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3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720894

RESUMO

The aim was to develop a predictive model of infection by multidrug-resistant microorganisms (MDRO). A national, retrospective cohort study was carried out including all patients attended for an infectious disease in 54 Spanish Emergency Departments (ED), in whom a microbiological isolation was available from a culture obtained during their attention in the ED. A MDRO infection prediction model was created in a derivation cohort using backward logistic regression. Those variables significant at p < 0.05 assigned an integer score proportional to the regression coefficient. The model was then internally validated by k-fold cross-validation and in the validation cohort. A total of 5460 patients were included; 1345 (24.6%) were considered to have a MDRO infection. Twelve independent risk factors were identified in the derivation cohort and were combined into an overall score, the ATM (assessment of threat for MDRO) score. The model achieved an area under the curve-receiver operating curve of 0.76 (CI 95% 0.74-0.78) in the derivation cohort and 0.72 (CI 95% 0.70-0.75) in the validation cohort (p = 0.0584). Patients were then split into 6 risk categories and had the following rates of risk: 7% (0-2 points), 16% (3-5 points), 24% (6-9 points), 33% (10-14 points), 47% (15-21 points), and 71% (> 21 points). Findings were similar in the validation cohort. Several patient-specific factors were independently associated with MDRO infection risk. When integrated into a clinical prediction rule, higher risk scores and risk classes were related to an increased risk for MDRO infection. This clinical prediction rule could be used by providers to identify patients at high risk and help to guide antibiotic strategy decisions, while accounting for clinical judgment.

7.
Emergencias ; 31(2): 123-135, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963741

RESUMO

EN: Although infection rates and the impact of infection on hospital emergency departments (EDs) are known or can be reliably estimated, the incidence and prevalence of sepsis vary in relation to which definitions or registers used. Sepsis is also well known to be under-diagnosed by physicians in general and by ED physicians in particular. Over half of sepsis cases are community-acquired, and 50% to 60% of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) with sepsis or septic shock are admitted directly from the ED. Pneumonia and urinary tract infections are the most common points of focus in sepsis, septic shock, bacteremia, and ED admissions to the ICU for infectious processes. For this article a multinational group of experts representing Latin American emergency medicine associations reviewed and analyzed similarities and differences in the epidemiology of sepsis in different geographic locations. We consider key aspects and geographic similarities and differences in the early identification of patients with severe sepsis; criteria that define the diagnosis; appropriate early antibiotic and fluid therapy; the roles of triage systems and multidisciplinary sepsis code units; and the use of biological markers in this time-dependent disease. We also discuss key points and strategies for improving the diagnosis, prognosis, and care of sepsis patients in the ED.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Sepse , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico Precoce , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Humanos , América Latina , Prognóstico , Melhoria de Qualidade , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/epidemiologia , Sepse/terapia
8.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(2): 123-135, abr. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182530

RESUMO

En los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH), la incidencia y la prevalencia de la sepsis dependen de las definiciones y registros que se utilicen. Además, en general existe un infradiagnostico. Un grupo internacional de expertos y representantes de sociedades y asociaciones latinoamericanas de urgencias y emergencias ha revisado y analizado las coincidencias y diferencias en la situación actual epidemiológica, así como los problemas y puntos clave (con sus similitudes y diferencias según el entorno geográfico) en relación a: la detección inmediata del paciente con infección grave-sepsis, los criterios para su definición, la administración de la antibioterapia y fluidoterapia precoces y adecuadas, y el papel que juegan los sistemas de triaje, las unidades multidisciplinares de sepsis (conocidas como "código sepsis") o los biomarcadores en esta enfermedad tiempo-dependiente. Además, señalan algunos puntos clave y estrategias de mejora para el diagnóstico, pronóstico y atención en los SUH de estos pacientes


