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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6709, 2022 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344569

RESUMO

The transport of water through nanoscale capillaries/pores plays a prominent role in biology, ionic/molecular separations, water treatment and protective applications. However, the mechanisms of water and vapor transport through nanoscale confinements remain to be fully understood. Angstrom-scale pores (~2.8-6.6 Å) introduced into the atomically thin graphene lattice represent ideal model systems to probe water transport at the molecular-length scale with short pores (aspect ratio ~1-1.9) i.e., pore diameters approach the pore length (~3.4 Å) at the theoretical limit of material thickness. Here, we report on orders of magnitude differences (~80×) between transport of water vapor (~44.2-52.4 g m-2 day-1 Pa-1) and liquid water (0.6-2 g m-2 day-1 Pa-1) through nanopores (~2.8-6.6 Å in diameter) in monolayer graphene and rationalize this difference via a flow resistance model in which liquid water permeation occurs near the continuum regime whereas water vapor transport occurs in the free molecular flow regime. We demonstrate centimeter-scale atomically thin graphene membranes with up to an order of magnitude higher water vapor transport rate (~5.4-6.1 × 104 g m-2 day-1) than most commercially available ultra-breathable protective materials while effectively blocking even sub-nanometer (>0.66 nm) model ions/molecules.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanoporos , Vapor , Gases , Membranas , Íons
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36450004

RESUMO

Large-scale production of vertically aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (VA-SWCNTs) on metal foils promises to enable technological advancements in many fields, from functional composites to energy storage to thermal interfaces. In this work, we demonstrate growth of high-quality (G/D > 6, average diameters ∼ 2-3 nm, densities > 1012 cm-2) VA-SWCNTs on Inconel metal for use as a lithium-ion battery (LIB) anode. Scale-up of SWCNT growth on Inconel 625 to 100 cm2 exhibits nearly invariant CNT structural properties, even when synthesis is performed near atmospheric pressure, and this robustness is attributed to a growth kinetic regime dominated by the carbon precursor diffusion in the bulk gas mixture. SWCNT forests produced on large-area metal substrates at close to atmospheric pressure possess a combination of structural features that are among the best demonstrated so far in the literature for growth on metal foils. Leveraging these achievements for energy applications, we demonstrate a VA-SWCNT LIB anode with capacity >1200 mAh/g at 1.0C and stable cycling beyond 300 cycles. This robust synthesis of high-quality VA-SWCNTs on metal foils presents a promising route toward mass production of high-performance CNT devices for a broad range of applications.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 8(3): 2001802, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33552850

RESUMO

Simulations and experiments have revealed enormous transport rates through carbon nanotube (CNT) channels when a pressure gradient drives fluid flow, but comparatively little attention has been given to concentration-driven transport despite its importance in many fields. Here, membranes are fabricated with a known number of single-walled CNTs as fluid transport pathways to precisely quantify the diffusive flow through CNTs. Contrary to early experimental studies that assumed bulk or hindered diffusion, measurements in this work indicate that the permeability of small ions through single-walled CNT channels is more than an order of magnitude higher than through the bulk. This flow enhancement scales with the ion free energy of transfer from bulk solutions to a nanoconfined, lower-dielectric environment. Reported results suggest that CNT membranes can unlock dialysis processes with unprecedented efficiency.

4.
Adv Mater ; 33(7): e2003855, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33448061

RESUMO

The electrosynthesis of value-added multicarbon products from CO2 is a promising strategy to shift chemical production away from fossil fuels. Particularly important is the rational design of gas diffusion electrode (GDE) assemblies to react selectively, at scale, and at high rates. However, the understanding of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in these assemblies is limited for the CO2 reduction reaction (CO2 RR): particularly important, but incompletely understood, is how the GDL modulates product distributions of catalysts operating in high current density regimes > 300 mA cm-2 . Here, 3D-printable fluoropolymer GDLs with tunable microporosity and structure are reported and probe the effects of permeance, microstructural porosity, macrostructure, and surface morphology. Under a given choice of applied electrochemical potential and electrolyte, a 100× increase in the C2 H4 :CO ratio due to GDL surface morphology design over a homogeneously porous equivalent and a 1.8× increase in the C2 H4 partial current density due to a pyramidal macrostructure are observed. These findings offer routes to improve CO2 RR GDEs as a platform for 3D catalyst design.

