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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the global efforts to eradicate hepatitis C virus (HCV), treatment during pregnancy is becoming a priority for research as this, and maternal cure should reduce vertical transmission. However, as information on the efficacy and safety of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in pregnancy is generally lacking, treatment of HCV infection during pregnancy is not currently recommended. AIM: To provide an overview of current knowledge regarding maternal exposure, placental handling and safety of DAAs during pregnancy and lactation METHODS: A literature search was performed focusing on the effect of pregnancy on maternal exposure to DAAs, the placental handling of DAAs, the safety of DAAs for mother and child during pregnancy and the safety of DAAs during lactation. RESULTS: Exposure to all DAAs studied is likely to be altered during pregnancy, mostly related to pregnancy-induced effects on drug absorption and metabolism. Although animal studies show that most DAAs are reported to cross the placenta and transfer into breast milk, most DAA combinations show a favourable safety profile. Because of the rapid viral decline after treatment initiation, and to avoid the critical period of organogenesis, treatment may be started at the end of the second trimester or early third trimester. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of HCV infection during pregnancy is realistic, as DAAs are highly effective and treatment duration is relatively short. There is an urgent need to study DAAs during pregnancy and lactation to contribute to the goal of HCV elimination.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1165, 2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Self-harm in adolescents is of growing concern internationally but limited evidence exists on the prevalence of self-harm in those living with HIV, who may be at higher risk of poor mental health outcomes. Therefore our aim was to determine the prevalence and predictors of self-harm among young people with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) and HIV negative (with sibling or mother living with HIV) young people living in England. METHODS: 303 PHIV and 100 HIV negative young people (aged 12-23 years) participating in the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV cohort study completed an anonymous self-harm questionnaire, as well as a number of standardised mental-health assessments. Logistic regression investigated predictors of self-harm. RESULTS: The median age was 16.7 years in both groups, and 40.9% of the PHIV and 31.0% of the HIV negative groups were male. In total 13.9% (56/403) reported having ever self-harmed, with no difference by HIV status (p = 0.089). Multivariable predictors of self-harm were female sex (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 5.3, (95% confidence interval 1.9, 14.1), p = 0.001), lower self-esteem (AOR 0.9 (0.8, 0.9) per 1 point increase, p < 0.001) and having ever used alcohol (AOR 3.8 (1.8, 7.8), p < 0.001). Self-esteem z-scores for both PHIV and HIV negative participants were 1.9 standard deviations below the mean for population norms. CONCLUSIONS: Self-harm is common among PHIV and HIV negative adolescents in England. Reassuringly however, they do not appear to be at an increased risk compared to the general adolescent population (15-19% lifetime prevalence). The low level of self-esteem (compared to available normative data) in both groups is worrying and warrants further attention.

