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1.
Blood Adv ; 5(17): 3478-3491, 2021 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505883

RESUMO

Trauma-induced organ failure is characterized by endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of von Willebrand factor (VWF) and its cleaving enzyme, ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin type 1 motifs, member 13) in the occurrence of endothelial permeability and organ failure in trauma. In an observational study in a level-1 trauma center, 169 adult trauma patients with clinical signs of shock and/or severe injuries were included. Trauma was associated with low ADAMTS13 and high VWF antigen levels, thus generating an imbalance of ADAMTS13 to VWF. Patients who developed organ failure (23%) had greater ADAMTS13-to-VWF imbalances, persistently lower platelet counts, and elevated levels of high-molecular-weight VWF multimers compared with those without organ failure, suggesting microthrombi formation. To investigate the effect of replenishing low ADAMTS13 levels on endothelial permeability and organ failure using either recombinant human ADAMTS13 (rhADAMTS13) or plasma transfusion, a rat model of trauma-induced shock and transfusion was used. Rats in traumatic hemorrhagic shock were randomized to receive crystalloids, crystalloids supplemented with rhADAMTS13, or plasma transfusion. A 70-kDa fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran was injected to determine endothelial leakage. Additionally, organs were histologically assessed. Both plasma transfusion and rhADAMTS13 were associated with a reduction in pulmonary endothelial permeability and organ injury when compared with resuscitation with crystalloids, but only rhADAMTS13 resulted in significant improvement of a trauma-induced decline in ADAMTS13 levels. We conclude that rhADAMTS13 and plasma transfusion can reduce organ failure following trauma. These findings implicate the ADAMTS13-VWF axis in the pathogenesis of organ failure.

2.
Microorganisms ; 9(7)2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Voriconazole is one of the first-line therapies for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Drug concentrations might be significantly influenced by the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We aimed to assess the effect of ECMO on voriconazole exposure in a large patient population. METHODS: Critically ill patients from eight centers in four countries treated with voriconazole during ECMO support were included in this retrospective study. Voriconazole concentrations were collected in a period on ECMO and before/after ECMO treatment. Multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of ECMO on voriconazole exposure and to assess the impact of possible saturation of the circuit's binding sites over time. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients and 337 samples (190 during and 147 before/after ECMO) were analyzed. Subtherapeutic concentrations (<2 mg/L) were observed in 56% of the samples during ECMO and 39% without ECMO (p = 0.80). The median trough concentration, for a similar daily dose, was 2.4 (1.2-4.7) mg/L under ECMO and 2.5 (1.4-3.9) mg/L without ECMO (p = 0.58). Extensive inter-and intrasubject variability were observed. Neither ECMO nor squared day of ECMO (saturation) were retained as significant covariates on voriconazole exposure. CONCLUSIONS: No significant ECMO-effect was observed on voriconazole exposure. A large proportion of patients had voriconazole subtherapeutic concentrations.

3.
Vox Sang ; 2021 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34396543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is the primary cause of transfusion-related mortality. Speed and volume of transfusion are major risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion speed and volume on the development of TACO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A validated model for TACO in anaemic Lewis rats with an acute myocardial infarction was used. The effect on pulmonary hydrostatic pressure of one, two or four units of packed RBCs transfused in either 30 or 60 min was evaluated (3.3-26.6 ml·kg-1 ·hr-1 ). Pulmonary capillary pressure was measured as left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP). Cardiac stress biomarkers atrial natriuretic-peptide (ANP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured 1-h post-transfusion. RESULTS: Thirty animals were included (n = 5 per group). Transfusion of RBCs increased LVEDP in a volume-dependent manner (ΔLVEDP [mmHg]: -0.95, +0.50, +6.26, p < 0.001). Fast transfusion increased overall ΔLVEDP by +3.5 mmHg and up to +11.8 mmHg in the four units' group (p = 0.016). Doubling transfusion speed increased ΔLVEDP more than doubling volume in the larger volume groups. No difference in ANP or NT-proBNP were seen in high transfusion volume or groups. CONCLUSION: Transfusion volume dose-dependently increased LVEDP, with speed of transfusion rapidly elevating LVEDP at higher transfusion volumes. ANP and NT-proBNP were not impacted by transfusion volume or speed in this model. TACO is seen as purely volume overload, however, this study emphasizes that limiting transfusion speed, as a modifiable risk factor, might aid in preventing TACO.