5.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; 7(24): 2001670, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33344119

RESUMO

Enhanced fluid transport in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) promises to enable major advancements in many membrane applications, from efficient water purification to next-generation protective garments. Practical realization of these advancements is hampered by the challenges of fabricating large-area, defect-free membranes containing a high density of open, small diameter SWCNT pores. Here, large-scale (≈60 cm2) nanocomposite membranes comprising of an ultrahigh density (1.89 × 1012 tubes cm-2) of 1.7 nm SWCNTs as sole transport pathways are demonstrated. Complete opening of all conducting nanotubes in the composite enables unprecedented accuracy in quantifying the enhancement of pressure-driven transport for both gases (>290× Knudsen prediction) and liquids (6100× no-slip Hagen-Poiseuille prediction). Achieved water permeances (>200 L m-2 h-1 bar-1) greatly exceed those of state-of-the-art commercial nano- and ultrafiltration membranes of similar pore size. Fabricated membranes reject nanometer-sized molecules, permit fractionation of dyes from concentrated salt solutions, and exhibit excellent chemical resistance. Altogether, these SWCNT membranes offer new opportunities for energy-efficient nano- and ultrafiltration processes in chemically demanding environments.

6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 58(38): 13259-13265, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228217

RESUMO

Carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes are candidates for the separation of organic molecules due to their stability, ability to be scaled at practical form factors, and the avoidance of expensive supports or complex multi-step fabrication processes. A critical challenge is the creation of "mid-range" (e.g., 5-9 Å) microstructures that allow for facile permeation of organic solvents and selection between similarly-sized guest molecules. Here, we create these microstructures via the pyrolysis of a microporous polymer (PIM-1) under low concentrations of hydrogen gas. The introduction of H2 inhibits aromatization of the decomposing polymer and ultimately results in the creation of a well-defined bimodal pore network that exhibits an ultramicropore size of 5.1 Å. The H2 assisted CMS dense membranes show a dramatic increase in p-xylene ideal permeability (≈15 times), with little loss in p-xylene/o-xylene selectivity (18.8 vs. 25.0) when compared to PIM-1 membranes pyrolyzed under a pure argon atmosphere. This approach is successfully extended to hollow fiber membranes operating in organic solvent reverse osmosis mode, highlighting the potential of this approach to be translated from the laboratory to the field.

7.
Biotechniques ; 66(6): 269-275, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31014084

RESUMO

We report a generic smartphone app for quantitative annotation of complex images. The app is simple enough to be used by children, and annotation tasks are distributed across app users, contributing to efficient annotation. We demonstrate its flexibility and speed by annotating >30,000 images, including features of rice root growth and structure, stem cell aggregate morphology, and complex worm (Caenorhabditis elegans) postures, for which we show that the speed of annotation is >130-fold faster than state-of-the-art techniques with similar accuracy.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aplicativos Móveis , Animais , Caenorhabditis elegans/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/economia , Aplicativos Móveis/economia , Movimento , Smartphone , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Chemistry ; 22(31): 10743-7, 2016 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27253350

RESUMO

Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers.

9.
ACS Macro Lett ; 4(12): 1415-1419, 2015 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35614793

RESUMO

Rising atmospheric CO2 levels have triggered recent research into the science of amine materials supported on hard, porous materials such as mesoporous silica or alumina. While such materials can give high CO2 uptakes and good sorption kinetics, they are difficult to utilize in practical applications due to difficulty in contacting large volumes of CO2-laden gases with powder materials without significant pressure drops or sorbent attrition. Here, we describe a simple approach based on the impregnation of a permanently microporous polymer, PIM-1, with poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), removing the need for use of the hard oxide. PEI/PIM-1 composites demonstrate comparable performance to more traditionally studied oxide sorbents, with the benefit that PIM-1 is soluble in common solvents, making it eminently more viable for processing into morphologies that can facilitate heat and mass transfer and fabrication into low pressure drop contactors. In addition to adsorption studies performed on a variety of PEI/PIM-1 architectures, spin diffusion NMR studies were performed to suggest that PEI is well-dispersed within the PIM-1, allowing for rapid CO2 adsorption.

10.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(52): 14363-7, 2014 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25354399

RESUMO

Far-from-equilibrium thermodynamic systems that are established as a consequence of coupled equilibria are the origin of the complex behavior of biological systems. Therefore, research in supramolecular chemistry has recently been shifting emphasis from a thermodynamic standpoint to a kinetic one; however, control over the complex kinetic processes is still in its infancy. Herein, we report our attempt to control the time evolution of supramolecular assembly in a process in which the supramolecular assembly transforms from a J-aggregate to an H-aggregate over time. The transformation proceeds through a delicate interplay of these two aggregation pathways. We have succeeded in modulating the energy landscape of the respective aggregates by a rational molecular design. On the basis of this understanding of the energy landscape, programming of the time evolution was achieved through adjusting the balance between the coupled equilibria.


Assuntos
Substâncias Macromoleculares/química , Dicroísmo Circular , Cicloexanos/química , Cinética , Polimerização , Porfirinas/química , Temperatura , Termodinâmica
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