3.
F1000Res ; 8: 323, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105935

RESUMO

Background: Ukraine's perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) young people are ageing into adolescence/young adulthood and, alongside those with behaviourally-acquired infections (BHIV), require transitional and other support services. We aimed to map this population and policies/service provision at specialist HIV centres, to inform future service development. Methods: A national survey was conducted of 28 HIV/AIDS centres on number, characteristics (age group, HIV acquisition mode) and care setting (paediatric/adult) of 10-24 year olds in HIV care in each of 24 regions in January 2016. Information was collected on policies/service provision at each centre. Results: Of 13,286 young people aged 10-24 years registered for HIV care nationally in Ukraine in January 2016, 1,675 were aged 10-18 years. Three-quarters of ≤19 year olds were PHIV, while 72% of 20-24-year-olds had sexually-acquired infection. Five regions accounted for two-thirds of 10-18 year olds in paediatric and 85% of 19-24 year olds in adult services. In 2015, 97 young people transitioned from paediatric to adult services nationally, typically at 18 years although with flexibility in timing at 17/28 centres. At 27/28 centres, BHIV young people aged <18 years began their HIV care in paediatric services sometimes (5) or always (22). Transition support most commonly consisted of a joint appointment with paediatrician and adult doctor, and support from a psychologist/social worker (both at 24/28 centres). Only 5/28 centres offered routine HIV care during the evening or weekend, and availability of integrated sexual/reproductive health and harm reduction services was uneven. Of 16/28 centres selectively following-up patients who did not attend for care, 15 targeted patients in paediatric services. Conclusions: Heterogeneity in the population and in service availability at the main regional/municipal HIV/AIDS centres has implications for potential structural barriers to HIV care, and development of services for this group.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0210412, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30677778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ukraine has the second largest European HIV epidemic. This study aimed to describe stigma, demographic and social factors and their association with anxiety among perinatally and behaviourally-HIV-infected (PHIV; BHIV) young people in Kiev and Odessa. METHODS: 104 PHIV and 100 BHIV young people aged 13-25 years completed a confidential tablet-based survey. Survey tools included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) (anxiety sub-scale scores of 8-10 indicating mild and ≥11 moderate/severe symptoms in last 7 days), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and HIV Stigma Scale (HSS) (short version, composite of disclosure, negative self-image and public attitudes sub-scales). Unadjusted Poisson regression models were fitted to explore factors associated with moderate/severe anxiety symptoms. RESULTS: PHIV and BHIV young people were of median age 15.5 [IQR 13.9-17.1] and 23.0 [21.0-24.3] years, having registered for HIV care a median 12.3 [10.3-14.4] and 0.9 [0.2-2.4] years previously; 97% (97/100) and 66% (65/99) respectively were on ART. Overall 43% (95%CI 36-50%) reported any and 13% (95%CI 9-19%) moderate/severe anxiety symptoms, with no difference by HIV acquisition mode (p = 0.405) or gender (p = 0.700). 42% (75/180) reported history of an emotional health problem for which they had not been referred/attended for care. Moderate/severe anxiety symptoms were associated with HIV-related stigma (prevalence ratio (PR) 1.24 95%CI 1.14-1.34 per HSS unit increase), lower self-esteem (PR 0.83 95%CI 0.78-0.90 per RSES point increase), CD4 ≤350 cells/mm3 (PR 2.29 95%CI 1.06-4.97), having no-one at home who knew the respondent's HIV status (PR 9.15 95%CI 3.40-24.66 vs all know) and, among BHIV, less stable living situation (PR 6.83 95%CI 1.99-23.48 for ≥2 vs no home moves in last 3 years) and history of drug use (PR 4.65 95%CI 1.83-11.85). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated unmet need for psychosocial support. Further work is needed to explore strategies for mental health support, particularly around disclosure, self-esteem and stigma.

5.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205597, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312343

RESUMO

As adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) survive into adulthood, gaining insight into sexual behaviour and risk-taking is important. Between 2013-2015, 296 PHIV aged 13-21 years and 96 HIV negative affected adolescents (13-23 years) were recruited to the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort in England. Sexual health data were collected through computer-assisted self-interview questionnaires. Quality of life and household deprivation were also measured. T-tests compared means, and χ2 proportions; logistic regression examined predictors of ever having sex. 120(41%) PHIV and 31(32%) HIV- young people were male, 254(86%) and 70(73%) were black, median age 16 [IQR 15,18] and 16 [14,18] years respectively. 77(26%) PHIV had a previous AIDS diagnosis. 93(32%) PHIV and 38(40%) HIV- had ever had sex; median number of partners was 3 [1,6] and 4 [1,6] respectively. 54 (41%) of 131 young people who were sexually active reported not always using condoms, including 32% (30/93) of PHIV. In multivariable analysis, older age, male sex, worse deprivation score, worse quality of life, and alcohol and/or drugs were associated with ever having sex, but not HIV status. 12/30 PHIV reporting unprotected sex had at least one HIV viral load ≥200c/ml in the previous 12 months. Age at first sex and number of sexual partners were similar among PHIV and HIV-, and comparable to normative data. In conclusion, small numbers of PHIV reported condomless sex with a detectable viral load, which could result in HIV transmission, indicating the need for targeted sexual health and ART adherence interventions for young people with perinatal HIV.