5.
Shock ; 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34238904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics and outcomes of early hyperbilirubinemia in critically ill patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: This is a post-hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter cohort study. PATIENTS: Patients with measured bilirubin levels within the first 2 days after ICU admission were eligible. Patients with liver cirrhosis were excluded. ENDPOINTS: The primary endpoint was the incidence of early hyperbilirubinemia, defined as bilirubin ≥ 33 µmol/L within 2 days after ICU admission. Secondary endpoints included clinical characteristics of patients with versus patients without early hyperbilirubinemia, and outcomes up to day 30. RESULTS: Of 4836 patients, 559 (11.6%) patients had early hyperbilirubinemia. Compared to patients without early hyperbilirubinemia, patients with early hyperbilirubinemia presented with higher severity of illness scores, and higher incidences of sepsis and organ failure. After adjustment for confounding variables, early hyperbilirubinemia remained associated with mortality at day 30 (odds ratio, 1.31 [95%-confidence interval 1.06-1.60]; p = 0.018). Patients with early hyperbilirubinemia and thrombocytopenia (interaction p-value = 0.005) had a higher likelihood of death within 30 days (odds ratio, 2.61 [95%-confidence interval 2.08-3.27]; p < 0.001) than patients with early hyperbilirubinemia and a normal platelet count (odds ratio, 1.09 [95%-confidence interval 0.75-1.55]; p = 0.655). CONCLUSIONS: Early hyperbilirubinemia occurs frequently in the critically ill, and these patients present with higher disease severity and more often with sepsis and organ failures. Early hyperbilirubinemia has an association with mortality, albeit this association was only found in patients with concomitant thrombocytopenia.

6.
Vox Sang ; 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a frequently applied intervention in an intensive care unit. However, transfusion is associated with adverse outcomes including organ failure and thrombo-embolic events. Mechanisms of these effects are not known but may be related to activation of the endothelium or of the coagulation or inflammatory system. We hypothesized that a RBC transfusion in the critically ill would result in further activation of these systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 74 non-bleeding critically ill patients receiving one RBC unit, markers of inflammation, endothelial cell activation and coagulation were measured before transfusion, at 1 h after transfusion and 24 h after transfusion. The impact of disease severity of the recipient on these changes was assessed by comparing septic and non-septic patients (according to sepsis-3 definition) and by correlation of biomarkers with the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score. RESULTS: Levels of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), soluble ICAM-1, soluble thrombomodulin, fibrinogen and d-dimer were already high at baseline, whereas ADAMTS13 levels were low. VWF levels increased significantly 24 h after RBC transfusion (median 478% (338-597) vs. 526% (395-623), p = 0.009). The other biomarkers did not change significantly. Post transfusion change was not dependent on the presence of sepsis and was not correlated with SOFA score. CONCLUSION: RBC transfusion in critically ill patients was associated with an increase in circulating vWF levels, suggesting a further increase in activation of the endothelium, a finding that was independent of the presence of sepsis or organ injury level.

7.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S243-S251, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In traumatic bleeding, transfusion practice has shifted toward higher doses of platelets and plasma transfusion. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate whether a higher platelet-to-red blood cell (RBC) transfusion ratio improves mortality without worsening organ failure when compared with a lower ratio of platelet-to-RBC. METHODS: Pubmed, Medline, and Embase were screened for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in bleeding trauma patients (age ≥16 years) receiving platelet transfusion between 1946 until October 2020. High platelet:RBC ratio was defined as being the highest ratio within an included study. Primary outcome was 24 hour mortality. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, thromboembolic events, organ failure, and correction of coagulopathy. RESULTS: In total five RCTs (n = 1757 patients) were included. A high platelet:RBC compared with a low platelet:RBC ratio significantly improved 24 hour mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.69 [0.53-0.89]) and 30- day mortality (OR 0.78 [0.63-0.98]). There was no difference between platelet:RBC ratio groups in thromboembolic events and organ failure. Correction of coagulopathy was reported in five studies, in which platelet dose had no impact on trauma-induced coagulopathy. CONCLUSIONS: In traumatic bleeding, a high platelet:RBC improves mortality as compared to low platelet:RBC ratio. The high platelet:RBC ratio does not influence thromboembolic or organ failure event rates.


