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1.
Haematologica ; 2020 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919085

RESUMO

Multiple myeloma is a prevalent and incurable disease, despite the development of new and effective drugs. The recent development of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy has shown impressive results in the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory hematological B cell malignancies. In the recent years, B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) has appeared as a promising antigen to target using a variety of immuno-therapy treatments including CART cells, for MM patients. To this end, we generated clinical-grade murine CART cells directed against BCMA, named ARI2m cells. Having demonstrated its efficacy, and in an at-tempt to avoid the immune rejection of CART cells by the patient, the single chain variable fragment was humanized, creating ARI2h cells. ARI2h cells demonstrated comparable in vitro and in vivo efficacy to ARI2m cells, and superiority in cases of high tumor burden disease. In terms of inflammatory response, ARI2h cells showed a lower TNFα production and lower in vivo toxicity profile. Large-scale expansion of both ARI2m and ARI2h cells was efficiently conducted following Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines, obtaining the target CART cell dose required for treatment of multiple myeloma patients. Moreover, we demonstrate that soluble BCMA and BCMA released in vesicles impacts on CAR-BCMA activity. In sum-mary, this study sets the bases for the implementation of a clinical trial (EudraCT code: 2019-001472-11) to study the efficacy of ARI2h cell treatment for multiple myeloma patients.

2.
Immunol Lett ; 217: 39-48, 2019 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669547

RESUMO

The success of genetically engineered T-cells modified with a chimeric antigen receptor as an adoptive cell immunotherapy and the subsequent last regulatory approvals of products based on this therapy are leading to a crescent number of both academic and pharmaceutical industry clinical trials testing new approaches of this "living drugs". The aim of this review is to outline the latest developments and regulatory considerations in this field, with a particular emphasis to differences and similarities between academic and industry approaches and the role they should play to coexist and move forward together. To do that, the main considerations for the manufacturing process are firstly discussed, from the chimeric antigen receptor design to final production steps, passing through ex vivo T-cell handling, gene delivery methods, patient´s final product infusion observations or possible associated side effects of this treatment.

5.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 152, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is associated with an abnormal pulmonary and systemic immune response to tobacco smoking. Yet, how do immune cells relate within and between these two biological compartments, how the pulmonary infiltrate influences the lung transcriptome, and what is the role of active smoking vs. presence of disease is unclear. METHODS: To investigate these questions, we simultaneously collected lung tissue and blood from 65 individuals stratified by smoking habit and presence of the disease. The immune cell composition of both tissues was assessed by flow cytometry, whole lung transcriptome was determined with Affymetrix arrays, and we used Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) to integrate results. RESULTS: Main results showed that: (1) current smoking and the presence of COPD were both independently associated with a reduction in the proportion of lung T cells and an increase of macrophages, specifically those expressing CD80 + CD163+; (2) changes in the proportion of infiltrating macrophages, smoking status or the level of airflow limitation were associated to different WGCNA modules, which were enriched in iron ion transport, extracellular matrix and cilium organization gene ontologies; and, (3) circulating white blood cells counts were correlated with lung macrophages and T cells. CONCLUSIONS: Mild-moderated COPD lung immune infiltrate is associated with the active smoking status and presence of disease; is associated with changes in whole lung tissue transcriptome and marginally reflected in blood.

6.
Leukemia ; 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197259

RESUMO

Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) plays a critical role in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction and innate immune responses. Recruitment and subsequent activation of IRAK4 upon TLR stimulation is mediated by the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MYD88) adaptor protein. Around 3% of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients have activating mutations of MYD88, a driver mutation in this disease. Here, we studied the effects of TLR activation and the pharmacological inhibition of IRAK4 with ND2158, an IRAK4 competitive inhibitor, as a therapeutic approach in CLL. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that ND2158 preferentially killed CLL cells in a dose-dependent manner. We further observed a decrease in NF-κB and STAT3 signaling, cytokine secretion, proliferation and migration of primary CLL cells from MYD88-mutated and -unmutated cases. In the Eµ-TCL1 adoptive transfer mouse model of CLL, ND2158 delayed tumor progression and modulated the activity of myeloid and T cells. Our findings show the importance of TLR signaling in CLL development and suggest IRAK4 as a therapeutic target for this disease.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(17): 8463-8470, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962374