6.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2018 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199484

RESUMO

We assessed HIV antibody prevalence in children with perinatally-acquired HIV (PaHIV) in England. 18%(10/55) of those starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) <6 months of age were seronegative, and had lower viral load at diagnosis and cART start, and fewer viral rebounds, than 45/55 seropositives. Implications for patient selection for HIV cure research, and interpretation of routine antibody testing, are discussed.

7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 79(2): 269-276, 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30211778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children aged 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2-4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24-45] %, CD8% 28 [18-36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4-5.9] copies per milliliter. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6-19.3] months. After suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL 50-400 followed by VL <50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL ≥400 followed by VL <50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6195] copies/10 PBMC. Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, P = 0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, P = 0.0022) and the absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/suboptimal response, P = 0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSIONS: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1-infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.

8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 78 Suppl 1: S22-S26, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29994916

RESUMO

Observational data characterizing the pediatric and adolescent HIV epidemics in real-world settings are critical to informing clinical guidelines, governmental HIV programs, and donor prioritization. Global expertise in curating and analyzing these data has been expanding, with increasingly robust collaborations and the identification of gaps in existing surveillance capacity. In this commentary, we describe existing sources of observational data for children and youth living with HIV, focusing on larger regional and global research cohorts, and targeted surveillance studies and programs. Observational data are valuable resources to cross-validate other research and to monitor the impact of changing HIV program policies. Observational studies were among the first to highlight the growing population of children surviving perinatal HIV and transitioning to adolescence and young adulthood, and have raised serious concerns about high rates of treatment failure, loss to follow-up, and death among older perinatally infected youth. The use of observational data to inform modeling of the current global epidemic, predict future patterns of the youth cascade, and facilitate antiretroviral forecasting are critical priorities and key end products of observational HIV research. Greater investments into data infrastructure are needed at the local level to improve data quality and at the global level to faciliate reliable interpretation of the evolving patterns of the pediatric and youth epidemics. Although this includes harmonized data forms, use of unique patient identifiers to allow for data linkages across routine data sets and electronic medical record systems, and competent data managers and analysts are essential to make optimal use of the data collected.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Future strategies aiming to achieve HIV-1 remission are likely to target individuals with small reservoir size. SETTING: We retrospectively investigated factors associated with HIV-1 DNA levels in European, perinatally HIV-infected children starting ART <6 months of age. METHODS: Total HIV-1 DNA was measured from 51 long-term suppressed children 6.3 years (median) after initial viral suppression. Factors associated with log10 total HIV-1 DNA were analyzed using linear regression. RESULTS: At ART initiation, children were aged median [IQR] 2.3 [1.2,4.1] months, CD4% 37 [24,45] %, CD8% 28 [18,36] %, log10 plasma viral load (VL) 5.4 [4.4,5.9] copies/ml. Time to viral suppression was 7.98 [4.6,19.3] months. Following suppression, 13 (25%) children had suboptimal response [≥2 consecutive VL50-400 followed by VL<50] and/or experienced periods of virological failure [≥2 consecutive VL≥400 followed by VL<50]. Median total HIV-1 DNA was 43 [6,195] copies/10 PBMC.Younger age at therapy initiation was associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA (adjusted coefficient [AC] 0.12 per month older, p=0.0091), with a month increase in age at ART start being associated with a 13% increase in HIV DNA. Similarly, a higher proportion of time spent virally suppressed (AC 0.10 per 10% higher, p=0.0022) and absence of viral failure/suboptimal response (AC 0.34 for those with fail/ suboptimal response, p=0.0483) were associated with lower total HIV-1 DNA. CONCLUSION: Early ART initiation and a higher proportion of time suppressed are linked with lower total HIV-1 DNA. Early ART start and improving adherence in perinatally HIV-1 infected children minimize the size of viral reservoir.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal.

