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1.
Heart Lung Circ ; 2020 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients aged ≥80 years old often present to Emergency Departments (ED) with symptoms potentially due to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study aimed to evaluate associations between baseline level(s) of high sensitivity troponin T (HsTnT), adjudicated diagnoses and outcomes. METHODS: Consecutive patients aged ≥80 years were studied, who presented to the ED at Liverpool Hospital, NSW, Australia during the 4 months period March to June 2014 (inclusive) with symptoms suggestive of an ACS, and who had at least one HsTnT assay performed. Diagnoses were based on the fourth universal definition of MI (myocardial infarction) including type-1 MI, type-2 MI, acute myocardial injury, chronic myocardial injury; the rest were termed "other diagnoses". Patients were categorised by baseline HsTnT levels 1) ≤14 ng/L, 2) 15-29 ng/L, 3) 30-49 ng/L and 4) ≥50 ng/L. RESULTS: Of 2,773 patients screened, 545 were aged ≥80 years (median age 85 [IQR 82-88]); median follow-up was 32 months (IQR 5-56). The respective rates of adjudicated diagnoses were type-I MI 3.1%, type-2 MI 13%, acute myocardial injury 9.5%, chronic myocardial injury 56% and 18.6% had other diagnoses. Mortality rates increased, irrespective of adjudicated diagnoses with increasing HsTnT levels (ng/L): 17% (16/96) for ≤14; 35% (67/194) for 15-29; 51% (65/127) for 30-49; and 64% (82/128) for ≥50 ng/L; log rank p≤0.001. On multi-variable analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors including age, hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), MI type was not associated with late mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients aged ≥80 years higher HsTnT levels, irrespective of adjudicated diagnoses, were associated with increased mortality. Most very elderly patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of an ACS undergoing HsTnT testing in EDs had elevated levels most commonly due to chronic myocardial injury. Whether any interventions can modify outcomes require prospective evaluation.

3.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 6(1): 41-48, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31111144

RESUMO

AIMS: As assessment of patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in emergency departments (EDs) represents a major workload because high-sensitivity troponin (HsTn) T and I levels are frequently measured, and a minority of patients have final diagnosis of myocardial infarction (MI). We determined the relative frequencies of three patients groups: Type-I MI, Type-II MI (including acute myocardial injury). METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 2738 consecutive patients with suspected ACS presenting to ED at Liverpool Hospital, Australia, between March and June 2014. We studied the use of invasive and pharmacological therapies, and 4-year outcomes. Adjudication of MI was according to the 4th universal definition as follows: (i) Type-I MI; (ii) Type-II MI (including acute myocardial injury), and (iii) chronic myocardial injury. Of 995 patients (36%) [median age 76 years (interquartile range 65-83)] with ≥2 HsTnT measurements and one >14 ng/L, 727 (73%) had chronic myocardial injury, 171 (17%) had Type-II MI, and 97 (9.7%) had Type-I MI; respective late mortality rates to 48 months were 33%, 43%, and 14% (P < 0.001). In-hospital angiography rates were 95% for patients with Type-I MI, [62% had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)] 24% (7% PCI) for those with Type-II MI, and 3.4% for chronic myocardial injury. On Cox modelling for mortality relative to Type 1 MI, adjusted hazard ratios were 1.94 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.06-3.57]; P = 0.032 for Type 2 MI, and for chronic myocardial injury 1.14 (95% CIs 0.64-2.02); P = 0.66. CONCLUSION: Among unselected patients undergoing HsTnT testing in EDs, Type-II MI including acute myocardial injury was more common than Type-I MI. Chronic myocardial injury, which occurred in three of four patients. Whereas patients with Type-II MI had higher late mortality than those with Type-I MI, after multivariable analyses mortality rates were marginally different.

4.
Heart Lung Circ ; 29(1): 118-127, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255478

RESUMO

The role of coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) in the pathogenesis of ischaemic heart disease and in determining long-term prognosis is increasingly recognised. In selected patients, a comprehensive coronary assessment including an assessment of microvascular function may help refine risk stratification and improve patient outcomes. Various non-invasive and invasive techniques have been developed to assess the coronary microcirculation. Many of these tests utilise the indicator-dilution principle to determine coronary or myocardial blood flow. However, these techniques are often limited by their variability and lack of specificity for the coronary microvasculature. Consequently, there is still paucity of data on targeted therapies for CMD and their implications on long-term clinical outcomes, particularly in the setting of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes. Recent technical advancements, such as the index of microcirculatory resistance, have largely overcome these limitations and are able to provide novel insights into the assessment and treatment of CMD. This review summarises the currently available techniques for the assessment of CMD and provides an overview of its clinical implications.