RESUMO

There are adaptive T-cell and antibody autoimmune responses to myelin-derived peptides in multiple sclerosis (MS) and to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). Strategies aimed at antigen-specific tolerance to these autoantigens are thus indicated for these diseases. One approach involves induction of tolerance with engineered dendritic cells (tolDCs) loaded with specific antigens. We conducted an in-human phase 1b clinical trial testing increasing concentrations of autologous tolDCs loaded with peptides from various myelin proteins and from AQP4. We tested this approach in 12 patients, 8 with MS and 4 with NMOSD. The primary end point was the safety and tolerability, while secondary end points were clinical outcomes (relapses and disability), imaging (MRI and optical coherence tomography), and immunological responses. Therapy with tolDCs was well tolerated, without serious adverse events and with no therapy-related reactions. Patients remained stable clinically in terms of relapse, disability, and in various measurements using imaging. We observed a significant increase in the production of IL-10 levels in PBMCs stimulated with the peptides as well as an increase in the frequency of a regulatory T cell, known as Tr1, by week 12 of follow-up. In this phase 1b trial, we concluded that the i.v. administration of peptide-loaded dendritic cells is safe and feasible. Elicitation of specific IL-10 production by peptide-specific T cells in MS and NMOSD patients indicates that a key element in antigen specific tolerance is activated with this approach. The results warrant further clinical testing in larger trials.

8.
Hum Immunol ; 80(7): 449-460, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844424

RESUMO

Extended molecular characterization of HLA genes in the IHWG reference B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) was one of the major goals for the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW). Although reference B-LCLs have been examined extensively in previous workshops complete high-resolution typing was not completed for all the classical class I and class II HLA genes. To address this, we conducted a single-blind study where select panels of B-LCL genomic DNA samples were distributed to multiple laboratories for HLA genotyping by next-generation sequencing methods. Identical cell panels comprised of 24 and 346 samples were distributed and typed by at least four laboratories in order to derive accurate consensus HLA genotypes. Overall concordance rates calculated at both 2- and 4-field allele-level resolutions ranged from 90.4% to 100%. Concordance for the class I genes ranged from 91.7 to 100%, whereas concordance for class II genes was variable; the lowest observed at HLA-DRB3 (84.2%). At the maximum allele-resolution 78 B-LCLs were defined as homozygous for all 11 loci. We identified 11 novel exon polymorphisms in the entire cell panel. A comparison of the B-LCLs NGS HLA genotypes with the HLA genotypes catalogued in the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Cell Repository, revealed an overall allele match at 68.4%. Typing discrepancies between the two datasets were mostly due to the lower-resolution historical typing methods resulting in incomplete HLA genotypes for some samples listed in the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Cell Repository. Our approach of multiple-laboratory NGS HLA typing of the B-LCLs has provided accurate genotyping data. The data generated by the tremendous collaborative efforts of the 17th IHIW participants is useful for updating the current cell and sequence databases and will be a valuable resource for future studies.

9.
Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev ; 12: 134-144, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30623002