10.
PLoS One ; 13(4): e0194132, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617438

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Following widespread use of stavudine, a thymidine analogue, in antiretroviral therapy (ART) over the past three decades, up to a third of children developed lipoatrophy (LA) and/or lipohypertrophy (LH). Following phasing-out of stavudine, incidence of newly-diagnosed LA and LH declined dramatically. However, the natural history of existing cases should be explored, particularly with prolonged protease inhibitor exposure. METHODS: The Collaborative HIV Paediatric Study (CHIPS) is a multicentre cohort study of most HIV-infected children in the United Kingdom and Ireland. Those on ART with a LA/LH assessment recorded in 2003-2011 were included. Assessments were completed annually by consultant physicians. Using the 0-3 grading system, LA or LH was defined as grade 2 or 3. Resolution was defined as return to grade 1 or 0 in all body regions. RESULTS: Of 1345 children followed for median (IQR) 5.5 (2.9, 8.2) years after ART initiation, 30 developed LA and 27 developed LH, all at least 2 years after ART initiation. Median age at LA diagnosis was 11 (10, 13) years and at LH diagnosis was 13 (11, 15) years. Children with LA were more likely white (p<0.0001); lower height-for-age z-score at ART initiation (p = 0.02); initiated ART earlier (p = 0.04), with longer ART exposure (p = 0.04). Children with LH were similar to those without. Analysis of individual drugs revealed that LA was associated with greater duration of exposure to stavudine and didanosine; while LH was associated with greater duration of exposure to stavudine and ritonavir (given alone or in combination with another protease inhibitor). Median time in follow-up following ART switch was 2.8 (1.9, 4.9) and 2.5 (1.6, 4.7) years respectively. Resolution occurred in 10 (30%) of LA cases (median time to resolution 2.3 [1.8, 3.6] years) and 3 (11%) of LH cases (median time to resolution 2.0 [1.7, 2.1] years). CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of LA and LH were low, with some resolution noted, especially for LA. More long-term data are needed.


Assuntos
Lipodistrofia/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/efeitos adversos , Estavudina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Lipodistrofia/complicações , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Estavudina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
11.
AIDS Care ; 30(8): 1040-1049, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29502430

RESUMO

Adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) may be at higher risk of anxiety and depression than HIV negative young people. We investigated prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms in 283 PHIV and 96 HIV-affected (HIV-negative) young people in England recruited into the Adolescents and Adults Living with Perinatal HIV (AALPHI) cohort. We used Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores and linear regression investigated predictors of higher (worse) scores.115 (41%) and 29 (30%) PHIV and HIV-affected young people were male, median age was 16 [interquartile range 15,18] and 16 [14,18] years and 241 (85%) and 71 (74%) were black African, respectively. There were no differences in anxiety and depression scores between PHIV and HIV-affected participants. Predictors of higher anxiety scores were a higher number of carers in childhood, speaking a language other than English at home, lower self-esteem, ever thinking life was not worth living and lower social functioning. Predictors of higher depression scores were male sex, death of one/both parents, school exclusion, lower self-esteem and lower social functioning. In conclusion, HIV status was not associated with anxiety or depression scores, but findings highlight the need to identify and support young people at higher risk of anxiety and depression.