5.
Int J Cardiol ; 296: 21-25, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451306

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Future Revascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multi-Vessel Disease (FREEDOM) clinical trial randomized only a proportion of screened patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and multi-vessel disease (MVD). METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined late rates of death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke in all 430 patients with DM who had MVD identified on angiographic screening for the FREEDOM Trial, which recruited from June 2006 -March 2010 at Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, Australia. Mortality at 6 years [median] was 23% among 192 FREEDOM-eligible patients and 26% among 238 FREEDOM-ineligible patients, of whom 139 [58%] had prior. CABG (mortality 31%). Overall, 196 (45%) had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), 127 (30%) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (who were 4 years younger; p = 0.003), and 107 (25%) had neither procedure of whom 80 were considered unsuitable for revascularization. Mortality was 26% post-PCI 16%, post-CABG and 33% among those who did not undergo revascularization (p = 0.01). On multivariable analyses, factors associated with late mortality were older age, hypertension and not undergoing CABG (all p < 0.05). Factors associated with late MI were presented with an acute coronary syndrome, whereas patients that underwent treatment with either PCI or CABG had less late MI (all p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among consecutive diabetic patients with MVD, at a median of 6-years CABG was associated with better survival and fewer non-fatal MI outcomes compared to PCI.

6.
J Saudi Heart Assoc ; 31(4): 151-160, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296977

RESUMO

Objectives: The primary aim was to investigate the efficacy and safety of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) using ticagrelor (T-DAPT) versus clopidogrel (C-DAPT) in a real-world ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) population. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 655 consecutive patients having primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for STEMI at Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, Australia (from January 2013 to April 2016). Medical and procedural therapies were at clinician discretion. Patient data were retrieved from hospital records and primary clinicians. Results: T-DAPT (65%) was used more frequently, and in patients with lower mean CRUSADE (Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes with Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines) score, than C-DAPT (24.6 vs. 32.2; p < 0.0001, respectively). All-cause mortality was 9.0% at 2.7 years follow-up, with fewer deaths for T-DAPT (4.5% vs. 17.2%; p < 0.0001). T-DAPT incurred less BARC (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium) 3-5 major bleeding (5.0% vs. 12.4%; p < 0.0001). Multivariate regression showed that C-DAPT, GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Cardiac Events) score, and renal insufficiency were independently associated with mortality. Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) and GRACE score independently predicted BARC 3-5 bleeding. Early DAPT discontinuation (1.7%) and ticagrelor intolerance (7.6%) was rare. Switching DAPT regimen was infrequent (21.7%) and mostly attributed to clinician preference (73.2%). Independent determinants of C-DAPT selection were older age, diabetes, prior PCI, IABP, and higher CRUSADE score. Conclusion: Ticagrelor was preferred in low bleeding risk patients, which may have contributed to less BARC 3-5 bleeding and lower mortality for T-DAPT. Thus, bleeding mitigation is a clinical priority when selecting DAPT for PCI-treated STEMI patients. Continuation of initial DAPT regimen was typical, but early switching from clopidogrel to ticagrelor shows willingness to optimize DAPT. Patients with very low CRUSADE scores (<21.5) may be appropriate for switching to a potent P2Y12 inhibitor.

7.
Heart Lung Circ ; 28(3): 370-378, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immediate cardiac catheterisation (CC) is recommended in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) following sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Guidelines advise urgent CC for SCA patients without-STEMI, at clinician discretion. We examined the clinical and angiographic factors predicting mortality in SCA patients having CC. METHODS: Consecutive SCA patients having CC at Liverpool Hospital, Sydney (January 2011-September 2015) were retrospectively analysed. Patient data were retrieved from hospital records, and angiographic SYNTAX scores (SS) were quantified online. Independent predictors of mortality were derived using multivariate logistic analysis. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 104 SCA patients; mean age 61±12years, and 79% male. Immediate CC (<2hours post-SCA) was performed in 35% overall. Compared to the without-STEMI subgroup, STEMI patients had more ventricular fibrillation (91 vs 50%; p<0.0001), and higher mean peak serum high-sensitivity troponin-T (8.25±14.7 vs 1.97±6.13 ug/L; p=0.006); in the context of higher median SS (18 vs 6.5; p=0.002) and target-lesion SS (tSS, 10 vs 0; p<0.001). Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI; 75 vs 23%; p<0.0001) and target vessel revascularisation (11 vs 0%; p=0.005) were more frequent for STEMI. All-cause mortality was 39%, at 1.3±1.5years follow-up. Independent mortality predictors were: delayed CC (HR 4.08), serum lactate >7mmol/L (HR 3.47), and tSS (HR 1.05). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum lactate, tSS, and delayed CC, were predictive of longer-term mortality in SCA patients having CC. Late CC in patients without-STEMI suggest scope for improvement in real-world systems of care. Closer scrutiny of target lesion complexity may aid prognostication in SCA survivors.