RESUMO

Genetically modifying autologous T cells to express an anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) has shown impressive response rates for the treatment of CD19+ B cell malignancies in several clinical trials (CTs). Making this treatment available to our patients prompted us to develop a novel CART19 based on our own anti-CD19 antibody (A3B1), followed by CD8 hinge and transmembrane region, 4-1BB- and CD3z-signaling domains. We show that A3B1 CAR T cells are highly cytotoxic and specific against CD19+ cells in vitro, inducing secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and CAR T cell proliferation. In vivo, A3B1 CAR T cells are able to fully control disease progression in an NOD.Cg-Prkdc scid Il2rd tm1Wjl /SzJ (NSG) xenograph B-ALL mouse model. Based on the pre-clinical data, we conclude that our CART19 is clearly functional against CD19+ cells, to a level similar to other CAR19s currently being used in the clinic. Concurrently, we describe the implementation of our CAR T cell production system, using lentiviral vector and CliniMACS Prodigy, within a medium-sized academic institution. The results of the validation phase show our system is robust and reproducible, while maintaining a low cost that is affordable for academic institutions. Our model can serve as a paradigm for similar institutions, and it may help to make CAR T cell treatment available to all patients.

10.
Stem Cells ; 37(4): 476-488, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664289

RESUMO

When considering the clinical applications of autologous cell replacement therapy of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived cells, there is a clear need to better understand what the immune response will be before we embark on extensive clinical trials to treat or model human disease. We performed a detailed assessment comparing human fibroblast cell lines (termed F1) reprogrammed into human iPSC and subsequently differentiated back to fibroblast cells (termed F2) or other human iPSC-derived cells including neural stem cells (NSC) made from either retroviral, episomal, or synthetic mRNA cell reprogramming methods. Global proteomic analysis reveals the main differences in signal transduction and immune cell protein expression between F1 and F2 cells, implicating wild type (WT) toll like receptor protein 3 (TLR3). Furthermore, global methylome analysis identified an isoform of the human TLR3 gene that is not epigenetically reset correctly upon differentiation to F2 cells resulting in a hypomethylated transcription start site in the TLR3 isoform promoter and overexpression in most human iPSC-derived cells not seen in normal human tissue. The human TLR3 isoform in human iPSC-NSC functions to suppress NF-KB p65 signaling pathway in response to virus (Poly IC), suggesting suppressed immunity of iPSC-derived cells to viral infection. The sustained WT TLR3 and TLR3 isoform overexpression is central to understanding the altered immunogenicity of human iPSC-derived cells calling for screening of human iPSC-derived cells for TLR3 expression levels before applications. Stem Cells 2019;37:476-488.

11.
Turk J Haematol ; 35(4): 217-228, 2018 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30185400

RESUMO

Seven years ago a chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient was for the first time successfully treated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells (CAR-T cells) to target CD19 overexpression in tumor cells. This was the beginning of the development of a new type of immunotherapy treatment in cancer patients. Since then, identification of novel antigens expressed in tumor cells and optimization of both CAR constructs and protocols of administration have opened up new avenues for the successful treatment of other hematological malignancies. However, research still continues to avoid some problems such as toxicities associated with the treatment and to find strategies to avoid tumor cell immune evasion mechanisms. On the other hand, for solid tumors, CAR-T therapy results are still in an early phase. In contrast to hematological malignancies, the complex tumor heterogeneity of solid tumors has led to the research of novel and challenging strategies to improve CAR-T cell activity. Here, we will review the main clinical results obtained with CAR-T cells in hematological malignancies, specifically focusing on CAR-T-19 and CAR-T against B-cell maturation antigen (CAR-T-BCMA). Moreover, we will mention the main problems that decrease CAR-T cell activity in solid tumors and the strategies to overcome them. Finally, we will present some of the first clinical results obtained for solid tumors.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/imunologia
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 38(6): 712-716, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30039354