Assuntos
Contagem de Eritrócitos , Hemorragia/sangue , Contagem de Plaquetas , Ferimentos e Lesões/sangue , Plaquetas/citologia , Eritrócitos/citologia , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Humanos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
8.
Transfusion ; 61(7): 1991-1992, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275151
9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(9): 957-968, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major complication of COVID-19 is hypoxaemic respiratory failure from capillary leak and alveolar oedema. Experimental and early clinical data suggest that the tyrosine-kinase inhibitor imatinib reverses pulmonary capillary leak. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial was done at 13 academic and non-academic teaching hospitals in the Netherlands. Hospitalised patients (aged ≥18 years) with COVID-19, as confirmed by an RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, requiring supplemental oxygen to maintain a peripheral oxygen saturation of greater than 94% were eligible. Patients were excluded if they had severe pre-existing pulmonary disease, had pre-existing heart failure, had undergone active treatment of a haematological or non-haematological malignancy in the previous 12 months, had cytopenia, or were receiving concomitant treatment with medication known to strongly interact with imatinib. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral imatinib, given as a loading dose of 800 mg on day 0 followed by 400 mg daily on days 1-9, or placebo. Randomisation was done with a computer-based clinical data management platform with variable block sizes (containing two, four, or six patients), stratified by study site. The primary outcome was time to discontinuation of mechanical ventilation and supplemental oxygen for more than 48 consecutive hours, while being alive during a 28-day period. Secondary outcomes included safety, mortality at 28 days, and the need for invasive mechanical ventilation. All efficacy and safety analyses were done in all randomised patients who had received at least one dose of study medication (modified intention-to-treat population). This study is registered with the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2020-001236-10). FINDINGS: Between March 31, 2020, and Jan 4, 2021, 805 patients were screened, of whom 400 were eligible and randomly assigned to the imatinib group (n=204) or the placebo group (n=196). A total of 385 (96%) patients (median age 64 years [IQR 56-73]) received at least one dose of study medication and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. Time to discontinuation of ventilation and supplemental oxygen for more than 48 h was not significantly different between the two groups (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·95 [95% CI 0·76-1·20]). At day 28, 15 (8%) of 197 patients had died in the imatinib group compared with 27 (14%) of 188 patients in the placebo group (unadjusted HR 0·51 [0·27-0·95]). After adjusting for baseline imbalances between the two groups (sex, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) the HR for mortality was 0·52 (95% CI 0·26-1·05). The HR for mechanical ventilation in the imatinib group compared with the placebo group was 1·07 (0·63-1·80; p=0·81). The median duration of invasive mechanical ventilation was 7 days (IQR 3-13) in the imatinib group compared with 12 days (6-20) in the placebo group (p=0·0080). 91 (46%) of 197 patients in the imatinib group and 82 (44%) of 188 patients in the placebo group had at least one grade 3 or higher adverse event. The safety evaluation revealed no imatinib-associated adverse events. INTERPRETATION: The study failed to meet its primary outcome, as imatinib did not reduce the time to discontinuation of ventilation and supplemental oxygen for more than 48 consecutive hours in patients with COVID-19 requiring supplemental oxygen. The observed effects on survival (although attenuated after adjustment for baseline imbalances) and duration of mechanical ventilation suggest that imatinib might confer clinical benefit in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, but further studies are required to validate these findings. FUNDING: Amsterdam Medical Center Foundation, Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek/ZonMW, and the European Union Innovative Medicines Initiative 2.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Mesilato de Imatinib/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Respiração Artificial/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Idoso , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/virologia , Permeabilidade Capilar/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Mesilato de Imatinib/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Placebos/administração & dosagem , Placebos/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Respiratória/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Respiratória/virologia , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Intern Med ; 290(4): 922-927, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nucleosomes and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are important in the pathophysiology of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Fibrinogen, as an acute phase reactant, may be protective by engaging neutrophils. We hypothesize that DIC can occur when NET formation becomes uncontrolled in relation to low fibrinogen levels. PATIENTS/METHOD: The ratio of both circulating nucleosomes and human neutrophil elastase alpha-1-antitrypsine complexes (HNE-a1ATc) to fibrinogen was correlated to thrombocytopenia, DIC and organ failure in 64 critically ill coagulopathic patients. RESULTS: A high nucleosome to fibrinogen ratio correlated with thrombocytopenia and organ failure (ρ -0.391, p 0.01 and ρ 0.556, p 0.01, respectively). A high HNE-a1ATc to fibrinogen ratio correlated with thrombocytopenia, DIC and organ failure (ρ -0.418, p 0.01, ρ 0.391, p 0.01 and ρ 0.477, p 0.01 respectively). CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis that fibrinogen is protective against DIC by counterbalancing excessive neutrophil activation.

