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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35028844

RESUMO

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit is one of the means to lighten heavy oil in refineries, and its regenerated flue gas is also the main source of air pollutants from refinery. However, it is not clear about the type and amount of pollutants discharged from FCC units in China. The emissions of regenerated pollutants in the stack flue gases of three typical FCC units in China were investigated in this study, including a partial regeneration unit without a CO boiler (U1), a partial regeneration unit with a CO boiler (U2), and a full regeneration unit (U3). Different monitoring methods were used to analyze the concentration of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), and the results showed that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) monitoring results of SO2 and NOx are approximately 10 times and 5 times larger than those of the continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) data, respectively. Also, the contents of characteristic pollutants such as NH3, C6H6, HCN, C8H8, C2H4, CH4, and CO were also monitored by FTIR, and the emission factors based on coke burn-off rate and throughput were investigated. The pollutants in U1 exhibited relatively higher contents with the NH3, HCN, and C6H6 of 116.99, 71.94, and 56.41 mg/Nm3 in flue gas, respectively. The emission of regenerated pollutants in U2 and U3 are significantly different from U1. Regeneration processes (including coke properties, operating modes, and presence or absence of CO boilers) affected pollutants' emission factors in varying degrees. At last, reasonable emission factors based on the different FCC regeneration processes contribute to the prediction, assessment, and control for the pollutant emission.

2.
J Hazard Mater ; 423(Pt B): 127167, 2022 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34536843

RESUMO

Although there is growing evidence that micropollutants can be microbially converted in rapid sand filters of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), little is known about the biotransformation pathways and associated microbial strains in this process. Here, we constructed sand filter columns filled with manganese or quartz sand obtained from full-scale DWTPs to explore the biotransformation of eight micropollutants. Under seven different empty bed contact times (EBCTs), the column experiments showed that caffeine and atenolol were easily removed (up to 92.1% and 97.6%, respectively) with adsorption and microbial biotransformation of the filters. In contrast, the removal of other six micropollutants (i.e., naproxen, carbamazepine, atrazine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadiazine) in the filters were less than 27.1% at shorter EBCTs, but significantly increased at EBCT = 4 h, indicating the dominant role of microbial biotransformation in these micropollutants removal. Integrated analysis of metagenomic reads and transformation products of micropollutants showed a shift in caffeine oxidation and demethylation pathways at different EBCTs, simultaneous occurrence of atrazine hydrolysis and oxidation pathways, and sulfadiazine and sulfamethoxazole oxidation in the filters. Furthermore, using genome-centric analysis, we observed previously unidentified degrading strains, e.g., Piscinibacter, Hydrogenophaga, and Rubrivivax for caffeine transformation, and Methylophilus and Methyloversatilis for atenolol transformation.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Bactérias/genética , Biotransformação , Filtração , Sulfametoxazol , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Int J Parasitol ; 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34863800

RESUMO

Leeches have long been considered potential vectors for the aquatic lineage of trypanosomes, while bloodsucking insects are generally considered as the vectors for the terrestrial lineage of trypanosomes. The freshwater leech, Hirudinaria manillensis, is a widely distributed species in southern China and could potentially act as the vector for trypanosomes. Prior to this study, no trypanosomes had been reported from this leech. However, in this study, leeches were collected from three different places in Guangdong province, China, and a large number of flagellates were isolated and successfully cultured in vitro. Based on morphology, these flagellates looked like a typical trypanosome species. Analysis was carried out on the molecular sequences of the 18S rRNA gene and the glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene. To our surprise, these flagellates were identified as likely to be a mammalian trypanosome belonging to the clade containing Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri but they are significantly different from the typical TthI and TthII stocks. Analyses of blood composition indicated that the source of the blood meal in these leeches was from the water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). To further test if this flagellate from the freshwater leech was indeed a mammalian trypanosome, we transferred the trypanosomes cultured at 27°C to 37°C and they were able to successfully adapt to this mammalian body temperature, providing further supporting evidence. Due to the significant genetic differences from other related trypanosomes in the subgenus Megatrypanum, we propose that this flagellate, isolated from H. manillensis, is a new species and have named it Trypanosoma bubalisi. Our results indicate that freshwater leeches may be a potential vector of this new mammalian trypanosome.