Assuntos
Cateterismo Cardíaco/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Sistema de Registros , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Am Heart J ; 205: 31-41, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153623

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with multivessel disease, there is a lack of consensus regarding the importance of complete revascularization and the timing of treatment of nonculprit stenoses. Our objective was to investigate the impact of incomplete revascularization in STEMI patients using the residual Synergy Between PCI with TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery score (rSS) to define completeness of revascularization. METHODS: This study examined associations between incomplete revascularization, determined by the rSS, and the combined outcome of cardiac death and myocardial infarction (MI). Patients were divided into groups: rSS = 0 (complete revascularization), rSS = 1-8 (incomplete revascularization with a low burden of residual disease), or rSS >8 (incomplete revascularization with a high burden of residual disease). RESULTS: The rSS score was calculated in 589 consecutive patients; 25% had an rSS of 0, 42% rSS 1-8, and 33% rSS >8. At median follow-up of 3.5 years, cardiac death and MI occurred in 5% of rSS = 0 patients, 15% rSS = 1-8, and 26% with rSS >8 (P < .001). The rSS was powerful independent predictor of cardiac death and MI (hazard ratio 5.05, CI 2.89-12.00, rSS >8 vs rSS 0, P < .001 and hazard ratio 2.96, CI 1.31-6.69, rSS = 1-8 vs rSS = 0, P = .009), respectively, and an independent predictor of mortality, MI, unplanned revascularization, and major adverse cardiovascular events. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with STEMI, the rSS independently predicts cardiac death and MI. Patients with an rSS >8 had substantially higher rates of cardiac death or MI. The rSS can be used to define incomplete revascularization in STEMI and predict adverse outcomes.


Assuntos
Vasos Coronários/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/cirurgia , Angiografia Coronária , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida/tendências , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Med J Aust ; 209(3): 118-123, 2018 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether there are sex differences in the characteristics, management, and clinical outcomes of patients with an ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Design, setting: Cohort study; analysis of data collected prospectively by the CONCORDANCE acute coronary syndrome registry from 41 Australian hospitals between February 2009 and May 2016. PARTICIPANTS: 2898 patients (2183 men, 715 women) with STEMI. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rates of revascularisation (percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], thrombolysis, coronary artery bypass grafting [CABG]), adjusted for GRACE risk score quartile. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: timely vascularisation rates; major adverse cardiac event rates; clinical outcomes and preventive treatments at discharge. RESULTS: The mean age of women with STEMI at presentation was 66.6 years (SD, 14.5 years), of men, 60.5 years (SD, 12.5 years). The proportions of women with hypertension, diabetes, prior stroke, chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, or dementia were larger than those of men; fewer women had histories of previous coronary artery disease or myocardial infarction, or of prior PCI or CABG. Women were less likely to have undergone coronary angiography (odds ratio, adjusted for GRACE score quartile [aOR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41-0.69) or revascularisation (aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.34-0.52); they were less likely to have received timely revascularisation (aOR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.63-0.83) or primary PCI (aOR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61-0.95). Six months after admission, the rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (aOR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.76-4.09) and mortality (aOR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.24-3.80) were higher for women. At discharge, significantly fewer women than men received ß-blockers, statins, and referrals to cardiac rehabilitation. CONCLUSION: Women with STEMI are less likely to receive invasive management, revascularisation, or preventive medication at discharge. The reasons for these persistent differences in care require investigation.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/terapia , Idoso , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Heart Lung Circ ; 26(7): 660-666, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28087154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Detectable levels of high sensitivity (cardiac) troponin T (HsTnT), occur in the majority of patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD), and often in 'healthy' individuals. Extreme physical activity may lead to marked elevations in creatine kinase MB and TnT levels. However, whether HsTnT elevations occur commonly after exercise stress testing (EST), and if so, whether this has clinical significance, needs clarification. METHODS: To determine whether HsTnT levels become elevated after EST (Bruce protocol) to ≥95% of predicted maximum heart rate in presumed healthy subjects without overt CHD, we assayed HsTnT levels for ∼5h post-EST in 105 subjects (median age 37 years). RESULTS: Pre-EST HsTnT levels <5 ng/L were present in 31/32 (97%) of females and 52/74 (70%) of males. Post-EST, 13 (12%) subjects developed HsTnT levels >14 ng/L, with troponin elevation occurring at least three hours post-EST. Additionally, a detectable ≥ 50% increase in HsTnT levels (4.9→9ng/L) occurred in 28 (27%) of subjects who during EST achieved ≥ 95% of their predicted target heart rate. The median age of the subjects with HsTnT elevations to > 14ng/L post-EST was higher than those without such elevation (42 and 36 years respectively; p=0.038). At a median follow-up of 13 months no adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrates that detectable elevations occur in HsTnT post-EST in 'healthy' subjects without overt CHD. Future studies should evaluate the clinical significance of detectable elevations in post-EST HsTnT with long-term follow-up for adverse cardiac events.