12.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 13(3): 236-248, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29528851

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize evidence for health outcomes among adolescents and young people living with HIV (AYLHIV) who have transitioned to adult care/adulthood, views of AYLHIV and providers on the transition process, and the effect of adolescent and youth friendly services (AYFS) on outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: A total of 43 studies were identified [n = 13 high-income countries (HICs), n = 30 low-/middle-income countries (LMICs)]. In HICs, around 75% of patients were retained in care at approximately 4 years posttransition. In LMICs, retention worsened from older adolescence into young adulthood. Across both contexts, comparisons of mortality, immunological, and virological outcomes were hampered by a limited number of studies and/or different definitions and study durations. AYLHIV and providers reported several factors that could aid transition and AYFS had generally positive outcomes. SUMMARY: Overall, outcomes varied by study and context; direct comparison was severely hampered by the inclusion of different populations of AYLHIV (sometimes with small numbers and a lack of comparison groups), the use of different outcome definitions, varying follow-up duration, and the lack of a specific transition process in LMICs. Future studies need to consider harmonizing definitions and implementing unique patient identifiers, and data linkage techniques to improve the evidence base on long-term outcomes.

13.
PLoS Med ; 15(1): e1002491, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Published estimates of mortality and progression to AIDS as children with HIV approach adulthood are limited. We describe rates and risk factors for death and AIDS-defining events in children and adolescents after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in 17 middle- and high-income countries, including some in Western and Central Europe (W&CE), Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine), and Thailand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Children with perinatal HIV aged <18 years initiating cART were followed until their 21st birthday, transfer to adult care, death, loss to follow-up, or last visit up until 31 December 2013. Rates of death and first AIDS-defining events were calculated. Baseline and time-updated risk factors for early/late (≤/>6 months of cART) death and progression to AIDS were assessed. Of 3,526 children included, 32% were from the United Kingdom or Ireland, 30% from elsewhere in W&CE, 18% from Russia or Ukraine, and 20% from Thailand. At cART initiation, median age was 5.2 (IQR 1.4-9.3) years; 35% of children aged <5 years had a CD4 lymphocyte percentage <15% in 1997-2003, which fell to 15% of children in 2011 onwards (p < 0.001). Similarly, 53% and 18% of children ≥5 years had a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 in 1997-2003 and in 2011 onwards, respectively (p < 0.001). Median follow-up was 5.6 (2.9-8.7) years. Of 94 deaths and 237 first AIDS-defining events, 43 (46%) and 100 (42%) were within 6 months of initiating cART, respectively. Multivariable predictors of early death were: being in the first year of life; residence in Russia, Ukraine, or Thailand; AIDS at cART start; initiating cART on a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimen; severe immune suppression; and low BMI-for-age z-score. Current severe immune suppression, low current BMI-for-age z-score, and current viral load >400 c/mL predicted late death. Predictors of early and late progression to AIDS were similar. Study limitations include incomplete recording of US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) disease stage B events and serious adverse events in some countries; events that were distributed over a long time period, and that we lacked power to analyse trends in patterns and causes of death over time. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, 3,526 children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART) in countries in Europe and Thailand. We observed that over 40% of deaths occurred ≤6 months after cART initiation. Greater early mortality risk in infants, as compared to older children, and in Russia, Ukraine, or Thailand as compared to W&CE, raises concern. Current severe immune suppression, being underweight, and unsuppressed viral load were associated with a higher risk of death at >6 months after initiation of cART.

14.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 72(10): 2869-2878, 2017 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091198