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Mendelian suceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency predisposing to severe disease caused by mycobacteria and other intracellular pathogens. Delay in diagnosis can have an impact on the patient's prognosis. METHODS: We evaluated the IFN-γ circuit by studying IFN-γ production after mycobacterial challenge as well as IL-12Rß1 expression and STAT4 phosphorylation in response to IL-12p70 stimulation in whole blood of a 6-year-old Peruvian girl with disseminated recurrent mycobacterial infection diagnosed as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Genetic studies with Sanger sequencing were used to identify the causative mutation. Microbiological studies based on PCR reactions were used to diagnose the specific mycobacterial species. RESULTS: We identified a homozygous mutation in the IL12RB1 gene (p. Arg211*) causing abolished expression of IL-12Rß1 and IL-12 response. MSMD diagnosis led to a microbiological reevaluation of the patient, revealing a BCG vaccine-related infection instead of tuberculosis. Treatment was then adjusted, with good response. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first Peruvian patient with IL-12Rß1 deficiency. Specific mycobacterial species diagnosis within Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is still challenging in countries with limited access to PCR-based microbiological diagnostic techniques. Awareness of MSMD warning signs and accurate microbiological diagnosis of mycobacterial infections are of the utmost importance for optimal diagnosis and management of affected patients.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Receptores de Interleucina-12/deficiência , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/imunologia , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Peru , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/microbiologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 19(7)2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30029515

RESUMO

Pregnancy and early infancy represent two very particular immunological states. During pregnancy, the haploidentical fetus and the pregnant women develop tolerance mechanisms to avoid rejection; then, just after birth, the neonatal immune system must modulate the transition from the virtually sterile but haploidentical uterus to a world full of antigens and the rapid microbial colonization of the mucosa. B regulatory (Breg) cells are a recently discovered B cell subset thought to play a pivotal role in different conditions such as chronic infections, autoimmunity, cancer, and transplantation among others in addition to pregnancy. This review focuses on the role of Breg cells in pregnancy and early infancy, two special stages of life in which recent studies have positioned Breg cells as important players.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B Reguladores/metabolismo , Doença , Feminino , Saúde , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez
14.
Lancet Neurol ; 17(9): 760-772, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Herpes simplex encephalitis can trigger autoimmune encephalitis that leads to neurological worsening. We aimed to assess the frequency, symptoms, risk factors, and outcomes of this complication. METHODS: We did a prospective observational study and retrospective analysis. In the prospective observational part of this study, we included patients with herpes simplex encephalitis diagnosed by neurologists, paediatricians, or infectious disease specialists in 19 secondary and tertiary Spanish centres (Cohort A). Outpatient follow-up was at 2, 6, and 12 months from onset of herpes simplex encephalitis. We studied another group of patients retrospectively, when they developed autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis (Cohort B). We compared demographics and clinical features of patients who developed autoimmune encephalitis with those who did not, and in patients who developed autoimmune encephalitis we compared these features by age group (patients ≤4 years compared with patients >4 years). We also used multivariable binary logistic regression models to assess risk factors for autoimmune encephalitis after herpes simplex encephalitis. FINDINGS: Between Jan 1, 2014, and Oct 31, 2017, 54 patients with herpes simplex encephalitis were recruited to Cohort A, and 51 were included in the analysis (median age 50 years [IQR 5-68]). At onset of herpes simplex encephalitis, none of the 51 patients had antibodies to neuronal antigens; during follow-up, 14 (27%) patients developed autoimmune encephalitis and all 14 (100%) had neuronal antibodies (nine [64%] had NMDA receptor [NMDAR] antibodies and five [36%] had other antibodies) at or before onset of symptoms. The other 37 patients did not develop autoimmune encephalitis, although 11 (30%) developed antibodies (n=3 to NMDAR, n=8 to unknown antigens; p<0·001). Antibody detection within 3 weeks of herpes simplex encephalitis was a risk factor for autoimmune encephalitis (odds ratio [OR] 11·5, 95% CI 2·7-48·8; p<0·001). Between Oct 7, 2011, and Oct 31, 2017, there were 48 patients in Cohort B with new-onset or worsening neurological symptoms not caused by herpes simplex virus reactivation (median age 8·8 years [IQR 1·1-44·2]; n=27 male); 44 (92%) patients had antibody-confirmed autoimmune encephalitis (34 had NMDAR antibodies and ten had other antibodies). In both cohorts (n=58 patients with antibody-confirmed autoimmune encephalitis), patients older than 4 years frequently presented with psychosis (18 [58%] of 31; younger children not assessable). Compared with patients older than 4 years, patients aged 4 years or younger (n=27) were more likely to have shorter intervals between onset of herpes simplex encephalitis and onset of autoimmune encephalitis (median 26 days [IQR 24-32] vs 43 days [25-54]; p=0·0073), choreoathetosis (27 [100%] of 27 vs 0 of 31; p<0·001), decreased level of consciousness (26 [96%] of 27 vs seven [23%] of 31; p<0·001), NMDAR antibodies (24 [89%] of 27 vs 19 [61%] of 31; p=0·033), and worse outcome at 1 year (median modified Rankin Scale 4 [IQR 4-4] vs 2 [2-3]; p<0·0010; seizures 12 [63%] of 19 vs three [13%] of 23; p=0·001). INTERPRETATION: The results of our prospective study show that autoimmune encephalitis occurred in 27% of patients with herpes simplex encephalitis. It was associated with development of neuronal antibodies and usually presented within 2 months after treatment of herpes simplex encephalitis; the symptoms were age-dependent, and the neurological outcome was worse in young children. Prompt diagnosis is important because patients, primarily those older than 4 years, can respond to immunotherapy. FUNDING: Mutua Madrileña Foundation, Fondation de l'Université de Lausanne et Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, Instituto Carlos III, CIBERER, National Institutes of Health, Generalitat de Catalunya, Fundació CELLEX.