4.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther ; 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34893552

RESUMO

Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the lung can lead to extensive pulmonary damage. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are insulin-independent, oral anti-hyperglycemic agents used for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Their cardioprotective properties have been reported, however, their potential roles in pulmonary protection in vivo are poorly characterized. Here, we tested an hypothesis that empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, can protect lungs in a mouse model of lung I/R injury induced by pulmonary hilum ligation in vivo We assigned C57/BL6 mice to sham-operated, non-empagliflozin-treated control, or empagliflozin-treated groups. Pulmonary I/R injury was induced by 1-hour left hilum ligation followed by 2-hour reperfusion. Using q-PCR and western blot analysis, we demonstrate that SGLT2 is highly expressed in mouse kidney but is weakly expressed in mouse lung (n=5-6 per group, P<0.01 or P<0.001). Empagliflozin improved respiratory function, attenuated I/R-induced lung edema, lessened structural damage, inhibited apoptosis, and reduced inflammatory cytokine production and protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (P<0.05 or P<0.001 vs. CON). In addition, empagliflozin enhanced phosphorylation of pulmonary ERK1/2 post-I/R injury in vivo (P<0.001, vs. CON, n=5 per group). We further showed that pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 activity reversed these beneficial effects of empagliflozin. In conclusion, we showed that empagliflozin exerts strong lung protective effects against pulmonary I/R injury in vivo, at least in part via the ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathway. Significance Statement Pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) can exacerbate lung injury. Empagliflozin is a new anti-diabetic agent for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study shows that empagliflozin attenuates lung damage after pulmonary I/R injury in vivo This protective phenomenon was mediated at least in part via the ERK1/2-mediated signaling pathway. This opens a new avenue of research for SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of reperfusion-induced acute pulmonary injury.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 770370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970235

RESUMO

Hadal zones are marine environments deeper than 6,000 m, most of which comprise oceanic trenches. Microbes thriving at such depth experience high hydrostatic pressure and low temperature. The genomic potentials of these microbes to such extreme environments are largely unknown. Here, we compare five complete genomes of bacterial strains belonging to Labrenzia aggregata (Alphaproteobacteria), including four from the Mariana Trench at depths up to 9,600 m and one reference from surface seawater of the East China Sea, to uncover the genomic potentials of this species. Genomic investigation suggests all the five strains of L. aggregata as participants in nitrogen and sulfur cycles, including denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), thiosulfate oxidation, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) biosynthesis and degradation. Further comparisons show that, among the five strains, 85% gene functions are similar with 96.7% of them encoded on the chromosomes, whereas the numbers of functional specific genes related to osmoregulation, antibiotic resistance, viral infection, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis are majorly contributed by the differential plasmids. A following analysis suggests the plasmidic gene numbers increase along with isolation depth and most plasmids are dissimilar among the five strains. These findings provide a better understanding of genomic potentials in the same species throughout a deep-sea water column and address the importance of externally originated plasmidic genes putatively shaped by deep-sea environment.