RESUMO

Background: CD4 cell recovery following first-line combination ART (cART) is poorer in HIV-2+ than in HIV-1+ patients. Only large comparisons may allow adjustments for demographic and pretreatment plasma viral load (pVL). Methods: ART-naive HIV+ adults from two European multicohort collaborations, COHERE (HIV-1 alone) and ACHIeV2e (HIV-2 alone), were included, if they started first-line cART (without NNRTIs or fusion inhibitors) between 1997 and 2011. Patients without at least one CD4 cell count before start of cART, without a pretreatment pVL and with missing a priori-defined covariables were excluded. Evolution of CD4 cell count was studied using adjusted linear mixed models. Results: We included 185 HIV-2+ and 30321 HIV-1+ patients with median age of 46 years (IQR 36-52) and 37 years (IQR 31-44), respectively. Median observed pretreatment CD4 cell counts/mm3 were 203 (95% CI 100-290) in HIV-2+ patients and 223 (95% CI 100-353) in HIV-1+ patients. Mean observed CD4 cell count changes from start of cART to 12 months were +105 (95% CI 77-134) in HIV-2+ patients and +202 (95% CI 199-205) in HIV-1+ patients, an observed difference of 97 cells/mm3 in 1 year. In adjusted analysis, the mean CD4 cell increase was overall 25 CD4 cells/mm3/year lower (95% CI 5-44; P = 0.0127) in HIV-2+ patients compared with HIV-1+ patients. Conclusions: A poorer CD4 cell increase during first-line cART was observed in HIV-2+ patients, even after adjusting for pretreatment pVL and other potential confounders. Our results underline the need to identify more potent therapeutic regimens or strategies against HIV-2.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Viral/sangue , Carga Viral
16.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 20(Suppl 3): 21577, 2017 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530042

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: With improved survival, adolescents with perinatal HIV (PHIV) are transitioning from paediatric to adult care, but there are few published data on clinical outcomes post-transfer. Using linked data from patients in the national UK/Ireland paediatric cohort (CHIPS) and an adult UK cohort of outpatient clinics (UK CHIC), we describe mortality and changes in immunological status post-transfer. METHODS: Participants in CHIPS aged ≥13 years by the end of 2013 were linked to the UK CHIC database. Mixed effects models explored changes in CD4 count before and after transfer, including interactions between time and variables where interaction p < 0.05. RESULTS: Of 1,215 paediatric participants aged ≥13 years, 271 (22%) had linked data in UK CHIC. One hundred and forty-six (53%) were female, median age at last visit in paediatric care was 17 [interquartile range, IQR 16,18] years, median duration in paediatric care was 11.8 [6.6,15.5] years, and in adult care was 2.9 [1.5,5.9] years. At last visit in paediatric care, 74% (n = 200) were on ART, increasing to 84% (n = 228, p = 0.001) at last visit in adult care. In the 12 months before leaving paediatric care, 92 (47%) had two consecutive viral loads >400 copies/mL or one viral load >10,000 copies/mL, and likewise 102 (52%) in the 12 months post-transfer (p = 0.79). Seven (3%) people died in adult care. In multivariable analysis, CD4 declined as patients approached transition with a greater decline in those with higher nadir CD4 count (mean rates of decline of 3, 13, 15, 30 cells/mm3 per year for those with nadir CD4 < 100, 100-199, 200-299 and ≥300 cells/mm3, respectively). Post-transition, CD4 continued to decline in some groups (e.g. black males, -20 (-34, -5) cells/mm3 per year post transition, p = 0.007)) while it improved in others. Overall CD4 was higher with later year of birth (14 (7, 21) cells/mm3 per later year). There was no effect of age at transfer or changing hospital at transfer on CD4. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that CD4 in adolescents with perinatal HIV in the UK was declining in the period before transition to adult care, and there was some reversal in this trend post-transfer in some groups. Across the transition period, CD4 was higher in those with later birth years, suggesting improvements in clinical care and/or transition planning over time.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/terapia , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Irlanda , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 64(8): 1105-1112, 2017 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28329212