Assuntos
Teste de Esforço , Troponina T/sangue , Adulto , Doença das Coronárias/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
11.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 89(3): 375-382, 2017 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27113534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes following PCI using SeQuent Please paclitaxel-coated balloons (PCB) of ISR and denovo lesions (DNL), in all-comer patients at Liverpool Hospital, Sydney, Australia. BACKGROUND: There have been promising results for PCI using drug-coated balloons; however, long-term data for clinical outcomes are lacking. METHODS: Baseline patient demographics, PCI procedural details, and clinical outcomes were collected. The primary endpoint was the incidence of MACE, a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and clinical-driven target lesion restenosis (TLR). The median follow-up for clinical events was 1.3 [0.6-1.9] years. RESULTS: A total of 188 lesions (n = 147 patients) were treated with PCB, comprising 118 (63%) ISR lesions and 70 (38%) DNL. Patient mean age was 67 ± 11years, 79% were male, and 54% had type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). MACE was recorded in 17 patients (12%), with cardiac death confirmed in 1 patient (0.7%). MACE was significantly lower for DNL than ISR (1% vs. 15%, P = 0.03), and PCB had favourable TLR for DNL. Cox regression demonstrated that DM (HR 7.17, 0.92-55.6, P = 0.05) and prior CABG (HR 3.22, 1.17-8.83, P = 0.02) were independent predictors of MACE for ISR lesions. CONCLUSIONS: MACE rates were acceptable, with overall low incidence of cardiac death, MI, and TLR, for PCB treatment of ISR and DNL. Independent predictors of poor outcome in the ISR group were DM and prior CABG. The particularly low MACE for the DNL group supports direct PCB as a viable stent-sparing PCI strategy in challenging patients and lesion subsets. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/instrumentação , Cateteres Cardíacos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/administração & dosagem , Materiais Revestidos Biocompatíveis , Reestenose Coronária/terapia , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Stents , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia Coronária com Balão/mortalidade , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Angiografia Coronária , Reestenose Coronária/diagnóstico por imagem , Reestenose Coronária/etiologia , Reestenose Coronária/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , New South Wales , Paclitaxel/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Retratamento , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Heart Lung Circ ; 26(6): 554-565, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28034708