Assuntos
Encefalite por Herpes Simples/complicações , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/epidemiologia , Encefalite/epidemiologia , Encefalite/etiologia , Doença de Hashimoto/epidemiologia , Doença de Hashimoto/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Encefalite/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite/diagnóstico por imagem , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Encefalite por Herpes Simples/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Doença de Hashimoto/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Hashimoto/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ratos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/imunologia , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Immunol ; 9: 636, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867916

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immunodeficiency characterized by recurrent infections, hypogammaglobulinemia and poor response to vaccines. Its diagnosis is made based on clinical and immunological criteria, after exclusion of other diseases that can cause similar phenotypes. Currently, less than 20% of cases of CVID have a known underlying genetic cause. We have analyzed whole-exome sequencing and copy number variants data of 36 children and adolescents diagnosed with CVID and healthy relatives to estimate the proportion of monogenic cases. We have replicated an association of CVID to p.C104R in TNFRSF13B and reported the second case of homozygous patient to date. Our results also identify five causative genetic variants in LRBA, CTLA4, NFKB1, and PIK3R1, as well as other very likely causative variants in PRKCD, MAPK8, or DOCK8 among others. We experimentally validate the effect of the LRBA stop-gain mutation which abolishes protein production and downregulates the expression of CTLA4, and of the frameshift indel in CTLA4 producing expression downregulation of the protein. Our results indicate a monogenic origin of at least 15-24% of the CVID cases included in the study. The proportion of monogenic patients seems to be lower in CVID than in other PID that have also been analyzed by whole exome or targeted gene panels sequencing. Regardless of the exact proportion of CVID monogenic cases, other genetic models have to be considered for CVID. We propose that because of its prevalence and other features as intermediate penetrancies and phenotypic variation within families, CVID could fit with other more complex genetic scenarios. In particular, in this work, we explore the possibility of CVID being originated by an oligogenic model with the presence of heterozygous mutations in interacting proteins or by the accumulation of detrimental variants in particular immunological pathways, as well as perform association tests to detect association with rare genetic functional variation in the CVID cohort compared to healthy controls.