Although infection rates and the impact of infection on hospital emergency departments (EDs) are known or can be reliably estimated, the incidence and prevalence of sepsis vary in relation to which definitions or registers used. Sepsis is also well known to be under-diagnosed by physicians in general and by ED physicians in particular. Over half of sepsis cases are community-acquired, and 50% to 60% of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) with sepsis or septic shock are admitted directly from the ED. Pneumonia and urinary tract infections are the most common points of focus in sepsis, septic shock, bacteremia, and ED admissions to the ICU for infectious processes. For this article a multinational group of experts representing Latin American emergency medicine associations reviewed and analyzed similarities and differences in the epidemiology of sepsis in different geographic locations. We consider key aspects and geographic similarities and differences in the early identification of patients with severe sepsis; criteria that define the diagnosis; appropriate early antibiotic and fluid therapy; the roles of triage systems and multidisciplinary sepsis code units; and the use of biological markers in this time-dependent disease. We also discuss key points and strategies for improving the diagnosis, prognosis, and care of sepsis patients in the ED


Assuntos
Humanos , Consenso , Sepse/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Biomarcadores , Prognóstico , América Latina/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Precoce
9.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 32(2): 156-164, abr. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182817

RESUMO

Objetivo: Evaluar la capacidad del lactato o el índice de Charlson para mejorar la capacidad del SIRS y el qSOFA para identificar el riesgo de muerte a corto plazo de los pacientes ancianos, sin deterioro funcional grave, atendidos por sospecha de infección en urgencias. Metodología: Estudio de cohorte observacional prospectivo que incluyó a todos los pacientes de 75 años o más, sin deterioro funcional, atendidos por una infección aguda en 69 servicios de urgencias españoles durante 2 días en cada periodo estacional. Se recogieron datos demográficos, clínicos y analíticos. La variable de resultado principal fue la mortalidad por cualquier causa a los 30 días de la visita índice. Resultados: Se incluyeron 739 pacientes con una edad media de 84,9 (DE 6,0) años y 375 (50,7%) fueron mujeres. Noventa y un (12,3%) pacientes fallecieron dentro de los 30 días posteriores a la visita a urgencias. El ABC para el SIRS ≥ 2 y el qSOFA ≥ 2 fue de 0,637 (IC 95% 0,587-0,688; p<0,001) y 0,698 (IC 95% 0,635-0,761; p<0,001), respectivamente. La comparación entre esta curvas muestra una mejor capacidad de clasificación por parte del qSOFA ≥ 2 (p=0,041). Ambas escalas incrementan su capacidad de clasificación al añadir el lactato, siendo el ABC para SIRS más lactato de 0,705 (IC95% 0,652-0,758; p<0,001) y para qSOFA más lactato de 0,755 (IC95% 0,696-0,814; p<0,001), existiendo una tendencia estadística a un mejor rendimiento pronóstico de la segunda estrategia (p=0,0727). No ocurre lo mismo con el índice de Charlson, que no tiene efectos de mejora en la clasificación realizada con el SIRS (p=0,2269) ni con qSOFA (p=0,2573). Conclusiones: La inclusión de la valoración del lactato a las escalas SIRS y qSOFA mejoran su capacidad para identificar pacientes ancianos atendidos por infección en riesgo de muerte a corto plazo. La valoración del índice de Charlson no tiene efecto


Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the utility of a post hoc lactate added to SIRS and qSOFA score to predict 30-day mortality in older non-severely dependent patients attended for infection in the Emergency Department (ED). Methods: We performed an analytical, observational, prospective cohort study including patients of 75 years of age or older, without severe functional dependence, attended for an infectious disease in 69 Spanish ED for 2-day three seasonal periods. Demographic, clinical and analytical data were collected. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality after the index event. Results: We included 739 patients with a mean age of 84.9 (SD 6.0) years; 375 (50.7%) were women. Ninety-one (12.3%) died within 30 days. The AUC was 0.637 (IC 95% 0.587-0.688; p<0.001) for SIRS ≥ 2 and 0.698 (IC 95% 0.635-0.761; p<0,001) for qSOFA ≥ 2. Comparing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) there was a better accuracy of qSOFA vs SIRS (p=0.041). Both scales improve the prognosis accuracy with lactate inclusion. The AUC was 0.705 (IC95% 0.652-0.758; p<0.001) for SIRS plus lactate and 0.755 (IC95% 0.696-0.814; p<0.001) for qSOFA plus lactate, showing a trend to statistical significance for the second strategy (p=0.0727). Charlson index not added prognosis accuracy to SIRS (p=0.2269) or qSOFA (p=0.2573). Conclusions: Lactate added to SIRS and qSOFA score improve the accuracy of SIRS and qSOFA to predict short-term mortality in older non-severely dependent patients attended for infection. There is not effect in adding Charlson index