12.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 147, 2021 04 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33863353

RESUMO

There is a large gender gap in critical care medicine with women underrepresented, particularly in positions of leadership. Yet gender diversity better reflects the current critical care community and has multiple beneficial effects at individual and societal levels. In this Viewpoint, we discuss some of the reasons for the persistent gender imbalance in critical care medicine, and suggest some possible strategies to help achieve greater equity and inclusion. An explicit and consistent focus on eliminating gender inequity is needed until gender diversity and inclusion become the norms in critical care medicine.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Equidade de Gênero , Médicas/provisão & distribuição , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Médicas/tendências
13.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(6): 1111-1118, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33896590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of coagulation occurs commonly in sepsis, ranging from mild coagulopathy with decreased platelets to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). We investigated the effect of induced normothermia on coagulation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxaemia in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Twelve volunteers received an infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (Escherichia coli; 2 ng kg-1) and were assigned to either induced normothermia or control. Induced normothermia to maintain core temperature at 37°C consisted of external surface cooling, cold i.v. fluids, and medication to reduce shivering (buspirone, clonidine, and magnesium sulphate). The primary outcome was the DIC score (International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis guideline). Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), D-dimer, plasma von Willebrand factor (vWf), and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) were measured before and 1, 3, 6, and 8 h after LPS infusion. Differences between groups were tested with a mixed effects model. RESULTS: In control subjects, lipopolysaccharide caused a fever, transiently decreased platelet levels and lowered activated partial thromboplastin time, while prolonging prothrombin time and increasing D-Dimer and vWf levels. Normothermia prevented the DIC-score exceeding 4, which occurred in 50% of control subjects. Normothermia also reduced the fall in platelet count by 67x109 L-1([95%CI:27-107]; p=0.002), aPTT (mean difference:3s [95%CI:1-5]; p=0.005) and lowered vWf levels by 89% ([95%CI:6-172]; p=0.03), compared to the fever group. ROTEM measurements were unaffected by lipopolysaccharide. CONCLUSION: In human endotoxaemia, induced normothermia decreases markers of endothelial activation and DIC. Maintaining normothermia may reduce coagulopathy in hyperinflammatory states.


Assuntos
Coagulação Sanguínea , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/prevenção & controle , Endotoxemia/terapia , Hipotermia Induzida , Adolescente , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/sangue , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/diagnóstico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Endotoxemia/sangue , Endotoxemia/induzido quimicamente , Endotoxemia/diagnóstico , Endotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hipotermia Induzida/efeitos adversos , Infusões Parenterais , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
14.
Br J Anaesth ; 126(5): 958-966, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trauma-induced shock is associated with endothelial dysfunction. We examined whether the tyrosine kinase inhibitor bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced blood component resuscitation strategy reduces trauma-induced endothelial permeability, thereby improving shock reversal and limiting transfusion requirements and organ failure in a rat polytrauma transfusion model. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=13 per group) were traumatised and exsanguinated until a MAP of 40 mm Hg was reached, then randomised to two groups: red blood cells, plasma and platelets in a 1:1:1 ratio with either bosutinib or vehicle. Controls were randomised to sham (median laparotomy, no trauma) with bosutinib or vehicle. Organs were harvested for histology and wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. RESULTS: Traumatic injury resulted in shock, with higher lactate levels compared with controls. In trauma-induced shock, the resuscitation volume needed to obtain a MAP of 60 mm Hg was lower in bosutinib-treated animals (2.8 [2.7-3.2] ml kg-1) compared with vehicle (6.1 [5.1-7.2] ml kg-1, P<0.001). Lactate levels in the bosutinib group were 2.9 [1.7-4.8] mM compared with 6.2 [3.1-14.1] mM in the vehicle group (P=0.06). Bosutinib compared with vehicle reduced lung vascular leakage (W/D ratio of 5.1 [4.6-5.3] vs 5.7 [5.4-6.0] (P=0.046) and lung injury scores (P=0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Bosutinib as an adjunct therapy to a balanced transfusion strategy reduced resuscitation volume, improved shock reversal, and reduced vascular leak and organ injury in a rat polytrauma model.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/farmacologia , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Traumatismo Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Nitrilas/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Choque/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Endotélio Vascular/patologia , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Lesão Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Lesão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Traumatismo Múltiplo/complicações , Traumatismo Múltiplo/fisiopatologia , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Ressuscitação/métodos , Choque/etiologia
15.
Intensive Care Med ; 47(3): 282-291, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33616696

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has posed unprecedented healthcare system challenges, some of which will lead to transformative change. It is obvious to healthcare workers and policymakers alike that an effective critical care surge response must be nested within the overall care delivery model. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted key elements of emergency preparedness. These include having national or regional strategic reserves of personal protective equipment, intensive care unit (ICU) devices, consumables and pharmaceuticals, as well as effective supply chains and efficient utilization protocols. ICUs must also be prepared to accommodate surges of patients and ICU staffing models should allow for fluctuations in demand. Pre-existing ICU triage and end-of-life care principles should be established, implemented and updated. Daily workflow processes should be restructured to include remote connection with multidisciplinary healthcare workers and frequent communication with relatives. The pandemic has also demonstrated the benefits of digital transformation and the value of remote monitoring technologies, such as wireless monitoring. Finally, the pandemic has highlighted the value of pre-existing epidemiological registries and agile randomized controlled platform trials in generating fast, reliable data. The COVID-19 pandemic is a reminder that besides our duty to care, we are committed to improve. By meeting these challenges today, we will be able to provide better care to future patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Cuidados Críticos/tendências , Pandemias , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Planejamento em Desastres , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , Monitorização Fisiológica/instrumentação , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Capacidade de Resposta ante Emergências , Telemedicina , Fluxo de Trabalho
16.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 40, 2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509218

