Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 16 de 16
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nanoscale ; 11(46): 22378-22386, 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31730145

RESUMO

Photonic applications based on halide perovskites, namely CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3), have recently attracted remarkable attention due to the high efficiencies reported for photovoltaic and light emitting devices. Despite these outstanding results, there are many temperature-, laser excitation power-, and morphology-dependent phenomena that require further research to be completely understood. In this work, we have investigated in detail the nature of exciton optical transitions and recombination dynamics below and above the orthorhombic/tetragonal ('O'-/'T'-) temperature phase transition (∼150 K) depending on the material continuity (continuous-like) or discontinuity (island-like) in MAPbI3 films. At low temperatures, continuous thin films of the perovskite can exhibit strain inhomogeneities associated with the formation of different 'T'-defective domains leading to an energy spread of states over more than 200 meV. On the other hand, a single photoluminescence line peak related to the perovskite 'O'-phase (associated with the distortion of the [PbI3]- anion) is observed in the island-like sample that we attribute to strain relaxation for this morphology. Moreover, the predominantly radiative recombination dynamics of the continuous-like sample mainly originates from nongeminate electron-hole formation of excitons in the 'O'-phase and the internal dynamics with carrier trapping levels. This observation is in strong contrast to the free exciton recombination dominantly found in the island-like sample.

2.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 10(19): 5889-5891, 2019 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536358
3.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 11(13): 12586-12593, 2019 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30848116

RESUMO

The correct identification of all gases released during hybrid perovskite degradation is of great significance to develop strategies to extend the lifespan of any device based on this semiconductor. CH3X (X = Br/I) is a released degradation gas/low boiling point liquid arising from methylammonium (MA+) based perovskites, which has been largely overlooked in the literature focusing on stability of perovskite solar cells. Herein, we present an unambiguous identification of CH3I release using microwave (rotational) spectroscopy. An experimental back-reaction test demonstrates that the well-known CH3NH2/HX degradation route may not be the ultimate degradation pathway of MAPbX3 in thermodynamic closed systems. Meanwhile, the CH3X/NH3 route cannot back-react selectively to MAX formation as occurred for the former back-reaction. Metadynamics calculations uncover the X halide effect on energy barriers for both degradation reactions showing a better stability of Br based perovskite ascribed to two aspects: (i) lower Brönsted-Lowry acidity of HBr compared to HI and (ii) higher nucleophilic character of CH3NH2 compared to NH3. The latter property makes CH3NH2 molecules stay preferentially attached on the electrophilic perovskite surface (Pb2+) during the dynamic simulation instead of being detached as observed for the NH3 molecule.

4.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3880, 2018 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30250031

RESUMO

Besides high efficiency, the stability and reproducibility of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are also key for their commercialization. Herein, we report a simple perovskite formation method to fabricate perovskite films with thickness over 1 µm in ambient condition on the basis of the fast gas-solid reaction of chlorine-incorporated hydrogen lead triiodide and methylamine gas. The resultant thick and smooth chlorine-incorporated perovskite films exhibit full coverage, improved crystallinity, low surface roughness and low thickness variation. The resultant PSCs achieve an average power conversion efficiency of 19.1 ± 0.4% with good reproducibility. Meanwhile, this method enables an active area efficiency of 15.3% for 5 cm × 5 cm solar modules. The un-encapsulated PSCs exhibit an excellent T80 lifetime exceeding 1600 h under continuous operation conditions in dry nitrogen environment.

5.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 9(6): 1318-1323, 2018 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29493240

RESUMO

In organic field-effect transistors, the first few molecular layers at the semiconductor/dielectric interface are regarded as the active channel for charge transport; thus, great efforts have been devoted to the modification and optimization of molecular packing at such interfaces. Here, we report organic monolayers with large-area uniformity and high crystallinity deposited by an antisolvent-assisted spin-coating method acting as the templating layers between the dielectric and thermally evaporated semiconducting layers. The predeposited crystalline monolayers significantly enhance the film crystallinity of upper layers and the overall performance of transistors using these hybrid-deposited semiconducting films, showing a high carrier mobility up to 11.3 cm2 V-1 s-1. Additionally, patterned transistor arrays composed of the templating monolayers are fabricated, yielding an average mobility of 7.7 cm2 V-1 s-1. This work demonstrates a promising method for fabricating low-cost, high-performance, and large-area organic electronics.