Assuntos
Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Imunodeficiência de Variável Comum/genética , Genótipo , Mutação/genética , Proteína Transmembrana Ativadora e Interagente do CAML/genética , Adolescente , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Modelos Biológicos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
17.
Front Oncol ; 8: 127, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755954

RESUMO

Background and objective: Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is a lethal brainstem tumor in children. Dendritic cells (DCs) have T-cell stimulatory capacity and, therefore, potential antitumor activity for disease control. DCs vaccines have been shown to reactivate tumor-specific T cells in both clinical and preclinical settings. We designed a phase Ib immunotherapy (IT) clinical trial with the use of autologous dendritic cells (ADCs) pulsed with an allogeneic tumors cell-lines lysate in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG after irradiation (radiation therapy). Methods: Nine patients with newly diagnosed DIPG met enrollment criteria. Autologous dendritic cell vaccines (ADCV) were prepared from monocytes obtained by leukapheresis. Five ADCV doses were administered intradermally during induction phase. In the absence of tumor progression, patients received three boosts of tumor lysate every 3 months during the maintenance phase. Results: Vaccine fabrication was feasible in all patients included in the study. Non-specific KLH (9/9 patients) and specific (8/9 patients) antitumor response was identified by immunologic studies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Immunological responses were also confirmed in the T lymphocytes isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two patients. Vaccine administration resulted safe in all patients treated with this schema. Conclusion: These preliminary results demonstrate that ADCV preparation is feasible, safe, and generate a DIPG-specific immune response detected in PBMC and CSF. This strategy shows a promising backbone for future schemas of combination IT.

18.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 29(4): 425-432, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: One of the most frequent non-infectious complications of humoral immunodeficiencies with a CVID-like pattern is a particular form of inflammatory lung disease which is called granulomatous-lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). Its development worsens patient prognosis, with a significant decrease in survival. Currently, there are no unified guidelines regarding its management, and different combinations of immunosuppressants have been used with variable success. METHODS: Clinical and radiological data were collected from patient's medical charts. Flow cytometry was performed to characterize the immunological features with special focus in regulatory T cells (Tregs). RESULTS: A 16-year-old girl with Kabuki syndrome and a 12-year-old boy, both with a CVID-like humoral immunodeficiency on immunoglobulin replacement treatment, developed during follow-up an inflammatory complication radiologically, clinically, and histologically compatible with GLILD. They required treatment, and sirolimus was started, with very good response and no serious side effects. CONCLUSIONS: These 2 cases provide insight into the underlying local and systemic immune anomalies involved in the development of GLILD, including the possible role of Tregs. Combined chemotherapy is commonly used as treatment for GLILD when steroids fail, but there have been some reports of successful monotherapy. As far as we know, these are the first 2 GLILD patients treated successfully with sirolimus, suggesting the advisability of further study of mTOR inhibitors as a more targeted treatment for GLILD, if impairment in Tregs is demonstrated.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/tratamento farmacológico , Sirolimo/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/imunologia , Adolescente , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Criança , Face/anormalidades , Feminino , Doenças Hematológicas/complicações , Doenças Hematológicas/imunologia , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Masculino , Doenças Vestibulares/complicações , Doenças Vestibulares/imunologia
19.
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci ; 55(3): 184-204, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502462

RESUMO

The integrity of the interferon (IFN)-γ circuit is necessary to mount an effective immune response to intra-macrophagic pathogens, especially Mycobacteria. Inherited monogenic defects in this circuit that disrupt the production of, or response to, IFN-γ underlie a primary immunodeficiency known as Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD). Otherwise healthy patients display a selective susceptibility to clinical disease caused by poorly virulent mycobacteria such as BCG (bacille Calmette-Guérin) vaccines and environmental mycobacteria, and more rarely by other intra-macrophagic pathogens, particularly Salmonella and M. tuberculosis. There is high genetic and allelic heterogeneity, with 19 genetic etiologies due to mutations in 10 genes that account for only about half of the patients reported. An efficient laboratory diagnostic approach to suspected MSMD patients is important, because it enables the establishment of specific therapeutic measures that will improve the patient's prognosis and quality of life. Moreover, it is essential to offer genetic counseling to affected families. Herein, we review the various genetic and immunological diagnostic approaches that can be used in concert to reach a molecular and cellular diagnosis in patients with MSMD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Interferon gama/genética , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Vacina BCG , Humanos , Mycobacterium
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