6.
J Nat Prod ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34846889

RESUMO

Overexpression of various pro-inflammatory factors in microglial cells tends to induce neurodegenerative diseases, for which there is no effective therapy available. Aureonitol (1) and seven analogues, including six previously undescribed [elatumenol A-F (2-4, 6-8, respectively)], along with two new orsellinic acid esters [elatumone A and B (9 and 10)], were isolated from Chaetomium elatum. The structures of the compounds were established through comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data, including high-resolution mass spectra and one- and two-dimensional NMR, and absolute configurations determined by the Mosher method, dimolybdenum tetraacetate-induced circular dichroism, and theoretical calculations including electronic circular dichroism and NMR. Metabolites 3, 4, 7, and 8 exhibited antineuroinflammatory activity by attenuating the production of inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide, interleukin-6, interleukin-1ß, tumor necrosis factor-α, and reactive oxygen species. Western blot results indicated 8 decreases the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and suppresses the expression of Toll-like receptor 4 and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) as well as the phosphorylation of the inhibitor of NF-κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases in lipopolysaccharide-activated BV-2 microglial cells.

7.
Sci Total Environ ; : 151665, 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34785232

RESUMO

The widely used antidiabetic drug metformin has become an emerging contaminant of water systems. In a prior study, we demonstrated the marked mammalian toxicity of the disinfection-derived byproducts (DBPs) Y (yellow, C4H6ClN5) and C (colorless, C4H6ClN3), and here assess the distribution, formation, and ecotoxicity of these in Chinese urban water systems. A national tap water assessment showed that metformin and C concentrations were higher in large, dense urban areas and surface water sources than in sparsely populated areas and groundwater sources. Water types' analysis clearly showed that C derived from chlorination of metformin-contaminated water (up to 4308.5 ng/L) circulated from domestic water (0.7-9.7 ng/L) via sewage (2.3 ng/L in effluent) to surface water (0.6-3.5 ng/L). Simulated disinfection and aqueous stability results systematically showed rapid formation and 24 h stability of both byproducts, indicating high exposure odds for water users. Both byproducts showed clear but distinct toxic effects on the growth (72 h IC50, 0.6 mg/L for Y and 4.4 mg/L for C) and photosynthesis of the microalgae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at milligram levels. Combinedly, our work reveals that metformin byproducts have been disseminated to urban water cycle and contaminated tap water, increasing potential toxic risk for drinking water. Its outcomes provide a preliminary reference for future studies on the environmental fate and ecotoxicological effects of unintended DBPs formed in the chlorination of metformin-contaminated water.

8.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 199, 2021 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34615557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microbial communities in both natural and applied settings reliably carry out myriads of functions, yet how stable these taxonomically diverse assemblages can be and what causes them to transition between states remains poorly understood. We studied monthly activated sludge (AS) samples collected over 9 years from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant to answer how complex AS communities evolve in the long term and how the community functions change when there is a disturbance in operational parameters. RESULTS: Here, we show that a microbial community in activated sludge (AS) system fluctuated around a stable average for 3 years but was then abruptly pushed into an alternative stable state by a simple transient disturbance (bleaching). While the taxonomic composition rapidly turned into a new state following the disturbance, the metabolic profile of the community and system performance remained remarkably stable. A total of 920 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), representing approximately 70% of the community in the studied AS ecosystem, were recovered from the 97 monthly AS metagenomes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed an increased ability to aggregate in the cohorts of MAGs with correlated dynamics that are dominant after the bleaching event. Fine-scale analysis of dynamics also revealed cohorts that dominated during different periods and showed successional dynamics on seasonal and longer time scales due to temperature fluctuation and gradual changes in mean residence time in the reactor, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our work highlights that communities can assume different stable states under highly similar environmental conditions and that a specific disturbance threshold may lead to a rapid shift in community composition. Video Abstract.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Esgotos , Bactérias/genética , Reatores Biológicos , Metagenoma , Microbiota/genética
9.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 20(1): 199, 2021 10 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Empagliflozin is a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor used to lower blood sugar in adults with type 2 diabetes. Empagliflozin also exerts cardioprotective effects independent from glucose control, but its benefits on arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death are not known. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of empagliflozin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion-provoked cardiac arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death in vivo. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham-operated, control or empagliflozin groups. All except for the sham-operated rats were subjected to 5-min left main coronary artery ligation followed by 20-min reperfusion. A standard limb lead II electrocardiogram was continuously measured throughout the experiment. Coronary artery reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmogenesis and empagliflozin therapy were evaluated. The hearts were used for protein phosphorylation analysis and immunohistological assessment. RESULTS: Empagliflozin did not alter baseline cardiac normal conduction activity. However, empagliflozin eliminated myocardial vulnerability to sudden cardiac death (from 69.2% mortality rate in the control group to 0% in the empagliflozin group) and reduced the susceptibility to reperfusion-induced arrhythmias post I/R injury. Empagliflozin increased phosphorylation of cardiac ERK1/2 after reperfusion injury. Furthermore, inhibition of ERK1/2 using U0126 abolished the anti-arrhythmic action of empagliflozin and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with empagliflozin protects the heart from subsequent severe lethal ventricular arrhythmia induced by myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. These protective benefits may occur as a consequence of activation of the ERK1/2-dependent cell-survival signaling pathway in a glucose-independent manner.