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gender and age are non-modifiable factors influencing clinical outcomes in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). There is evidence that coronary artery disease pathophysiology varies in women. We therefore evaluated the effect of age and gender on clinical outcomes in patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). METHODS: Among 3178 (25% female) consecutive ACS patients who underwent PCI at Liverpool Hospital, Sydney from 2003 to 2010, using femoral access in 98% of cases, we determined late events including mortality, myocardial infarction and bleeding according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) criteria. RESULTS: Females compared with males were older (median 68 vs. 60 years; p<0.001), and were more likely to have diabetes (30% vs. 22% p<0.001), hypertension (62% vs. 49%, p<0.001), anaemia (26% vs. 15%, p<0.001), and renal impairment (43% vs. 20%, p<0.001); they were more likely to be non-smokers (19% vs. 30%, p<0.001). Females had less class B2/C lesions (64% vs.68%, p=0.048), but had more calcified lesions (20% vs. 11%, p<0.001), and smaller stent diameters (2.75[2.5-3.0] vs. 3.0[2.75-3.5] mm, p<0.001). Females had higher three-year mortality rates (11% vs. 7.0%, p=0.001), and more type 2-5 BARC bleeding post-PCI (22% vs. 16%, p=0.003). Among patients under 55 years (n=988), mortality and bleeding were higher in females (6.0% vs. 3.0%, p=0.028) and (26% vs. 14%, p=0.001) respectively. There was no effect of gender on mortality or bleeding in patients 55 years and over. However, on multivariable stepwise regression analysis, female gender was not an independent predictor of mortality, but was a significant predictor of bleeding (OR=1.84 [95% CI:1.38-2.45], p<0.001). CONCLUSION: Bleeding and mortality were higher in younger females with ACS who underwent PCI. While females had more post-PCI bleeding events, which were associated with late mortality, gender per se was not an independent predictor for mortality.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Am J Infect Control ; 44(12): 1475-1480, 2016 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27776819

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Daily feedback from continuous automated auditing with a peer reminder intervention was used to improve compliance. Compliance rates from covert and overt automated auditing phases with and without intervention were compared with human mandatory audits. METHODS: An automated system was installed to covertly detect hand hygiene events with each depression of the alcohol-based handrub dispenser for 5 months. The overt phase included key clinicians trained to share daily rates with clinicians, set compliance goals, and nudge each other to comply for 6 months. During a further 6 months, the intervention continued without being refreshed. Hand Hygiene Australia (HHA) human audits were performed quarterly during the intervention in accordance with the World Health Organization guidelines. Percentage point (PP) differences between compliance rates were used to determine change. RESULTS: HHA rates for June 2014 were 85% and 87% on the medical and surgical wards, respectively. These rates were 55 PPs and 38 PPs higher than covert automation rates for June 2014 on the medical and surgical ward at 30% and 49%, respectively. During the intervention phase, average compliance did not change on the medical ward from their covert rate, whereas the surgical ward improved compared with the covert phase by 11 PPs to 60%. On average, compliance during the intervention without being refreshed did not change on the medical ward, whereas the average rate on the surgical ward declined by 9 PPs. CONCLUSIONS: Automation provided a unique opportunity to respond to daily rates, but compliance will return to preintervention levels once active intervention ceases or human auditors leave the ward, unless clinicians are committed to change.


Assuntos
Automação , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene das Mãos/métodos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/métodos , Auditoria Administrativa/métodos , Austrália , Humanos
14.
Am Heart J ; 180: 117-27, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27659890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the relationship of adverse diastolic remodeling (ie, worsening diastolic or persistent restrictive filling) with infarct scar characteristics, and to evaluate its prognostic value after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). BACKGROUND: Severe diastolic dysfunction (restrictive filling) has known prognostic value post STEMI. However, ongoing left ventricular (LV) remodeling post STEMI may alter diastolic function even if less severe. METHODS AND RESULTS: There were 218 prospectively recruited STEMI patients with serial echocardiograms (transthoracic echocardiography) and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) performed, at a median of 4 days (early) and 55 days (follow-up). LV ejection fraction and infarct characteristics were assessed by CMR, and comprehensive diastolic function assessment including a diastolic grade was evaluated on transthoracic echocardiography. 'Adverse diastolic remodeling' occurred if diastolic function grade either worsened (≥1 grade) between early and follow-up imaging, or remained as persistent restrictive filling at follow-up. Follow-up infarct scar size (IS) predicted adverse diastolic remodeling (area under the curve 0.86) and persistent restrictive filling (area under the curve 0.89). The primary endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) occurred in 48 patients during follow-up (mean, 710±79 days). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that adverse diastolic remodeling (n=50) and persistent restrictive filling alone (n=33) were significant predictors of MACE (both P<.001). Multivariate Cox analysis, when adjusted for TIMI risk score and CMR IS, microvascular obstruction, and LV ejection fraction, showed adverse diastolic remodeling (HR 3.79, P<.001) was an independent predictor of MACE, as was persistent restrictive filling alone (HR 2.61, P=.019). CONCLUSIONS: Larger IS is associated with adverse diastolic remodeling. Following STEMI, adverse diastolic remodeling is a powerful prognostic marker, and identifies a larger group of 'at-risk' patients, than does persistent restrictive filling alone.