RESUMO

Background: Increasing numbers of children infected perinatally with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are surviving to adolescence and transitioning to adult care, yet there are scarce data on their clinical status at transfer. Methods: We analyzed prospective cohort data from the UK/Ireland national Collaborative HIV Pediatric Study (CHIPS). Clinical status at last pediatric clinic visit prior to transfer was described. Factors associated with higher CD4 cell count and viral load (VL) suppression<400 c/mL among patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at transfer were assessed using linear and logistic regression, respectively. Data were matched with the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database (UKHIVDRB) to assess cumulative resistance profiles at transfer. Results: Of 1,907 children followed in CHIPS from 1996 to November 2014, 644 (34%) transferred to adult care: 53% were female, 62% born outside the UK/Ireland, 75% black African. At last pediatric follow-up, median age was 17.4 years [interquartile range 16.5,18.1], 27% had previous AIDS diagnosis, CD4 was 444 cells/mm3 [280, 643], 76% were on ART, 13% off-ART, and 11% ART-naive. Among patients on ART, 74% had VL<400 c/mL. In multivariable analysis, higher CD4 at transfer was associated with younger age, higher CD4 at ART initiation and lower VL at transfer (P ≤ .001). Predictors of viral suppression include no AIDS diagnosis and later year of transfer (P ≤ .05). Of 291 patients with resistance data, 82% had resistance to ≥1 drug class, 56% to ≥2 classes and 12% had triple-class resistance. Conclusion: Three-quarters of adolescents were on stable ART at transfer, of whom 74% were virologically suppressed. The prevalence of triple-class resistance was relatively low at 12%.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Farmacorresistência Viral , Feminino , HIV/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Transição para Assistência do Adulto , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Carga Viral
18.
Int J Epidemiol ; 46(2): 453-465, 2017 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27342220

RESUMO

Background: There is limited knowledge about the optimal timing of antiretroviral treatment initiation in older children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 20 576 antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve patients, aged 1-16 years at enrolment, from 19 cohorts in Europe, Southern Africa and West Africa, were included. We compared mortality and growth outcomes for different ART initiation criteria, aligned with previous and recent World Health Organization criteria, for 5 years of follow-up, adjusting for all measured baseline and time-dependent confounders using the g-formula. Results: Median (1st;3rd percentile) CD4 count at baseline was 676 cells/mm 3 (394; 1037) (children aged ≥ 1 and < 5 years), 373 (172; 630) (≥ 5 and < 10 years) and 238 (88; 425) (≥ 10 and < 16 years). There was a general trend towards lower mortality and better growth with earlier treatment initiation. In children < 10 years old at enrolment, by 5 years of follow-up there was lower mortality and a higher mean height-for-age z-score with immediate ART initiation versus delaying until CD4 count < 350 cells/mm 3 (or CD4% < 15% or weight-for-age z-score < -2) with absolute differences in mortality and height-for-age z-score of 0.3% (95% confidence interval: 0.1%; 0.6%) and -0.08 (-0.09; -0.06) (≥ 1 and < 5 years), and 0.3% (0.04%; 0.5%) and -0.07 (-0.08; -0.05) (≥ 5 and < 10 years). In those aged > 10 years at enrolment we did not find any difference in mortality or growth with immediate ART initiation, with estimated differences of -0.1% (-0.2%; 0.6%) and -0.03 (-0.05; 0.00), respectively. Growth differences in children aged < 10 years persisted for treatment thresholds using higher CD4 values. Regular follow-up led to better height and mortality outcomes. Conclusions: Immediate ART is associated with lower mortality and better growth for up to 5 years in children < 10 years old. Our results on adolescents were inconclusive.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , África Austral/epidemiologia , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Peso Corporal , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Demografia , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 36(3): 307-310, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27879556

RESUMO

There are few data on gynecomastia in HIV-infected children. Within the UK/Ireland's national cohort, 56 of 1873 (3%) HIV-infected children had gynecomastia, of which 10 (0.5%) were severe. All 10 had received antiretroviral therapy for a median of 27.5 (21, 42) months; 4 of 10 had received efavirenz, 7 of 10 and 6 of 10 had received stavudine and/or didanosine respectively. Five were nonreversible, despite changing antiretroviral therapy, and required breast reduction surgery.


Assuntos
Ginecomastia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Antirretrovirais/efeitos adversos , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Ginecomastia/induzido quimicamente , Ginecomastia/complicações , Ginecomastia/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
20.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 1(3): 160-161, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30169158
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