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Sepse/mortalidade , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
10.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 37(9): 560-568, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse and compare the ability of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes to differentiate true bacteraemia from contaminated blood cultures in patients seen in the emergency department (ED) for an episode of infectious disease. METHODS: Observational, retrospective and descriptive analytical study of all blood cultures with positive growth extracted in an ED in adult patients (≥18 years) during 2016 and 2017. The follow-up was carried out over a 30-day period to calculate the predictive power and the prognostic performance for true bacteraemia. RESULTS: A total of 266 blood cultures with positive growth were included in the study. Out of these, 154 (57.9%) were considered true bacteraemia and 112 (42.1%) were considered to be contaminated blood cultures. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUC-ROC) for PCT to predict true bacteraemia was 0.983 (95% CI: 0.972-0.994; P<0.001) and, considering a cut-off value of≥0.43 ng/ml, PCT achieved 94% sensitivity, 91% specificity, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 92%. The AUC-ROC obtained for CRP was 0.639 (95% CI: 0.572-0.707, P<.001), for leukocytes of 0.693 (95% CI: 0.630-0.756, P<.001) and for immature leukocytes (>10% bands) of 0.614 (95% CI: 0.547-0.682, P<.001). The mean values for PCT were 3.44 (SD 6.30) ng/ml in true bacteraemia vs. 0.16 (SD 0.18) ng/ml in contaminated blood cultures (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: In blood cultures with positive growth extracted in an ED, PCT achieves the best prognostic performance of true bacteraemia vs. contaminated blood cultures, better than CRP and leukocytes.

11.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(1): 11-18, ene. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176995

RESUMO

Objetivos: Analizar y comparar el poder predictivo de mortalidad a 30 días de varios biomarcadores (proteína C reactiva, procalcitonina, lactato, suPAR y proadrenomedulina) en los pacientes ancianos que acuden al servicio de Urgencias (SU) por un episodio de infección. Y, secundariamente, comprobar si estos mejoran la capacidad pronóstica de los criterios de sepsis (síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica y quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment [qSOFA]). Métodos: Estudio observacional, prospectivo, multicéntrico y analítico. Se incluyó consecutivamente a pacientes de 75 o más años atendidos en 8 SU por un proceso infeccioso. Se analizaron 25 variables independientes (epidemiológicas, de comorbilidad, funcionales, clínicas y analíticas) que pudieran influir en la mortalidad a corto plazo (30 días). Resultados: Se incluyó a 136 pacientes, de los que 13 (9,5%) habían fallecido a los 30 días tras su consulta en el SU. La MRproADM es el biomarcador que consigue la mayor área bajo la curva ROC para predecir mortalidad a los 30 días (0,864; IC 95% 0,775-0,997; p < 0,001), con un punto de corte de mayor capacidad predictiva de 2,07 nmol/l, que ofrece una sensibilidad del 77% y una especificidad del 96%. La escala qSOFA ≥ 2 consigue un área bajo la curva ROC de 0,763 (IC 95% 0,623-0,903; p = 0,002), con una sensibilidad del 76% y una especificidad del 75%. El modelo combinado (MRproADM con qSOFA ≥2 ) mejora el área bajo la curva ROC a 0,878 (IC 95% 0,749-1; p < 0,001) y ofrece el mejor rendimiento pronóstico, con una sensibilidad del 69% y una especificidad del 97%. Conclusiones: En los pacientes ancianos que acuden al SU por un episodio de infección, la MRproADM presenta una capacidad pronóstica de mortalidad a los 30 días superior al resto de los biomarcadores, la qSOFA obtiene mayor rendimiento que los criterios de síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, y el modelo combinado qSOFA ≥ 2 con MRproADM > 2,07nmol/l mejora el poder predictivo de qSOFA


Objectives: To analyse and compare 30-day mortality prognostic power of several biomarkers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate, suPAR and pro-adremomedullin) in elderly patients seen in Emergency Departments (ED) due to infections. Secondly, if these could improve the prognostic accuracy of sepsis criteria (systemic inflammatory response syndrome and quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment [qSOFA]). Methods: A prospective, observational, multicentre and analytical study. Patients aged 75 years and older who were treated for infection in the ED of 8 participating hospitals were enrolled consecutively. An assessment was made of 25 independent variables (epidemiological, comorbidity, functional, clinical and analytical variables) that could influence short-term mortality (at 30 days). Results: The study included 136 patients, 13 (9.5%) of whom died within 30 days of visiting the ED. MR-proADM is the biomarker with the best area under the curve ROC to predict 30-day mortality (0.864; 95% CI 0.775-0.997; P <.001) with a prognostic cut-off > 2.07nmol/l, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 96%. The qSOFA score ≥ 2 had an area under the curve ROC of 0.763 (95% CI 0.623-0.903; P=.002), sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 75%. The mixed model (MR-proADM plus qSOFA ≥ 2) improved the area under the curve ROC to 0.878 (95% CI 0.749-1; P < .001) with the best prognostic performance with sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 97%. Conclusions: MR-proADM showed the best performance for 30-day mortality prognostic power compared to other biomarkers in elderly patients seen in EDs due to infections. qSOFA score achieves better results than systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and the mixed model (qSOFA ≥ 2 plus MR-proADM > 2.07nmol/l) increased the predictive power of qSOFA


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência a Idosos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudo Observacional , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 37(1): 11-18, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29289378

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyse and compare 30-day mortality prognostic power of several biomarkers (C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, lactate, suPAR and pro-adremomedullin) in elderly patients seen in Emergency Departments (ED) due to infections. Secondly, if these could improve the prognostic accuracy of sepsis criteria (systemic inflammatory response syndrome and quick Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment [qSOFA]). METHODS: A prospective, observational, multicentre and analytical study. Patients aged 75 years and older who were treated for infection in the ED of 8 participating hospitals were enrolled consecutively. An assessment was made of 25 independent variables (epidemiological, comorbidity, functional, clinical and analytical variables) that could influence short-term mortality (at 30 days). RESULTS: The study included 136 patients, 13 (9.5%) of whom died within 30 days of visiting the ED. MR-proADM is the biomarker with the best area under the curve ROC to predict 30-day mortality (0.864; 95% CI 0.775-0.997; P<.001) with a prognostic cut-off>2.07nmol/l, sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 96%. The qSOFA score≥2 had an area under the curve ROC of 0.763 (95% CI 0.623-0.903; P=.002), sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 75%. The mixed model (MR-proADM plus qSOFA≥2) improved the area under the curve ROC to 0.878 (95% CI 0.749-1; P<.001) with the best prognostic performance with sensitivity of 69% and specificity of 97% CONCLUSIONS: MR-proADM showed the best performance for 30-day mortality prognostic power compared to other biomarkers in elderly patients seen in EDs due to infections. qSOFA score achieves better results than systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and the mixed model (qSOFA≥2 plus MR-proADM>2.07nmol/l) increased the predictive power of qSOFA.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , /complicações , Masculino , Escores de Disfunção Orgânica , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/sangue , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 30(4): 241-246, ago. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-180058

RESUMO

Objetivo: Diseñar un modelo de riesgo para predecir la mortalidad a los 30 días, y compararlo con la escala MEDS (Mortality in Emergency Department), en pacientes >= 75 años atendidos por infección con síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica (SIRS) en los servicios de urgencias (SU). Método: Estudio analítico de cohortes prospectivo que incluyó por oportunidad a pacientes >= 75 años atendidos por infección con SIRS en 13 SU españoles durante el año 2013. Se recogieron variables demográficas, comorbilidad, factores de riesgo de mala evolución, situación funcional basal, modelo de infección, y parámetros hemodinámicos, clínicos y analíticos en el momento de la primera atención. La variable de resultado principal fue mortalidad por cualquier causa a los 30 días. Resultados: Se incluyeron 379 pacientes con edad media de 84 (DE 5,8) años, 186 (49,1%) fueron mujeres, 150 (39,6%) tenían alto grado de comorbilidad y 113 (34,2%) dependencia funcional grave. Setenta y nueve pacientes (20,8%) fallecieron a los 30 días. El modelo INFURG-OLDER incluyó la presencia de tumor sólido con metástasis (OR=5,4; IC95% 1,618,2; p=0,006), la insuficiencia respiratoria (OR=3,02; IC95% 1,5-6,0; p=0,002), la insuficiencia renal (OR=2,4; IC95% 1,0-5,5; p=0,045), la hipotensión arterial (OR=2,4; IC95% 1,2-5,0; p=0,015) y la disminución del nivel de consciencia (OR=2,9; IC95% 1,4-5,8; p=0,003). El área bajo la curva (ABC) del modelo INFURG-OLDER fue de 0,78 (IC95% 0,720,84; p<0,001) y el ABC de la escala MEDS fue de 0,72 (IC95% 0,64-0,80; p<0,001). Conclusiones: El modelo INFURG-OLDER tiene buena capacidad para predecir la mortalidad a los 30 días en los pacientes >= 75 años atendidos por infección con SIRS en los SU


Objectives: To build a model to predict 30-day mortality and compare it to prediction based on the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score in patients aged 75 years or older treated for infection and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the emergency department. Material and methods: Prospective analysis of a convenience cohort of patients aged 75 years or older treated for infection and SIRS in 13 Spanish emergency departments in 2013. We recorded demographic variables; comorbidity; risk factors for poor outcome; functional dependence at baseline; site of infection; and hemodynamic, clinical and laboratory findings on start of care.The main outcome variable was 30-day all-cause mortality. Results: Three hundred seventy-nine patients with a mean (SD) age of 84 (5.8) years were included; 186 (49.,1%) were women, 150 (39.6%) had a high degree of comorbidity, and 113 (34.2%) had a high level of functional dependence. Seventy-nine (20.8%) died within 30 days. The model built by the infection working group (INFURG) of the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine (SEMES) included the presence of metastasis from a solid tumor (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; 95% CI, 1.6–18.2; P=.006), respiratory insufficiency (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.5–6.0; P=.002), renal insufficiency (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0–5.5; P=.045), arterial hypertension (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–5.0; P=.015), and altered level of consciousness (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4–5.8; P=.003). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the INFURG-OLDER model was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.72–0.84; P<.001) (vs 0.72 (95% CI, 0.64–0.80; P<.001 for the MEDS model). Conclusion: The INFURG-OLDER model has good predictive ability for 30-day mortality in patients aged 75 years or older who are treated in emergency departments for SIRS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Fatores de Risco , Medição de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico
15.
Emergencias ; 30(4): 241-246, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30033697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To build a model to predict 30-day mortality and compare it to prediction based on the Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score in patients aged 75 years or older treated for infection and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in the emergency department. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective analysis of a convenience cohort of patients aged 75 years or older treated for infection and SIRS in 13 Spanish emergency departments in 2013. We recorded demographic variables; comorbidity; risk factors for poor outcome; functional dependence at baseline; site of infection; and hemodynamic, clinical and laboratory findings on start of care.The main outcome variable was 30-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-nine patients with a mean (SD) age of 84 (5.8) years were included; 186 (49.,1%) were women, 150 (39.6%) had a high degree of comorbidity, and 113 (34.2%) had a high level of functional dependence. Seventy-nine (20.8%) died within 30 days. The model built by the infection working group (INFURG) of the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine (SEMES) included the presence of metastasis from a solid tumor (odds ratio [OR], 5.4; 95% CI, 1.6-18.2; P=.006), respiratory insufficiency (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.5-6.0; P=.002), renal insufficiency (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.5; P=.045), arterial hypertension (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-5.0; P=.015), and altered level of consciousness (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-5.8; P=.003). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the INFURG-OLDER model was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.72-0.84; P<.001) (vs 0.72 (95% CI, 0.64-0.80; P<.001 for the MEDS model). CONCLUSION: The INFURG-OLDER model has good predictive ability for 30-day mortality in patients aged 75 years or older who are treated in emergency departments for SIRS.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sepse/diagnóstico , Sepse/mortalidade , Espanha/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/diagnóstico
17.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 31(2): 186-202, abr. 2018. tab, ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-174522

RESUMO

La incidencia de la neumonía adquirida en la comunidad (NAC) oscila entre 2-15 casos/1.000 habitantes/año, siendo más elevada en los mayores de 65 años o en pacientes con co-morbilidades. En los servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH) supone hasta el 1,35% de las atenciones. Aproximadamente el 75% de todas las NAC diagnosticadas son atendidas en los SUH. La NAC representa el origen de la mayoría de sepsis y shock sépticos diagnosticados en los SUH, la principal causa de muerte y de ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos (UCI) por enfermedad infecciosa. Se le atribuye una mortalidad global del 10-14% según la edad y factores de riesgo asociados. El 40-60% de las NAC requerirán ingreso hospitalario, incluyendo las áreas de observación (con rangos muy variables del 22-65% según centros, época del año y características de los pacientes), y de ellos entre el 2-10% será en la UCI. De todo lo dicho se traduce la importancia que tiene la NAC en los SUH, y también del “impacto de la atención en urgencias sobre el enfermo con NAC”, al ser el dispositivo donde se toman las decisiones iniciales, pero fundamentales, para la evolución del proceso. Es conocida la gran variabilidad entre los clínicos en el manejo de los aspectos diagnóstico-terapéuticos en la NAC, lo que constituye una de las razones que explican las grandes diferencias en las tasas de ingreso, de consecución del diagnóstico microbiológico, solicitud de estudios complementarios, la elección de la pauta antimicrobiana o la diversidad de cuidados aplicados. En este sentido, la implementación de las guías de práctica clínica con el uso de las escalas pronósticas de gravedad y las nuevas herramientas disponibles en los SUH como lo son los biomarcadores pueden mejorar la atención del paciente con NAC en los SUH. Por ello, a partir de un grupo multidisciplinar de profesionales de urgencias y especialistas que participan en el proceso asistencial de la NAC, se ha diseñado esta guía clínica con diversas recomendaciones para las decisiones y momentos clave en proceso de atención del paciente con NAC en Urgencias


The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) ranges from 2-15 cases / 1,000 inhabitants / year, being higher in those older than 65 years and in patients with high co-morbidity. Around 75% of all CAP diagnosed are treated in the Emergency Department (ED). The CAP represents the main cause for sepsis and septic shock in ED, and the most frequent cause of death and admission to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to infectious disease. Overall mortality is 10-14% according to age and associated risk factors. Forty to 60% of CAP will require hospital admission, including observation units (with very variable ranges from 22-65% according to centers, seasonal of the year and patients´ characteristics). Between the admissions, 2-10% will be in the ICU. All of previously mentioned reflects the importance of the CAP in the ED, as well as the “impact of the emergency care on the patient with CAP”, as it is the establishment where the initial, but key decisions, are made and could condition the outcome of the illness. It is known the great variability among physicians in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of CAP, which is one of the reasons that explains the great differences in the admission rates, achievement of the microbiological diagnosis, request for complementary studies, the choice of antimicrobial treatment, or the diversity of applied care. In this sense, the implementation of clinical practice guidelines with the use of the severity scores and the new tools available, such as biomarkers, can improve patient care with CAP in ED. Therefore, a multidisciplinary group of emergency professionals and specialists involved in the care process of CAP has designed a guideline with several recommendations for decisions-making during the key moments in patients with CAP attended in the ED