6.
Adv Mater ; 30(3)2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29210216

RESUMO

Because of the rapid rise of the efficiency, perovskite solar cells are currently considered as the most promising next-generation photovoltaic technology. Much effort has been made to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells. Here, it is demonstrated that the addition of a novel organic cation of 2-(6-bromo-1,3-dioxo-1H-benzo[de]isoquinolin-2(3H)-yl)ethan-1-ammonium iodide (2-NAM), which has strong Lewis acid and base interaction (between CO and Pb) with perovskite, can effectively increase crystalline grain size and reduce charge carrier recombination of the double cation FA0.83 MA0.17 PbI2.51 Br0.49 perovskite film, thus boosting the efficiency from 17.1 ± 0.8% to 18.6 ± 0.9% for the 0.1 cm2 cell and from 15.5 ± 0.5% to 16.5 ± 0.6% for the 1.0 cm2 cell. The champion cell shows efficiencies of 20.0% and 17.6% with active areas of 0.1 and 1.0 cm2 , respectively. Moreover, the hysteresis behavior is suppressed and the stability is improved. The result provides a promising route to further elevate efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells by the fine tuning of triple organic cations.

7.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(36): 30197-30246, 2017 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28682587

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials (e.g., MAPbI3, FAPbI3, etc.; where MA = CH3NH3+, FA = CH(NH2)2+) have been studied intensively for photovoltaic applications. Major concerns for the commercialization of perovskite photovoltaic technology to take off include lead toxicity, long-term stability, hysteresis, and optimal bandgap. Therefore, there is still need for further exploration of alternative candidates. Elemental composition engineering of MAPbI3 and FAPbI3 has been proposed to address the above concerns. Among the best six certified power conversion efficiencies reported by National Renewable Energy Laboratory on perovskite-based solar cells, five are based on mixed perovskites (e.g., MAPbI1-xBrx, FA0.85MA0.15PbI2.55Br0.45, Cs0.1FA0.75MA0.15PbI2.49Br0.51). In this paper, we review the recent progress on the synthesis and fundamental aspects of mixed cation and halide perovskites correlating with device performance, long-term stability, and hysteresis. In the outlook, we outline the future research directions based on the reported results as well as related topics that warrant further investigation.

8.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(14): 3193-3198, 2017 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28649837

RESUMO

Organo-lead-halide perovskites are promising materials for optoelectronic applications. Perovskite solar cells have reached power conversion efficiencies of over 22%, and perovskite light-emitting diodes have recently achieved over 11% external quantum efficiency. To date, most research on perovskite light-emitting diodes has focused on solution-processed films. There are many advantages of a vapor-based growth process to prepare perovskites, including ease of patterning, ability to batch process, and material compatibility. We investigated an all-vapor perovskite growth process by chemical vapor deposition and demonstrated luminance up to 560 cd/m2.

9.
Nanoscale ; 8(12): 6271-7, 2016 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26616491

RESUMO

Intensive research on the electron transport material (ETM) has been pursued to improve the efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) and decrease their cost. More importantly, the role of the ETM layer is not yet fully understood, and research on new device architectures is still needed. Here, we report the use of three-dimensional (3D) TiO2 with a hierarchical architecture based on rutile nanorods (NR) as photoanode material for PSCs. The proposed hierarchical nanorod (HNR) films were synthesized by a two-step low temperature (180 °C) hydrothermal method, and consist of TiO2 nanorod trunks with optimal lengths of 540 nm and TiO2 nanobranches with lengths of 45 nm. Different device configurations were fabricated with TiO2 structures (compact layer, NR and HNR) and CH3NH3PbI3, using different synthetic routes, as the active material. PSCs based on HNR-CH3NH3PbI3 achieved the highest power conversion efficiency compared to PSCs with other TiO2 structures. This result can be ascribed mainly to lower charge recombination as determined by impedance spectroscopy. Furthermore, we have observed that the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite deposited by the two-step route shows higher efficiency, surface coverage and infiltration within the structure of 3D HNR than the one-step CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Cl(x) perovskite.

10.
Adv Mater ; 27(40): 6157-62, 2015 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26331838

RESUMO

The emission properties of hybrid halide perovskites are exploited to implement a stable and very low power operation waveguide optical amplifier integrated in a silicon platform. By optimizing its design with a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) encapsulation, this novel photonic device presents a net gain of around 10 dB cm(-1) and 3-4 nm linewidth with an energy threshold as low as 2 nJ pulse(-1) and exhibiting no degradation after one year.

11.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 6(9): 1628-37, 2015 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26263326

RESUMO

One of the most fascinating characteristics of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) is the retrieved obtainment of outstanding photovoltaic (PV) performances withstanding important device configuration variations. Here we have analyzed CH3NH3PbI3-xClx in planar or in mesostructured (MS) configurations, employing both titania and alumina scaffolds, fully infiltrated with perovskite material or presenting an overstanding layer. The use of the MS scaffold induces to the perovskite different structural properties, in terms of grain size, preferential orientation, and unit cell volume, in comparison to the ones of the material grown with no constraints, as we have found out by X-ray diffraction analyses. We have studied the effect of the PSC configuration on photoinduced absorption and time-resolved photoluminescence, complementary techniques that allow studying charge photogeneration and recombination. We have estimated electron diffusion length in the considered configurations observing a decrease when the material is confined in the MS scaffold with respect to a planar architecture. However, the presence of perovskite overlayer allows an overall recovering of long diffusion lengths explaining the record PV performances obtained with a device configuration bearing both the mesostructure and a perovskite overlayer. Our results suggest that performance in devices with perovskite overlayer is mainly ruled by the overlayer, whereas the mesoporous layer influences the contact properties.