RESUMO

The current coronavirus pandemic has impacted heavily on ICUs worldwide. Although many hospitals and healthcare systems had plans in place to manage multiple casualties as a result of major natural disasters or accidents, there was insufficient preparation for the sudden, massive influx of severely ill patients with COVID-19. As a result, systems and staff were placed under immense pressure as everyone tried to optimize patient management. As the pandemic continues, we must apply what we have learned about our response, both good and bad, to improve organization and thus patient care in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/organização & administração , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/organização & administração , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Humanos
17.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(1): 55-59, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315635

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although there is clear evidence for benefit of protective ventilation settings [including low tidal volume and higher positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)] in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), it is less clear what the optimal mechanical ventilation settings are for patients with healthy lungs. RECENT FINDINGS: Use of low tidal volume during operative ventilation decreases postoperative pulmonary complications (PPC). In the critically ill patients with healthy lungs, use of low tidal volume is as effective as intermediate tidal volume. Use of higher PEEP during operative ventilation does not decrease PPCs, whereas hypotension occurred more often compared with use of lower PEEP. In the critically ill patients with healthy lungs, there are conflicting data regarding the use of a higher PEEP, which may depend on recruitability of lung parts. There are limited data suggesting that higher driving pressures because of higher PEEP contribute to PPCs. Lastly, use of hyperoxia does not consistently decrease postoperative infections, whereas it seems to increase PPCs compared with conservative oxygen strategies. SUMMARY: In patients with healthy lungs, data indicate that low tidal volume but not higher PEEP is beneficial. Thereby, ventilation strategies differ from those in ARDS patients.


Assuntos
Respiração Artificial , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Humanos , Pulmão , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia , Volume de Ventilação Pulmonar
18.
19.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2397-2410, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To provide clinical practice recommendations and generate a research agenda on mechanical ventilation and respiratory support in patients with acute brain injury (ABI). METHODS: An international consensus panel was convened including 29 clinician-scientists in intensive care medicine with expertise in acute respiratory failure, neurointensive care, or both, and two non-voting methodologists. The panel was divided into seven subgroups, each addressing a predefined clinical practice domain relevant to patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with ABI, defined as acute traumatic brain or cerebrovascular injury. The panel conducted systematic searches and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) method was used to evaluate evidence and formulate questions. A modified Delphi process was implemented with four rounds of voting in which panellists were asked to respond to questions (rounds 1-3) and then recommendation statements (final round). Strong recommendation, weak recommendation, or no recommendation were defined when > 85%, 75-85%, and < 75% of panellists, respectively, agreed with a statement. RESULTS: The GRADE rating was low, very low, or absent across domains. The consensus produced 36 statements (19 strong recommendations, 6 weak recommendations, 11 no recommendation) regarding airway management, non-invasive respiratory support, strategies for mechanical ventilation, rescue interventions for respiratory failure, ventilator liberation, and tracheostomy in brain-injured patients. Several knowledge gaps were identified to inform future research efforts. CONCLUSIONS: This consensus provides guidance for the care of patients admitted to the ICU with ABI. Evidence was generally insufficient or lacking, and research is needed to demonstrate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of different management approaches.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas , Respiração Artificial , Lesões Encefálicas/terapia , Consenso , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
20.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2450-2457, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33180167

RESUMO

Red blood cell transfusions are a frequent intervention in critically ill patients, including in those who are receiving mechanical ventilation. Both these interventions can impact negatively on lung function with risks of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and other forms of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The interactions between transfusion, mechanical ventilation, TRALI and ARDS are complex and other patient-related (e.g., presence of sepsis or shock, disease severity, and hypervolemia) or blood product-related (e.g., presence of antibodies or biologically active mediators) factors also play a role. We propose several strategies targeted at these factors that may help limit the risks of associated lung injury in critically ill patients being considered for transfusion.


Assuntos
Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório , Reação Transfusional , Transfusão de Sangue , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/etiologia , Síndrome do Desconforto Respiratório/terapia
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