10.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(4): 444-448, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34693443

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of bipolar coagulation forceps combined with 1% lauromacrogol foam sclerotherapy in the treatment of microcystic lymphatic malformation of tongue. METHODS: The clinical data of 16 patients with microcystic lymphatic malformation of the tongue admitted to the Department of Stomatology of Foshan First People's Hospital from April 2017 to April 2020 were retrospectively analyzed, including 7 males and 9 females, aging from 15 months to 21 years. The average age of patients was 8.32±1.21 years. The efficacy and complications of the patients were evaluated. RESULTS: All 16 patients were followed up for 6 to 12 months. The clinical response was evaluated as eleven patients (68.75%) for grade Ⅳ, three (18.75%) for grade Ⅲ, two (12.5%) for grade Ⅱ, and the effective rate was 87.5%. Necrosis of tongue mucosa and muscle occurred in 1 patient. CONCLUSIONS: Bipolar coagulation forceps combined with 1% lauromacrogol foam sclerotherapy is a minimally invasive, safe and effective treatment for tongue microcystic lymphatic malformation.


Assuntos
Escleroterapia , Língua , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polidocanol , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
11.
Water Res ; 204: 117617, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555587

RESUMO

Large water diversion projects are important constructions for reallocation of human-essential water resources. Deciphering microbiota dynamics and assembly mechanisms underlying canal water ecosystem services especially during long-distance diversion is a prerequisite for water quality monitoring, biohazard warning and sustainable management. Using a 1432-km canal of the South-to-North Water Diversion Projects as a model system, we answer three central questions: how bacterial and micro-eukaryotic communities spatio-temporally develop, how much ecological stochasticity contributes to microbiota assembly, and which immigrating populations better survive and navigate across the canal. We applied quantitative ribosomal RNA gene sequence analyses to investigate canal water microbial communities sampled over a year, as well as null model- and neutral model-based approaches to disentangle the microbiota assembly processes. Our results showed clear microbiota dynamics in community composition driven by seasonality more than geographic location, and seasonally dependent influence of environmental parameters. Overall, bacterial community was largely shaped by deterministic processes, whereas stochasticity dominated micro-eukaryotic community assembly. We defined a local growth factor (LGF) and demonstrated its innovative use to quantitatively infer microbial proliferation, unraveling taxonomically dependent population response to local environmental selection across canal sections. Using LGF as a quantitative indicator of immigrating capacities, we also found that most micro-eukaryotic populations (82%) from the source water sustained growth in the canal and better acclimated to the hydrodynamical water environment than bacteria (67%). Taxa inferred to largely propagate include Limnohabitans sp. and Cryptophyceae, potentially contributing to water auto-purification. Combined, our work poses first and unique insights into the microbiota assembly patterns and dynamics in the world's largest water diversion canal, providing important ecological knowledge for long-term sustainable water quality maintenance in such a giant engineered system.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Água , Eucariotos , Humanos , Qualidade da Água , Recursos Hídricos
12.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126206, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492968