Assuntos
Compostos de Cálcio/química , Óxidos/química , Energia Solar , Titânio/química , Cristalização , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
12.
Nano Lett ; 14(2): 888-93, 2014 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24397375

RESUMO

Organometal halide perovskite-based solar cells have recently realized large conversion efficiency over 15% showing great promise for a new large scale cost-competitive photovoltaic technology. Using impedance spectroscopy measurements we are able to separate the physical parameters of carrier transport and recombination in working devices of the two principal morphologies and compositions of perovskite solar cells, viz. compact thin films of CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx and CH3NH3PbI3 infiltrated on nanostructured TiO2. The results show nearly identical spectral characteristics indicating a unique photovoltaic operating mechanism that provides long diffusion lengths (1 µm). Carrier conductivity in both devices is closely matched, so that the most significant differences in performance are attributed to recombination rates. These results highlight the central role of the CH3NH3PbX3 semiconductor absorber in carrier collection and provide a new tool for improved optimization of perovskite solar cells. We report for the first time a measurement of the diffusion length in a nanostructured perovskite solar cell.

13.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(4): 680-5, 2014 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26270836

RESUMO

The effect of electron- and hole-selective contacts in the final cell performance of hybrid lead halide perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, solar cells has been systematically analyzed by impedance spectroscopy. Complete cells with compact TiO2 and spiro-OMeTAD as electron- and hole-selective contacts have been compared with incomplete cells without one or both selective contacts to highlight the specific role of each contact. It has been described how selective contacts contribute to enhance the cell FF and how the hole-selective contact is mainly responsible for the high Voc in this kind of device. We have determined that the recombination rate is mainly governed by the selective contacts. This fact has important implication for the future optimization of perovskite solar cells. Finally, we have developed a method to analyze the results obtained, and it has been applied for three different electron-selecting materials: TiO2, ZnO, and CdS.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 5(13): 2390-4, 2014 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26279565

RESUMO

Organic-inorganic lead trihalide perovskites have emerged as an outstanding photovoltaic material that demonstrated a high 17.9% conversion efficiency of sunlight to electricity in a short time. We have found a giant dielectric constant (GDC) phenomenon in these materials consisting on a low frequency dielectric constant in the dark of the order of ε0 = 1000. We also found an unprecedented behavior in which ε0 further increases under illumination or by charge injection at applied bias. We observe that ε0 increases nearly linearly with the illumination intensity up to an additional factor 1000 under 1 sun. Measurement of a variety of samples of different morphologies, compositions, and different types of contacts shows that the GDC is an intrinsic property of MAPbX3 (MA = CH3NH3(+)). We hypothesize that the large dielectric response is induced by structural fluctuations. Photoinduced carriers modify the local unit cell equilibrium and change the polarizability, assisted by the freedom of rotation of MA. The study opens a way for the understanding of a key aspect of the photovoltaic operation of high efficiency perovskite solar cells.

15.
Nat Commun ; 4: 2242, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23900067

RESUMO

Photovoltaic conversion requires two successive steps: accumulation of a photogenerated charge and charge separation. Determination of how and where charge accumulation is attained and how this accumulation can be identified is mandatory for understanding the performance of a photovoltaic device and for its further optimization. Here we analyse the mechanism of carrier accumulation in lead halide perovskite, CH3NH3PbI3, thin-absorber solar cells by means of impedance spectroscopy. A fingerprint of the charge accumulation in high density of states of the perovskite absorber material has been observed at the capacitance of the samples. This is, as far as we know, the first observation of charge accumulation in light-absorbing material for nanostructured solar cells, indicating that it constitutes a new kind of photovoltaic device, differentiated from sensitized solar cells, which will require its own methods of study, characterization and optimization.

16.
Chem Soc Rev ; 41(9): 3445-63, 2012 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22334301

RESUMO

This tutorial review will deal with the study of metallacarboranes and their interactions with other molecules from a theoretical point of view. This contribution is devoted to guide experimental chemists through calculations that some years ago were reserved to theoretical specialists. The widespread availability of fast computers enables nowadays studies of complex compounds (e.g. metallacarboranes) from different perspectives including simulation of NMR, infrared or Raman spectra and calculation of other properties such as atomic charges or inter-/intramolecular interactions. The insights gained on the basis of theoretical calculations are crucial for either finding novel or improving existing applications of metallacarboranes. For example, in the case of enzyme inhibitors, the interactions of the metallacarboranes with the surrounding protein and how the interaction affects the efficiency are difficult problems to study experimentally. The use of theoretical tools can provide a detailed understanding of the physico-chemical basis of the interactions and thus offers a chance to control the overall process.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA