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1.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35015809

RESUMO

Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a strong prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease and a potential target for cardiovascular risk stratification. Because VAT is difficult to measure in clinical practice, we estimated prediction models with predictors routinely measured in general practice and VAT as outcome using ridge regression in 2,501 middle-aged participants from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, 2008-2012. Adding waist circumference and other anthropometric measurements on top of the routinely measured variables improved the optimism-adjusted R2 from 0.50 to 0.58 with a decrease in the root-mean-square error (RMSE) from 45.6 to 41.5 cm2 and with overall good calibration. Further addition of predominantly lipoprotein-related metabolites from the Nightingale platform did not improve the optimism-corrected R2 and RMSE. The models were externally validated in 370 participants from the Prospective Investigation of Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS, 2006-2009) and 1,901 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, 2000-2007). Performance was comparable to the development setting in PIVUS (R2: 0.63, RMSE: 42.4 cm2, calibration slope: 0.94) but lower in MESA (R2: 0.44, RMSE: 60.7 cm2, calibration slope: 0.75). Our findings indicate that the estimation of VAT with routine clinical measurements can be substantially improved by incorporating waist circumference but not by metabolite measurements.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261826, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995287

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disturbed cognitive function is associated with several causes of mortality; however, the association between cognitive function and the risk of cancer death has not been extensively investigated yet. We aimed to evaluate the association of cognitive function with the risk of cancer death and all-cause mortality in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) and Leiden 85-plus Study. Additionally, a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies were conducted to evaluate the association of cognitive function and risk of cancer death. METHODS: Risk of cancer death and all-cause mortality were reported using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) in tertiles of cognitive function of PROSPER and Leiden85-Plus Study. Additionally, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, PsycINFO, Academic Search Premier, CINHAL, and Emcare were searched up to November 1st, 2020 to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis. The relative risks (RRs) with 95%CI of cancer death per each standard deviation lower performance in cognitive measurements were calculated. RESULTS: Participants of PROSPER had 1.65-fold (95%CI 1.11-2.47) greater risk of cancer death (P for trend = 0.016) and 1.85-fold (95%CI 1.46-2.34) higher risk of all-cause mortality (P for trend<0.001), in multivariable models. Results of the Leiden-85 Plus Study showed that subjects with MMSE score below 24 had a lower chance of cancer death (HR 0.79, 95%CI 0.36-1.70, P for trend = 0.820) but had 2.18-fold (95%CI 1.57-3.02) higher risk of all-cause mortality compared to the reference group (P for trend<0.001). Besides, the results of systematic review and meta-analysis showed that per each standard deviation lower performance in cognitive function, individuals were at a 10% higher chance of cancer death (RR 1.10, 95%CI 1.00-1.20, P-value = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Lower cognitive function performance is associated with a marginally increased risk of cancer death, in line with a significantly greater risk of all-cause mortality.

3.
Nutrition ; 93: 111440, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34534944

RESUMO

Vitamin E (α-tocopherol [α-TOH]) is transported in lipoprotein particles in blood, but little is known about the transportation of its oxidized metabolites. In the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study, we aimed to investigate the associations of 147 circulating metabolomic measures obtained through targeted nuclear magnetic resonance with serum α-TOH and its urinary enzymatic (α-CEHC) and oxidized (α-TLHQ) metabolites from 24-h urine quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression analyses, in which multiple testing was taken into account, were performed to assess associations between metabolomic measures (determinants; standardized to mean = 0, SD = 1) and vitamin E metabolites (outcomes), adjusted for demographic factors. We analyzed 474 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with a mean (SD) age of 55.7 (6.0) y. Out of 147 metabolomic measures, 106 were associated (P < 1.34 × 10-3) with serum α-TOH (median ß [interquartile range] = 0.416 [0.383-0.466]), predominantly lipoproteins associated with higher α-TOH. The associations of metabolomic measures with urinary α-CEHC have directions similar to those with α-TOH, but effect sizes were smaller and non-significant (median ß [interquartile range] = 0.065 [0.047-0.084]). However, associations of metabolomic measures with urinary α-TLHQ were markedly different from those with both serum α-TOH and urinary α-CEHC, with negative and small-to-null relations to most very-low-density lipoproteins and amino acids. Therefore, our results highlight the differences in the lipoproteins involved in the transportation of circulating α-TOH and oxidized vitamin E metabolites. This indicates that circulating α-TOH may be representative of the enzymatic but not the antioxidative function of vitamin E.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Vitamina E , alfa-Tocoferol , Antioxidantes , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxirredução , Vitamina E/sangue , Vitamina E/urina , alfa-Tocoferol/sangue , alfa-Tocoferol/urina
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(23)2021 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34884485

RESUMO

Inhibition of the 14q32 microRNAs, miR-329-3p and miR-495-3p, improves post-ischemic neovascularization. Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) facilitates maturation of these microRNAs. We hypothesized that CIRBP deficiency improves post-ischemic angiogenesis via downregulation of 14q32 microRNA expression. We investigated these regulatory mechanisms both in vitro and in vivo. We induced hindlimb ischemia in Cirp-/- and C57Bl/6-J mice, monitored blood flow recovery with laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and assessed neovascularization via immunohistochemistry. Post-ischemic angiogenesis was enhanced in Cirp-/- mice by 34.3% with no effects on arteriogenesis. In vivo at day 7, miR-329-3p and miR-495-3p expression were downregulated in Cirp-/- mice by 40.6% and 36.2%. In HUVECs, CIRBP expression was upregulated under hypothermia, while miR-329-3p and miR-495-3p expression remained unaffected. siRNA-mediated CIRBP knockdown led to the downregulation of CIRBP-splice-variant-1 (CIRBP-SV1), CIRBP antisense long noncoding RNA (lncRNA-CIRBP-AS1), and miR-495-3p with no effects on the expression of CIRBP-SV2-4 or miR-329-3p. siRNA-mediated CIRBP knockdown improved HUVEC migration and tube formation. SiRNA-mediated lncRNA-CIRBP-AS1 knockdown had similar long-term effects. After short incubation times, however, only CIRBP knockdown affected angiogenesis, indicating that the effects of lncRNA-CIRBP-AS1 knockdown were secondary to CIRBP-SV1 downregulation. CIRBP is a negative regulator of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo and acts, at least in part, through the regulation of miR-329-3p and miR-495-3p.

5.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 266, 2021 11 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies suggest interconnections between thyroid status, metabolism, and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but causality remains to be proven. The present study aimed to investigate the potential causal relationship between thyroid status and cardiovascular disease and to characterize the metabolomic profile associated with thyroid status. METHODS: Multi-cohort two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) was performed utilizing genome-wide significant variants as instruments for standardized thyrotropin (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) within the reference range. Associations between TSH and fT4 and metabolic profile were investigated in a two-stage manner: associations between TSH and fT4 and the full panel of 161 metabolomic markers were first assessed hypothesis-free, then directional consistency was assessed through Mendelian randomization, another metabolic profile platform, and in individuals with biochemically defined thyroid dysfunction. RESULTS: Circulating TSH was associated with 52/161 metabolomic markers, and fT4 levels were associated with 21/161 metabolomic markers among 9432 euthyroid individuals (median age varied from 23.0 to 75.4 years, 54.5% women). Positive associations between circulating TSH levels and concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein subclasses and components, triglycerides, and triglyceride content of lipoproteins were directionally consistent across the multivariable regression, MR, metabolomic platforms, and for individuals with hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Associations with fT4 levels inversely reflected those observed with TSH. Among 91,810 CAD cases and 656,091 controls of European ancestry, per 1-SD increase of genetically determined TSH concentration risk of CAD increased slightly, but not significantly, with an OR of 1.03 (95% CI 0.99-1.07; p value 0.16), whereas higher genetically determined fT4 levels were not associated with CAD risk (OR 1.00 per SD increase of fT4; 95% CI 0.96-1.04; p value 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: Lower thyroid status leads to an unfavorable lipid profile and a somewhat increased cardiovascular disease risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Tireotropina , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lipídeos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tiroxina , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(23): e022567, 2021 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34796734

RESUMO

Background Dietary intake and blood concentrations of vitamins E and C, lycopene, and carotenoids have been associated with a lower risk of incident (ischemic) stroke. However, causality cannot be inferred from these associations. Here, we investigated causality by analyzing the associations between genetically influenced antioxidant levels in blood and ischemic stroke using Mendelian randomization. Methods and Results For each circulating antioxidant (vitamins E and C, lycopene, ß-carotene, and retinol), which were assessed as either absolute blood levels and/or high-throughput metabolite levels, independent genetic instrumental variables were selected from earlier genome-wide association studies (P<5×10-8). We used summary statistics for single-nucleotide polymorphisms-stroke associations from 3 European-ancestry cohorts (cases/controls): MEGASTROKE (60 341/454 450), UK Biobank (2404/368 771), and the FinnGen study (8046/164 286). Mendelian randomization analyses were performed on each exposure per outcome cohort using inverse variance-weighted analyses and subsequently meta-analyzed. In a combined sample of 1 058 298 individuals (70 791 cases), none of the genetically influenced absolute antioxidants or antioxidant metabolite concentrations were causally associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke. For absolute antioxidants levels, the odds ratios (ORs) ranged between 0.94 (95% CI, 0.85-1.05) for vitamin C and 1.04 (95% CI, 0.99-1.08) for lycopene. For metabolites, ORs ranged between 1.01 (95% CI, 0.98-1.03) for retinol and 1.12 (95% CI, 0.88-1.42) for vitamin E. Conclusions This study did not provide evidence for a causal association between dietary-derived antioxidant levels and ischemic stroke. Therefore, antioxidant supplements to increase circulating levels are unlikely to be of clinical benefit to prevent ischemic stroke.

7.
Cardiol Ther ; 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34724192

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: It is unknown how long-term prognosis after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with a prior cancer diagnosis is impacted by cancer-related factors as diagnosis, stage, and treatment. We aimed to assess long-term survival trends after STEMI in this population to evaluate both cardiovascular and cancer-related drivers of prognosis over a follow-up period of 5 years. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center cohort study, patients with a prior cancer diagnosis admitted with STEMI between 2004 and 2014 and treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were recruited from the STEMI clinical registry of our institution. RESULTS: In the 211 included patients, the cumulative incidence of all-cause death after 5 years of follow-up was 38.1% (N = 60). The cause of death was predominantly malignancy-related (N = 29, 48.3% of deaths) and nine patients (15.0%) died of a cardiovascular cause. After correcting for age and sex, a recent cancer diagnosis (< 1 year relative to > 10 years, HRadj 2.98 [95% CI: 1.39-6.41], p = 0.005) and distant metastasis at presentation (HRadj 4.02 [1.70-9.53], p = 0.002) were significant predictors of long-term mortality. While maximum levels of cardiac troponin-T and creatinine kinase showed significant association with mortality (resp. HRadj 1.34 [1.08-1.66], p = 0.008; HRadj 1.36 [1.05-1.76], p = 0.019), other known determinants of prognosis after STEMI, e.g., hypertension and renal insufficiency, were not significantly associated with survival. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with a prior cancer diagnosis admitted with STEMI have a poor survival rate. However, when the STEMI is optimally treated with primary PCI and medication, cardiac mortality is low, and prognosis is mainly determined by factors related to cancer stage.

8.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; : CIRCGEN121003460, 2021 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34732054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elevated cardiac troponin levels in blood are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Cardiac troponin levels are heritable, but their genetic architecture remains elusive. METHODS: We conducted a transethnic genome-wide association analysis on high-sensitivity cTnT (cardiac troponin T; hs-cTnT) and high-sensitivity cTnI (cardiac troponin I; hs-cTnI) levels in 24 617 and 14 336 participants free of coronary heart disease and heart failure from 6 population-based cohorts, followed by a series of bioinformatic analyses to decipher the genetic architecture of hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI. RESULTS: We identified 4 genome-wide significant loci for hs-cTnT including a novel locus rs3737882 in PPFIA4 and 3 previously reported loci at NCOA2, TRAM1, and BCL2. One known locus at VCL was replicated for hs-cTnI. One copy of C allele for rs3737882 was associated with a 6% increase in hs-cTnT levels (minor allele frequency, 0.18; P=2.80×10-9). We observed pleiotropic loci located at BAG3 and ANO5. The proportions of variances explained by single-nucleotide polymorphisms were 10.15% and 7.74% for hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI, respectively. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were colocalized with BCL2 expression in heart tissues and hs-cTnT and with ANO5 expression in artery, heart tissues, and whole blood and both troponins. Mendelian randomization analyses showed that genetically increased hs-cTnT and hs-cTnI levels were associated with higher odds of atrial fibrillation (odds ratio, 1.38 [95% CI, 1.25-1.54] for hs-cTnT and 1.21 [95% CI, 1.06-1.37] for hs-cTnI). CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel genetic locus associated with hs-cTnT in a multiethnic population and found that genetically regulated troponin levels were associated with atrial fibrillation.

9.
Peptides ; 146: 170664, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597752

RESUMO

High adiponectin concentrations are generally regarded as beneficial with regard to cardiometabolic health, but have been paradoxically associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, specifically heart failure, in individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We aimed to investigate the association between adiponectin and heart function parameters, and inversely, we estimated the effect of genetically-determined heart function and NT-proBNP as the main marker of heart failure on adiponectin using Mendelian randomisation. Observational analyses between adiponectin and measures of heart function, i.e. E/A ratio, left, and right ventricular ejection fraction, were performed in participants of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, assessed by MRI of the heart (n = 1,138). Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses were conducted to estimate the effect of NT-proBNP and heart function on adiponectin concentrations using publicly-available summary statistics (ADIPOGen; the PLATO trial). The mean (standard deviation) age was 56 (6) years and mean body mass index was 26 (4) kg/m2. Per five µg/mL higher adiponectin, the E/A ratio was -0.05 (95 % CI: -0.10, -0.01) lower, left ventricle ejection fraction was -0.5 % (95 % CI: -1.1, 0.1) lower, and right ventricle ejection fraction was 0.5 % (95 % CI: -0.1, 1.2) higher. Genetically-determined NT-proBNP was causally related to adiponectin concentrations in ADIPOGen: per doubling of genetically-determined NT-proBNP, adiponectin concentrations were 11.4 % (95 % CI: 1.7, 21.6) higher. With causal MR methods we showed that NT-proBNP affects adiponectin concentrations, while adiponectin is not associated with heart function parameters. Therefore, reverse causation may explain the adiponectin paradox observed in previous studies.

10.
Magn Reson Imaging ; 84: 132-134, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626774

RESUMO

Perimyocarditis is a well-known acute inflammation of the pericardium and the underlying myocardium. Most commonly perimyocarditis is of viral aetiology, specifically the coxsackie B virus. However, nowadays SARS-CoV-2 associated with COVID-19 infections has emerged as a potential rare cause of perimyocarditis. This case report will demonstrate a case of a young female with perimyocarditis as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) accompanied by antigens indicating a past COVID-19 infection. Clinical status as well as Findings at MRI, echocardiography and lab results will be reviewed.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Miocardite , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Miocardite/diagnóstico por imagem , Miocárdio , SARS-CoV-2
11.
JAMA Intern Med ; 181(11): 1440-1450, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34491268

RESUMO

Importance: In clinical guidelines, overt and subclinical thyroid dysfunction are mentioned as causal and treatable factors for cognitive decline. However, the scientific literature on these associations shows inconsistent findings. Objective: To assess cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of baseline thyroid dysfunction with cognitive function and dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicohort individual participant data analysis assessed 114 267 person-years (median, 1.7-11.3 years) of follow-up for cognitive function and 525 222 person-years (median, 3.8-15.3 years) for dementia between 1989 and 2017. Analyses on cognitive function included 21 cohorts comprising 38 144 participants. Analyses on dementia included eight cohorts with a total of 2033 cases with dementia and 44 573 controls. Data analysis was performed from December 2016 to January 2021. Exposures: Thyroid function was classified as overt hyperthyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism, euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism, and overt hypothyroidism based on uniform thyrotropin cutoff values and study-specific free thyroxine values. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was global cognitive function, mostly measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Executive function, memory, and dementia were secondary outcomes. Analyses were first performed at study level using multivariable linear regression and multivariable Cox regression, respectively. The studies were combined with restricted maximum likelihood meta-analysis. To overcome the use of different scales, results were transformed to standardized mean differences. For incident dementia, hazard ratios were calculated. Results: Among 74 565 total participants, 66 567 (89.3%) participants had normal thyroid function, 577 (0.8%) had overt hyperthyroidism, 2557 (3.4%) had subclinical hyperthyroidism, 4167 (5.6%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, and 697 (0.9%) had overt hypothyroidism. The study-specific median age at baseline varied from 57 to 93 years; 42 847 (57.5%) participants were women. Thyroid dysfunction was not associated with global cognitive function; the largest differences were observed between overt hypothyroidism and euthyroidism-cross-sectionally (-0.06 standardized mean difference in score; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.08; P = .40) and longitudinally (0.11 standardized mean difference higher decline per year; 95% CI, -0.01 to 0.23; P = .09). No consistent associations were observed between thyroid dysfunction and executive function, memory, or risk of dementia. Conclusions and Relevance: In this individual participant data analysis of more than 74 000 adults, subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were not associated with cognitive function, cognitive decline, or incident dementia. No rigorous conclusions can be drawn regarding the role of overt thyroid dysfunction in risk of dementia. These findings do not support the practice of screening for subclinical thyroid dysfunction in the context of cognitive decline in older adults as recommended in current guidelines.

12.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(9): 1439-1444, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34338418

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate microvascular differences in individuals with obesity at risk for developing cardiovascular disease. METHODS: In this cross-sectional Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, participant sublingual microcirculation was assessed with a newly developed GlycoCheck software (Microvascular Health Solutions Inc., Salt Lake City, Utah), which integrates red blood cell velocity within the smallest capillaries (4-7 µm) and feed vessels (>10 µm). Framingham Risk Score was used to calculate 10-year cardiovascular risk, divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. ANOVA was used to evaluate microvascular differences among the groups. RESULTS: A total of 813 participants were included. The high-risk group (n = 168) was characterized by differences in the microvasculature compared with the low-risk group (n = 392): the high-risk group had a 49% reduction in the number of smallest capillaries and a 9.1-µm/s (95% CI: 5.2-12.9) higher red blood cell velocity in the feed vessels. No differences in velocity-corrected perfused boundary regions were found. CONCLUSIONS: It was observed that, with adding red blood cell velocity to the software, sidestream dark field imaging is able to detect microcirculatory differences in a cohort of individuals with obesity at risk for developing cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Capilares , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Microcirculação , Obesidade/complicações
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34304318

RESUMO

Pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular events. Prediction modelling could enable indirect PWV assessment based on clinical and anthropometric data. The aim was to calculate estimated-PWV (ePWV) based on clinical and anthropometric measures using linear ridge regression as well as a Deep Neural Network (DNN) and to determine the cut-off which provides optimal discriminative performance between lower and higher PWV values. In total 2254 participants from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study were included (age 45-65 years, 51% male). Both a basic and expanded prediction model were developed. PWV was estimated using linear ridge regression and DNN. External validation was performed in 114 participants (age 30-70 years, 54% female). Performance was compared between models and estimation accuracy was evaluated by ROC-curves. A cut-off for optimal discriminative performance was determined using Youden's index. The basic ridge regression model provided an adjusted R2 of 0.33 and bias of < 0.001, the expanded model did not add predictive performance. Basic and expanded DNN models showed similar model performance. Optimal discriminative performance was found for PWV < 6.7 m/s. In external validation expanded ridge regression provided the best performance of the four models (adjusted R2: 0.29). All models showed good discriminative performance for PWV < 6.7 m/s (AUC range 0.81-0.89). ePWV showed good discriminative performance with regard to differentiating individuals with lower PWV values (< 6.7 m/s) from those with higher values, and could function as gatekeeper in selecting patients who benefit from further MRI-based PWV assessment.

14.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 699492, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307507

RESUMO

Aims: Major adverse event (MAE) rates during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy in advanced heart failure (HF) patients are high, and impair quality of life and survival. Prediction and risk stratification of MAEs in order to improve patient selection and thereby outcome during LVAD therapy is therefore warranted. Circulating natriuretic peptides (NPs) are strong predictors of MAEs and mortality in chronic HF patients. However, whether NPs can identify patients who are at risk of MAEs and mortality or tend toward myocardial recovery after LVAD implantation is unclear. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the prognostic value of circulating NP levels before LVAD implantation for all-cause mortality, MAEs and myocardial recovery after LVAD implantation. Methods and Results: Electronic databases were searched for studies analyzing circulating NP in adults with advanced HF before LVAD implantation in relation to mortality, MAEs, or myocardial recovery after LVAD implantation. Twenty-four studies published between 2008 and 2021 were included. Follow-up duration ranged from 48 hours to 5 years. Study sample size ranged from 14 to 15,138 patients. Natriuretic peptide levels were not predictive of all-cause mortality. However, NPs were predictive of right ventricular failure (RVF) and MAEs such as ventricular arrhythmias, moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, and all-cause rehospitalization. No relation between NPs and myocardial recovery was found. Conclusion: This systematic review found that NP levels before LVAD implantation are not predictive of all-cause mortality after LVAD implantation. Thus, NP levels may be of limited value in patient selection for LVAD therapy. However, NPs help in risk stratification of MAEs and may be used to identify patients who are at risk for RVF, ventricular arrhythmias, moderate or severe aortic regurgitation, and all-cause rehospitalization after LVAD implantation.

15.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 78(5): 421-433, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend nonstatin lipid-lowering agents in patients at very high risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains ≥70 mg/dL on maximum tolerated statin treatment. It is uncertain if this approach benefits patients with LDL-C near 70 mg/dL. Lipoprotein(a) levels may influence residual risk. OBJECTIVES: In a post hoc analysis of the ODYSSEY Outcomes (Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab) trial, the authors evaluated the benefit of adding the proprotein subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab to optimized statin treatment in patients with LDL-C levels near 70 mg/dL. Effects were evaluated according to concurrent lipoprotein(a) levels. METHODS: ODYSSEY Outcomes compared alirocumab with placebo in 18,924 patients with recent acute coronary syndromes receiving optimized statin treatment. In 4,351 patients (23.0%), screening or randomization LDL-C was <70 mg/dL (median 69.4 mg/dL; interquartile range: 64.3-74.0 mg/dL); in 14,573 patients (77.0%), both determinations were ≥70 mg/dL (median 94.0 mg/dL; interquartile range: 83.2-111.0 mg/dL). RESULTS: In the lower LDL-C subgroup, MACE rates were 4.2 and 3.1 per 100 patient-years among placebo-treated patients with baseline lipoprotein(a) greater than or less than or equal to the median (13.7 mg/dL). Corresponding adjusted treatment hazard ratios were 0.68 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.52-0.90) and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.83-1.49), with treatment-lipoprotein(a) interaction on MACE (Pinteraction = 0.017). In the higher LDL-C subgroup, MACE rates were 4.7 and 3.8 per 100 patient-years among placebo-treated patients with lipoprotein(a) >13.7 mg/dL or ≤13.7 mg/dL; corresponding adjusted treatment hazard ratios were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.72-0.92) and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.75-1.06), with Pinteraction = 0.43. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with recent acute coronary syndromes and LDL-C near 70 mg/dL on optimized statin therapy, proprotein subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibition provides incremental clinical benefit only when lipoprotein(a) concentration is at least mildly elevated. (ODYSSEY Outcomes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes After an Acute Coronary Syndrome During Treatment With Alirocumab; NCT01663402).

16.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 674841, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34093444

RESUMO

Background: The cardiovascular effects of treating older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) are uncertain. Although concerns have been raised regarding a potential increase in cardiovascular side effects from thyroid hormone replacement, undertreatment may also increase the risk of cardiovascular events, especially for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Objective: To determine the effects of levothyroxine treatment on cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with SCH. Methods: Combined data of two parallel randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trials TRUST (Thyroid hormone Replacement for Untreated older adults with Subclinical hypothyroidism - a randomised placebo controlled Trial) and IEMO80+ (the Institute for Evidence-Based Medicine in Old Age 80-plus thyroid trial) were analysed as one-stage individual participant data. Participants aged ≥65 years for TRUST (n=737) and ≥80 years for IEMO80+ (n=105) with SCH, defined by elevated TSH with fT4 within the reference range, were included. Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo or levothyroxine, with titration of the dose until TSH level was within the reference range. Cardiovascular events and cardiovascular side effects of overtreatment (new-onset atrial fibrillation and heart failure) were investigated, including stratified analyses according to CVD history and age. Results: The median [IQR] age was 75.0 [69.7-81.1] years, and 448 participants (53.2%) were women. The mean TSH was 6.38± SD 5.7 mIU/L at baseline and decreased at 1 year to 5.66 ± 3.3 mIU/L in the placebo group, compared with 3.66 ± 2.1 mIU/L in the levothyroxine group (p<0.001), at a median dose of 50 µg. Levothyroxine did not significantly change the risk of any of the prespecified cardiovascular outcomes, including cardiovascular events (HR 0.74 [0.41-1.25]), atrial fibrillation (HR 0.69 [0.32-1.52]), or heart failure (0.41 [0.13-1.35]), or all-cause mortality (HR 1.28 [0.54-3.03]), irrespective of history of CVD and age. Conclusion: Treatment with levothyroxine did not significantly change the risk of cardiovascular outcomes in older adults with subclinical hypothyroidism, irrespective of a history of cardiovascular disease and age. Clinical Trial Registration: [ClinicalTrials.gov], identifier [NCT01660126] (TRUST); Netherlands Trial Register: NTR3851 (IEMO80+).

17.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(16): 7772-7782, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190404

RESUMO

Phosphorylcholine is a pro-inflammatory epitope exposed on apoptotic cells, and phosphorylcholine monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibodies (PC-mAb) have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we hypothesize that PC-mAb treatment reduces adverse cardiac remodelling and infarct size (IS) following unreperfused transmural myocardial infarction (MI). Unreperfused MI was induced by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery in hypercholesterolaemic APOE*3-Leiden mice. Three weeks following MI, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging showed a reduced LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) by 21% and IS by 31% upon PC-mAb treatment as compared to the vehicle control group. In addition, the LV fibrous content was decreased by 27% and LV wall thickness was better preserved by 47% as determined by histological analysis. Two days following MI, CCL2 concentrations, assessed by use of ELISA, were decreased by 81% and circulating monocytes by 64% as assessed by use of FACS analysis. Additionally, local leucocyte infiltration determined by immunohistological analysis showed a 62% decrease after three weeks. In conclusion, the local and systemic inflammatory responses are limited by PC-mAb treatment resulting in restricted adverse cardiac remodelling and IS following unreperfused MI. This indicates that PC-mAb holds promise as a therapeutic agent following MI limiting adverse cardiac remodelling.

18.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 139, 2021 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current evidence from randomized controlled trials on statins for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older people, especially those aged > 75 years, is still lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to extend the current evidence about the association of statin use in older people primary prevention group with risk of CVD and mortality. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were searched from inception until March 18, 2021. We included observational studies (cohort or nested case-control) that compared statin use vs non-use for primary prevention of CVD in older people aged ≥ 65 years; provided that each of them reported the risk estimate on at least one of the following primary outcomes: all cause-mortality, CVD death, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke. Risk estimates of each relevant outcome were pooled as a hazard ratio (HR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) using the random-effects meta-analysis model. The quality of the evidence was rated using the GRADE approach. RESULTS: Ten observational studies (9 cohorts and one case-control study; n = 815,667) fulfilled our criteria. The overall combined estimate suggested that statin therapy was associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.86 [95% CI 0.79 to 0.93]), CVD death (HR: 0.80 [95% CI 0.78 to 0.81]), and stroke (HR: 0.85 [95% CI 0.76 to 0.94]) and a non-significant association with risk of MI (HR 0.74 [95% CI 0.53 to 1.02]). The beneficial association of statins with the risk of all-cause mortality remained significant even at higher ages (> 75 years old; HR 0.88 [95% CI 0.81 to 0.96]) and in both men (HR: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.74 to 0.76]) and women (HR 0.85 [95% CI 0.72 to 0.99]). However, this association with the risk of all-cause mortality remained significant only in those with diabetes mellitus (DM) (HR 0.82 [95% CI 0.68 to 0.98]) but not in those without DM. The level of evidence of all the primary outcomes was rated as "very low." CONCLUSIONS: Statin therapy in older people (aged ≥ 65 years) without CVD was associated with a 14%, 20%, and 15% lower risk of all-cause mortality, CVD death, and stroke, respectively. The beneficial association with the risk of all-cause mortality remained significant even at higher ages (> 75 years old), in both men and women, and in individuals with DM, but not in those without DM. These observational findings support the need for trials to test the benefits of statins in those above 75 years of age.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Infarto do Miocárdio , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Prevenção Primária
19.
Metabolomics ; 17(6): 57, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106350

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Insulin is the key regulator of glucose metabolism, but it is difficult to dissect direct insulin from glucose-induced effects. We aimed to investigate the effects of hyperinsulemia on metabolomic measures under euglycemic conditions in nondiabetic participants. METHODS: We assessed concentrations of 151 metabolomic measures throughout a two-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure. We included 24 participants (50% women, mean age = 62 [s.d. = 4.2] years) and metabolomic measures were assessed under baseline, low-dose (10 mU/m2/min) and high-dose (40 mU/m2/min) insulin conditions. The effects of low- and high-dose insulin infusion on metabolomic measures were analyzed using linear mixed-effect models for repeated measures. RESULTS: After low-dose insulin infusion, 90 metabolomic measures changed in concentration (p < 1.34e-4), among which glycerol (beta [Confidence Interval] = - 1.41 [- 1.54, - 1.27] s.d., p = 1.28e-95) and three-hydroxybutyrate (- 1.22 [- 1.36, - 1.07] s.d., p = 1.44e-61) showed largest effect sizes. After high-dose insulin infusion, 121 metabolomic measures changed in concentration, among which branched-chain amino acids showed the largest additional decrease compared with low-dose insulin infusion (e.g., Leucine, - 1.78 [- 1.88, - 1.69] s.d., P = 2.7e-295). More specifically, after low- and high-dose insulin infusion, the distribution of the lipoproteins shifted towards more LDL-sized particles with decreased mean diameters. CONCLUSION: Metabolomic measures are differentially insulin sensitive and may thus be differentially affected by the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, our data suggests insulin directly affects metabolomic measures previously associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk.

20.
Thromb J ; 19(1): 45, 2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176487

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins are a potential treatment for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis complementary to conventional anticoagulants without associated bleeding complications. This study aimed to compare pro-thrombotic activities of different classes of lipid-lowering drugs in an active comparator design and determine whether there is a relation between statin versus fibrate/niacin use and pro-coagulant factor outcomes. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analysis of participants from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study using any class of lipid-lowering drugs, including any types of statins, niacin, and fibrates. We performed linear regression analyses to determine fibrinogen, factor (F) VIII, FIX, and FXI activity in statins versus fibrate/niacin users and adjusted for age, sex, tobacco smoking, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes, and prevalent cardiovascular disease. RESULTS: Among 1043 participants, the mean age was 58.4 ± 5.2 years, 61% were men, and the mean BMI was 31.3 ± 4.5 kg/m2. Clinical characteristics were balanced between statin and fibrate/niacin users. Statin users had lower mean FXI (18.3 IU/dL, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.4 to 27.3) levels compared to fibrate/niacin users. The level of FVIII (15.8 IU/dL, 95% CI - 0.003 to 31.6), and FIX (11.3 IU/dL, 95% CI - 0.4 to 23.2) were lower in statin users than fibrate/niacin users with marginal statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Current statin use was associated with lower plasma levels of FXI than fibrate/niacin use. The effects on coagulation factors may, in part, explain the benefit of statin therapy rendered in primary and secondary prevention of VTE.

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