RESUMO

Sludge lysate is an unavoidable and refractory liquid produced from the waste activated sludge hydrothermal pyrolysis, which contains plenty of hazardous refractory organic compounds and value-added organic resources. Here, the proof of concept for an integrated strategy that couples technically compatible pretreatment to microbial electrolysis assisted AD (ME-AD) system is investigated for sludge lysate treatment and resource recovery. The pretreatment process shows a positive effectiveness on the ME-AD by reducing the organic load and inhibitory matters, which promote the residual refractory organic compounds (Maillard reaction products and humic acid-like substances) and carbon sources further biodegradation and bio-transformation. Combining membrane separation with ME-AD increased not only both the yield and purity of methane to 268.76 mL CH4/g COD and 98%, respectively, but also the recovery of 70.0~82.4% crude proteins (9.1 ± 0.5 g/L) from sludge lysate. Alternatively, the alkaline precipitation combined with ME-AD enhanced the recovery efficiency of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The visible decreasing in the unpleasant color of the effluents was observed, implying that the degradation of harmful refractory organic was almost eliminated in sludge lysate. This strategy is worthy to be developed in WWTP for sludge lysate treatment with considerable bio-resources recovery and refractory organics removal.


Assuntos
Metano , Esgotos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Eletrólise , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos
13.
Int J Med Robot ; 17(6): e2328, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467622

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional surgical instruments for transnasal endoscopic skull base surgery have poor flexibility and continuum robot has attracted extensive attention for its high dexterity and safety. METHODS: A new type of micro continuum surgical robot is designed. On the basis of kinematic analysis, a superposition method is proposed to analyse the reachable configuration space of the system, and the workspace is analysed. The results obtained by superposition method can provide reference for the selection of joint parameters. At last, the static model of the system is established considering friction and coupling between two segments. RESULTS: The simulation results show that the workspace can meet the requirements of surgery. And the validity of the static model is verified by numerical simulation and experiment, which lays a foundation for the establishment of the driving force transmission system and precise control of the robot. CONCLUSIONS: The research results of this study contribute to the real-time control and movement of robot. The proposed continuum robot provides convenient conditions for the clinical application.


Assuntos
Robótica , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Desenho de Equipamento , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Base do Crânio/cirurgia
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(15): 10862-10874, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282905

RESUMO

The global rise and spread of antibiotic resistance greatly challenge the treatment of bacterial infections. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) harbor and discharge antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) as environmental contaminants. However, the knowledge gap on the host identity, activity, and functionality of ARGs limits transmission and health risk assessment of the WWTP resistome. Hereby, a genome-centric quantitative metatranscriptomic approach was exploited to realize high-resolution qualitative and quantitative analyses of bacterial hosts of ARGs (i.e., multiresistance, pathogenicity, activity, and niches) in the 12 urban WWTPs. We found that ∼45% of 248 recovered genomes expressed ARGs against multiple classes of antibiotics, among which bacitracin and aminoglycoside resistance genes in Proteobacteria were the most prevalent scenario. Both potential pathogens and indigenous denitrifying bacteria were transcriptionally active hosts of ARGs. The almost unchanged relative expression levels of ARGs in the most resistant populations (66.9%) and the surviving ARG hosts including globally emerging pathogens (e.g., Aliarcobacter cryaerophilus) in treated WWTP effluent prioritize future examination on the health risks related to resistance propagation and human exposure in the receiving environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Purificação da Água , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/genética , Genes Bacterianos , Humanos , Águas Residuárias
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(39): 55502-55510, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142321