Assuntos
Miocárdio/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Curva ROC , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Volume Sistólico
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 220: 389-94, 2016 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27390960

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Myocardial infarct size (IS) following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is an important prognostic factor. We assessed the Selvester 32-point QRS score from the 12-lead ECG for measurement of IS in STEMI patients receiving reperfusion therapy compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Furthermore we sought to explore the impact of microvascular obstruction (MVO) on the scoring system, and determine factors contributing to discrepancies between CMRI IS and Selvester score. METHODS: We examined 70 patients (55 men, 15 women), mean age 57±10years with a first time STEMI (46 anterior, 24 non-anterior). QRS scores were calculated early and at follow-up (mean 2±1 and 59±14days post-STEMI). Myocardial core scar size (5SD) was measured at 5.3±3.3 and 57.8±13.5days post-infarction by CMRI. MVO was determined on initial MRI. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors contributing to discordant scores, defined as a difference between CMRI and Selvester IS of >6% myocardium. RESULTS: QRS scoring of anterior infarcts correlated with CMRI IS both early (r=0.734, p<0.0001) and at follow-up (r=0.716, p<0.0001); however no correlation was seen among non-anterior infarcts. QRS scoring overestimated IS at all time points. There was better agreement between ECG and CMRI measured IS in patients without MVO at both time points. Anterior infarction was inversely predictive of discordant IS estimation acutely, and larger Selvester scores were predictive of inaccurate scoring at both time periods. CONCLUSIONS: Selvester QRS score correlates well with CMRI IS for anterior infarcts. MVO did not independently affect the score.


Assuntos
Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Reperfusão Miocárdica/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
Cardiovasc Ther ; 34(5): 330-6, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27327862

RESUMO

AIMS: To compare three glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists (GPIs) in terms of platelet inhibition and major adverse cardiac events (MACEs), and assess the rate of bleeding and MACEs between GPIs and coadministered P2Y12 agents. METHODS: Eighty-three acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with planned GPI use were randomized to receive high-dose bolus tirofiban, double-bolus eptifibatide, or abciximab followed by a 12-hour infusion. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa platelet receptor inhibition was measured at baseline and at 10 minutes, 1 hour, and 24 hours postbolus dose. Major adverse cardiac events and bleeding complications at 30 days were documented. The incidence of MACEs and bleeding in patients receiving ticagrelor or prasugrel were compared to those given clopidogrel. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in platelet inhibition between GPIs at 10 minutes (P=.085) and 1 hour (P=.337). At 24 hours, abciximab achieved statistically significantly higher median [interquartile range] platelet inhibition (75 [65-88]%) compared to tirofiban (28 [3-56]%; P<.0001) and eptifibatide (44 [31-63]%; P=.007). There were no differences in bleeding or MACEs depending on GPI or P2Y12 inhibitor administered. CONCLUSIONS: Glycoprotein receptor inhibitors achieve similar levels of platelet inhibition at 10 minutes and 1 hour; however, abciximab maintains this benefit 24 hours after bolus dose. We did not witness an increased rate of bleeding in patients given new potent P2Y12 inhibitors and a GPI in the modern era.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/antagonistas & inibidores , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Abciximab , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/diagnóstico , Adenosina/administração & dosagem , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Clopidogrel , Quimioterapia Combinada , Eptifibatida , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Fragmentos Fab das Imunoglobulinas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Complexo Glicoproteico GPIIb-IIIa de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/sangue , Receptores Purinérgicos P2Y12/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Ticagrelor , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/análogos & derivados , Fatores de Tempo , Tirofibana , Resultado do Tratamento , Tirosina/administração & dosagem , Tirosina/efeitos adversos
18.
Med J Aust ; 204(6): 239, 2016 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27031399