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/terapia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/normas , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/normas , Pneumonia/terapia , Prognóstico , Conferências de Consenso como Assunto , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/etiologia , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/microbiologia , Guias como Assunto , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitalização , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia
20.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 30(4): 245-256, ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-164840

RESUMO

El 14,3% de los pacientes que se atienden en el servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH) son diagnosticados de un proceso infeccioso. En el 14,6% de ellos se obtienen hemocultivos (HC) con una rentabilidad del 20%, mientras que se consideran contaminantes en un 1% y del 1-3% de los HC positivos se corresponden a pacientes dados de alta («bacteriemia oculta»). El mayor número de bacteriemias confirmadas proceden de las muestras de los pacientes con ITU seguido de las NAC. La sospecha y la detección de bacteriemia tiene un importante significado diagnóstico, pronóstico y obliga a cambiar algunas de las decisiones más importantes (alta-ingreso, extraer HC, administrar el antimicrobiano adecuado y precoz, etc.). Por ello, encontrar un modelo predictivo de bacteriemia útil y aplicable en los SUH se ha convertido en el objetivo de muchos autores que combinan distintas variables clínicas, epidemiológicas y analíticas, entre las que se incluyen los biomarcadores de respuesta inflamatoria e infección (BMRII), ya que aumentan significativamente el poder predictivo de dichos modelos. La intención de esta revisión es poner de manifiesto las evidencias científicas publicadas recientemente, aclarar las controversias existentes y comparar la capacidad y el valor diagnóstico para predecir bacteriemia de los principales BMRII en los pacientes con infección atendidos en los SUH. Y así, a partir de ella, generar distintas recomendaciones que ayuden a definir el papel que pueden tener éstos en la mejora de la indicación de obtención de los HC, así como en la toma inmediata de otras decisiones diagnóstico-terapéuticas (administración precoz y adecuada del tratamiento antibiótico, pruebas complementarias y otras muestras microbiológicas, intensidad del soporte hemodinámico, necesidad de ingreso, etc.) (AU)


Between all patients attended in the Emergency Department (ED), 14.3% have an infectious disease diagnosis. Blood cultures (BC) are obtained in 14.6% of patients and have a profitability of 20%, whereas 1% are considered as contaminated and 1-3% of positive cultures correspond to discharge patients («hidden bacteraemia»). The highest number of confirmed bacteraemias comes from the samples of patients with urinary tract infections, followed by community-acquired pneumonia. The suspicion and detection of bacteraemia have an important diagnostic and prognostic significance and could modify some important making-decisions (admission, BC request, administration of appropriate and early antimicrobial, etc). Therefore, finding a predictive model of bacteraemia useful and applicable in ED has become the objective of many authors that combine different clinical, epidemiological and analytical variables, including infection and inflammatory response biomarkers (IIRBM), as they significantly increase the predictive power of such models. The aim of this review is to highlight the evidence showed in recent published articles, to clarify existing controversies, and to compare the accuracy of the most important IIRBM to predict bacteremia in patients attended due to infection in the ED. Finally, to generate different recommendations that could help to define the role of IIRBM in improving the indication to obtaining BC, as well as in immediate decision-making in diagnosis and treatment (early and adequate antibiotic treatment, complementary tests, other microbiological samples, hemodynamic support measures, need for admission, etc.) (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Biomarcadores/análise , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Infecção/diagnóstico , Medicina de Emergência/métodos , Calcitonina/uso terapêutico , Ácido Láctico/administração & dosagem , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Adrenomedulina/administração & dosagem , Ácido Láctico/uso terapêutico , Adrenomedulina/uso terapêutico
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