and reduced premature mortality risk, independent of demographic, behavioral, and biological conditions. These findings underscore the importance of achieving optimal levels of sleep.


Assuntos
Guias como Assunto , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Mortalidade Prematura , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Privação do Sono/psicologia , Sono/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Privação do Sono/epidemiologia
5.
Psychol Rep ; 121(2): 344-355, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28799886

RESUMO

Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality and physical activity, with a specific focus on whether executive function moderates this relationship. Methods One hundred twenty-six young adults provided complete data at baseline and the five-month follow-up assessment. Executive function was assessed via the parametric Go/No-Go computer task; outcome measures of parametric Go/No-Go were mean reaction time and percent of correct target detection across executive function tasks (simple rule and repeating rule). Personality and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were assessed via validated questionnaires; one-week test-retest was established on a random sample of the participants, with pedometry employed in the subsample. Results Individuals with a higher baseline conscientiousness personality type had greater five-month follow-up moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (ß = 18.5; 95% confidence interval: 5.3, 31.7; p = .006). There was no evidence of an interaction effect for personality trait and executive function on five-month follow-up moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusion The personality trait conscientiousness was associated with greater moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. However, there was no evidence to suggest that executive function moderates the role between personality and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Thus, if confirmed by future work, personality may exert its effects on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity independent of executive function level.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Personalidade/fisiologia , Estudantes , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
6.
Am J Audiol ; 26(2): 163-169, 2017 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28510710

RESUMO

Purpose: Limited research has examined the interrelationships among cardiometabolic parameters, physical activity, and hearing function, which was this study's purpose. Method: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 were used in the path analyses. Physical activity and hearing function were both objectively measured. Various cardiometabolic parameters were assessed from a blood sample. Adults 30-85 years (N = 1,070) constituted the analytic sample. Results: Physical activity was negatively associated with triglycerides (ß = -0.11, p < .05) and insulin (ß = -0.27, p < .05); triglycerides (ß = 0.01, p < .05), and insulin (ß = 0.05, p < .05) were positively associated with high-frequency pure-tone average (HPTA). The direct path from physical activity to HPTA was nonsignificant (ß = 0.01, p = .99). Conclusion: Physical activity was associated with select cardiovascular disease risk factors. Several cardiovascular disease risk factors were associated with hearing function.


Assuntos
Audiometria de Tons Puros/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Perda Auditiva/diagnóstico , Perda Auditiva/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Audição/fisiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prognóstico , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
7.
Prev Med ; 94: 27-30, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27863954

RESUMO

Previous research demonstrates an inverse association between age and cardiovascular disease (CVD) biomarkers with cognitive function; however, little is known about the combined associations of CVD risk factors and cognitive function with all-cause mortality in an older adult population, which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used (N=2,097; 60+yrs), with mortality follow-up through 2011. Evaluated individual biomarkers included mean arterial pressure (MAP), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), HDL-C, total cholesterol (TC), A1C, and measured body mass index (BMI). Cognitive function was assessed using the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST). Further, 4 groups were created based on CVD risk and cognitive function. Group 1: high cognitive function and low CVD risk; Group 2: high cognitive function and high CVD risk; Group 3: low cognitive function and low CVD risk; Group 4: low cognitive function and high CVD risk. An inverse relationship was observed where those with more CVD risk factors had a lower (worse) cognitive function score. Compared to those in Group 1, only those in Group 3 and 4 had an increase mortality risk.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Mortalidade , Idoso , Pressão Arterial , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
8.
Chronic Illn ; 12(4): 272-280, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27068114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multimorbidity and physical inactivity are individually associated with increased mortality risk, but the possibility for physical activity to moderate the multimorbidity-mortality relationship has yet to be investigated. METHODS: Data from the 1999-2006 NHANES were employed, with 16,091 participants constituting the analytic sample. Participants were followed through 2011, including a median follow-up of 99 months. Physical activity was assessed via self-report with multimorbidity assessed from physician diagnosis. RESULTS: After adjustment, for every 1 morbidity increase, participants had a 23% increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.19-1.28; p < 0.001). Multimorbidity mostly remained associated with all-cause mortality across all levels of physical activity, with the exception of those achieving four times the dose of the government guidelines. DISCUSSION: With the exception of those who engaged in high levels of self-reported physical activity, physical activity had a minimal effect on the multimorbidity-mortality relationship.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Comorbidade , Exercício Físico , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Equivalente Metabólico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos
9.
Prev Med ; 87: 18-21, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26861750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous research demonstrates that visual impairment (VI) is associated with increased all-cause mortality risk and is also associated with reduced physical activity participation. Although physical activity is reduced among those with VI, no studies have examined the relationship between physical activity and all-cause mortality across different visual function statuses, which is noteworthy of investigation as physical activity is linked with greater survival. METHODS: Data from the 2003-2006 NHANES were employed, with physical activity assessed via accelerometry and visual function assessed using the ARK-760 autorefractor. RESULTS: For those with normal vision, and after adjustments, for every 60min increase in physical activity, normal-sighted adults had an 18% (HR=0.82; 95% CI: 0.72-0.93) reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Similarly, after adjustments and for every 60min increase in physical activity for those with uncorrected refractive error and VI, respectively, there was a 15% (HR=0.85; 95% CI: 0.72-1.00) and 35% (HR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.43-0.98) reduced risk of all-cause mortality. Among all three visual status groups, sedentary behavior was not associated with mortality status. CONCLUSION: Among those with varying degrees of visual loss, sedentary behavior was not associated with mortality, but physical activity demonstrated survival benefits.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Mortalidade , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estudos Prospectivos
10.
J Phys Act Health ; 13(7): 776-9, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26900842

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of source of emotional- and financial-related social support and size of social support network on physical activity behavior among older adults. METHODS: Data from the 1999-2006 NHANES were used (N = 5616; 60 to 85 yrs). Physical activity and emotional- and financial-related social support were assessed via self-report. RESULTS: Older adults with perceived having emotional social support had a 41% increased odds of meeting physical activity guidelines (OR = 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01-1.97). The only specific sources of social support that were associated with meeting physical activity guidelines was friend emotional support (OR = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.01-1.41) and financial support (OR = 1.28; 95% CI: 1.09-1.49). With regard to size of social support network, a dose-response relationship was observed. Compared with those with 0 close friends, those with 1 to 2, 3 to 4, 5, and 6+ close friends, respectively, had a 1.70-, 2.38-, 2.57-, and 2.71-fold increased odds of meeting physical activity guidelines. There was some evidence of gender- and age-specific associations between social support and physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: Emotional- and financial-related social support and size of social support network are associated with higher odds of meeting physical activity guidelines among older adults.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença Crônica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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