RESUMO

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit emits a large amount of flue gas, which is a major concern of environmental protection supervision. Wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) technologies have been widely used to control the emissions of SO2 in refineries. In this study, stack tests for pollutants emission of a typical FCC unit were conducted. The emission characteristics of the FCC unit indicated that WFGD would cause a large amount of water vapor in the flue gas, which indirectly leads to large quantities of salt pollutants entrained in the flue gas including ammonium sulfite ((NH4)2SO3) and ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4). A strong correlation among the concentrations of SO2, NH3, and H2O was observed, and factor analysis shows that these concentrations are dominated by a common factor. It was also found that a mass quantity of NH4+ and SO32- existed in the condensate water of the flue gas. The TG-MS analysis shows that (NH4)2SO3 could be decomposed at 94.1 °C, and NH3, SO2, and H2O are released as reaction products in the form of gas. Therefore, a part of the NH3 and SO2 obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) monitoring may be derived from the decomposition of (NH4)2SO3 in the flue gas due to the high temperature during the sampling process, which was also confirmed in a lab experiment. The hot and wet sampling process will lead to overestimation of NH3 and SO2 emissions rather than FTIR method itself when monitoring the high-humidity FCC flue gas. Thus, the concentration of H2O in the flue gas and the type of sampling process need to be taken into consideration during the monitoring process.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais
16.
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue ; 30(2): 145-150, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109352

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the DSA classification and treatment strategy of tongue venous malformation. METHODS: From February 2016 to February 2019, the DSA manifestations of 132 cases with venous malformations of the tongue were summarized. They were classified into 4 types according to imaging characteristics: typeⅠ(non-drainage type), typeⅡ(lower- drainage type), type Ⅲ (higher-drainage type), type Ⅳ(extensive type). Different therapeutic schemes were selected according to the types. The non- drainage type was treated with pingyangmycin alone, the lower-drainage type was treated with lauromacrogol foam alone, the higher- drainage type was treated with absolute alcohol combined with lauromacrogol foam, the extensive type was treated as higher-drainage type first and then combined with plastic resection. Among the cases, therapeutic effects and adverse reactions of each group were recorded and compared. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two cases in this study were followed up for 12 to 41 months with an average of 15.8 months. After sclerosing therapy, the venous malformations of the tongue of all patients significantly reduced or even disappeared. Type Ⅰincluded 8 cases with an efficiency of 100%, type Ⅱ included 17 cases with an efficiency of 100%, type Ⅲ included 98 cases with an efficiency of 90.8%, typeⅣincluded 9 cases, with an efficiency of 77.8%.The main adverse reactions were tissue necrosis: 0 in typeⅠ, 1(5.88%) in typeⅡ, 16(16.33%) in type Ⅲ, and 7(77.78%) in type Ⅳ. CONCLUSIONS: The classification of venous malformations of the tongue based on DSA is significant and valuable in guiding clinical treatment. The majority of tongue venous malformations are type Ⅲ, and the smallest propotion is type Ⅰ. Transmucosal sclerotherapy with absolute ethanol is of significance for the treatment of venous malformations of the tongue classified in type Ⅲ and type Ⅳ.


Assuntos
Soluções Esclerosantes , Malformações Vasculares , Humanos , Soluções Esclerosantes/uso terapêutico , Escleroterapia , Língua/diagnóstico por imagem , Resultado do Tratamento , Malformações Vasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Malformações Vasculares/terapia
17.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 96: 107775, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162143

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is characterized by chronic inflammation of the airway and lungs. Accumulating evidence has suggested that erythromycin (EM) plays a protective role against cigarette smoke-induced oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. However, the underlying mechanisms remain relatively unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the role of EM in inhibiting cigarette smoke-induced inflammation in human macrophages and its potential mechanism. A Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to determine the optimum concentration of EM and cigarette smoke extract (CSE) and it was found that 0.1 and 1% CSE and 0.1, 1.0 and 10 µg/ml EM exerted no significant effect on the cell proliferation activity, whereas 2 and 3% CSE exerted a significant inhibitory effect over the cell proliferation activity. We observed that 10 µmol/ml GW9662 (A PPARγ antagonist) and the presence of 1% CSE could promote the expression and activation of NF-κB p65. And this increased the expression of IL-6, IL-8 and reactive oxygen species (ROS). At the same time, 10 µmol/ml GW9662 and 1% CSE was found to inhibit the expression and activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors γ (PPARγ); However, 1 µg/ml EM was discovered to reverse these effects. Co-immunoprecipitation subsequently discovered an interaction between PPARγ and NF-κB p65. In conclusion, the present study suggested that EM may reduce the damage of PPARγ by inhibiting oxidative stress and reducing the expression of ROS and finally relieving cigarette smoke-induced inflammation through the PPARγ/NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophages.