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether patients with English as their second language have similar acute coronary syndrome (ACS) outcomes to people whose first language is English. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational study, using admissions, treatment and follow-up data. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: A total of 6304 subjects from 41 sites enrolled in the investigator-initiated CONCORDANCE ACS registry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline characteristics, treatments, and in-hospital and 6-month mortality. RESULTS: English as a second language (ESL) was reported by 1005 subjects (15.9%). Patients with English as their first language (EFL) were older, and were less likely to have diabetes mellitus or to smoke than the ESL patients. Prior myocardial infarction, heart failure and chronic renal failure were more common in the ESL group. In-hospital mortality was also higher in these patients (7.1% v 3.8% for EFL patients; P < 0.001). Predictors of in-hospital mortality included presentation in cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest in hospital, a history of renal failure, prior cardiac failure, and ESL. Rates of cardiac catheterisation, percutaneous coronary intervention rates, and referral to cardiac rehabilitation were lower in the ESL group; at 6 months, all-cause mortality was also higher (13.8% v 8.3% for EFL group; P < 0.001). Logistic regression identified language, age, in-hospital renal failure, and recurrent ischaemia as predictors of 6-month mortality. CONCLUSION: Patients presenting with an ACS who report English as their second language have poorer outcomes than patients who use English as their first language. This difference may not be entirely explained by baseline demographic disparities or management differences.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Barreiras de Comunicação , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/terapia , Idoso , Austrália , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Eur Heart J Qual Care Clin Outcomes ; 2(3): 164-171, 2016 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29474609

RESUMO

Aims: To determine if high sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) measurements performed during the 'plateau phase' of troponin release (≥48 h) following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can predict major adverse cardiovascular endpoints (MACE), and to evaluate its prognostic value compared with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) parameters. Methods and results: We prospectively recruited 201 first presentation STEMI patients. Serial hs-TnT levels were measured at admission, peak (highest), 24, 48 and 72 h. CMRI and transthoracic echocardiography were performed (4 days median) post-STEMI, evaluating infarct scar characteristics and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Associations were determined between hs-TnT levels and CMRI parameters early after STEMI with MACE (comprising mortality, re-infarction, new or worsening of heart failure, cerebrovascular accident, and sustained ventricular arrhythmias) at medium-term follow-up. After 602 days (median), 33 (17%) patients had MACE. Upper tertile hs-TnT levels at 48 and 72 h were associated with MACE (Kaplan-Meier P = 0.002 and P = 0.012, respectively). Multivariate Cox analyses, incorporating diabetes, CMRI scar size, LVEF and hs-TnT levels (applied at a single hs-TnT time point) showed that 48 and 72 h hs-TnT levels were independent predictors for MACE (HR = 1.20, P = 0.002, and HR = 1.21, P = 0.035 respectively). Conclusion: Measurement of hs-TnT in the plateau phase after STEMI is an inexpensive method of prognostic risk assessment.

20.
Am Heart J ; 170(4): 715-725.e2, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26386795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) is the current standard for evaluation of myocardial infarct scar size and characteristics. Because post-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) troponin levels correlate with clinical outcomes, we sought to determine the sampling period for high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) that would best predict CMRI-measured infarct scar characteristics and left ventricular (LV) function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 201 patients with first presentation with STEMI who were prospectively recruited, we measured serial hs-TnT levels at admission, peak, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after STEMI. Indexed LV volumes, LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and infarct scar characteristics (scar size, scar heterogeneity, myocardial salvage index, and microvascular obstruction) were evaluated by CMRI at a median of 4 days post-STEMI. Peak and serial hs-TnT levels correlated positively with early indexed LV volumes and infarct scar characteristics, and negatively correlated with myocardial salvage index and LVEF. Both 48- and 72-hour hs-TnT levels similarly predicted "large" total infarct scar size (odds ratios [ORs] 3.08 and 3.53, both P < .001), myocardial salvage index (ORs 1.68 and 2.30, both P < .001), and LVEF <40% (ORs 2.16 and 2.17, both P < .001) on univariate analyses. On multivariate analyses, 48- and 72-hour hs-TnT levels independently predicted large infarct scar size (ORs 2.05 and 2.31, both P < .001), reduced myocardial salvage index (OR 1.39 [P = .031] and OR 1.55 [P = .009]), and LVEF <40% (OR 1.47 [P = .018] and OR 1.43 [P = .026]). All measured hs-TnT levels had a modest association and similar capacity to predict microvascular obstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Levels of hs-TnT at 48 and 72 hours, measured during the "plateau phase" post-STEMI, predicted infarct scar size, poor myocardial salvage, and LVEF. These levels also correlated with scar heterogeneity and microvascular obstruction post-STEMI. Since ascertaining peak levels after STEMI is challenging in routine practice, based on the biphasic kinetics of hs-TnT, a measurement at 48 to 72 hours (during the plateau phase) provides a useful and simple method for early evaluation of LV function and infarct scar characteristics.


Assuntos
Cicatriz/diagnóstico , Imagem Cinética por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Reperfusão Miocárdica , Troponina T/sangue , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia , Cicatriz/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/cirurgia , Período Pós-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
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