18.
Water Res ; 200: 117225, 2021 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052477

RESUMO

Mainstream anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) represents one of the most promising energy-efficient mechanisms of fixed nitrogen elimination from wastewaters. However, little is known about the exact processes and drivers of microbial community assembly within the complex microbial biofilms that support anammox in engineered ecosystems. Here, we followed anammox biofilm development on fresh carriers in an established 8m3 mainstream anammox reactor that is exposed to seasonal temperature changes (~25-12°C) and varying NH4+ concentrations (5-25 mg/L). We use fluorescence in situ hybridization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to show that three distinct stages of biofilm development emerge naturally from microbial community composition and biofilm structure. Neutral modelling and network analysis are employed to elucidate the relative importance of stochastic versus deterministic processes and synergistic and antagonistic interactions in the biofilms during their development. We find that the different phases are characterized by a dynamic succession and an interplay of both stochastic and deterministic processes. The observed growth stages (Colonization, Succession and Maturation) appear to be the prerequisite for the anticipated growth of anammox bacteria and for reaching a biofilm community structure that supports the desired metabolic and functional capacities observed for biofilm carriers already present in the system (~100gNH4-N m3 d-1). We discuss the relevance of this improved understanding of anammox-community ecology and biofilm development in the context of its practical application in the start-up, configuration, and optimization of anammox biofilm reactors.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Ecossistema , Anaerobiose , Biofilmes , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Nitrogênio , Oxirredução , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Processos Estocásticos
20.
Water Res ; 197: 117050, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33784606

RESUMO

River networks are one of the main routes by which the public could be exposed to environmental sources of antibiotic resistance, that may be introduced e.g. via treated wastewater. In this study, we applied a comprehensive integrated analysis encompassing mass-flow concepts, chemistry, bacterial plate counts, resistance gene quantification and shotgun metagenomics to track the fate of the resistome (collective antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a microbial community) of treated wastewater in two Swiss rivers at the kilometer scale. The levels of certain ARGs and the class 1 integron integrase gene (intI1) commonly associated with anthropogenic sources of ARGs decreased quickly over short distances (2-2.5 km) downstream of wastewater discharge points. Mass-flow analysis based on conservative tracers suggested this decrease was attributable mainly to dilution but ARG loadings frequently also decreased (e.g., 55.0-98.5 % for ermB and tetW) over the longest studied distances (6.8 and 13.7 km downstream). Metagenomic analysis confirmed that ARG of wastewater-origin did not persist in rivers after 5 ~ 6.8 km downstream distance. sul1 and intI1 levels and loadings were more variable and even increased sharply at 5 ~ 6.8 km downstream distance on one occasion. While input from agriculture and in-situ positive selection pressure for organisms carrying ARGs cannot be excluded, in-system growth of biomass is a more probable explanation. The potential for direct human exposure to the resistome of wastewater-origin thus appeared to typically abate rapidly in the studied rivers. However, the riverine aquatic resistome was also dynamic, as evidenced by the increase of certain gene markers downstream, without obvious sources of anthropogenic contamination. This study provides new insight into drivers of riverine resistomes and pinpoints key monitoring targets indicative of where human sources and exposures are likely to be most acute.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Genes Bacterianos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos/genética , Humanos , Rios , Águas Residuárias
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