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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

3.
Epilepsia ; 60(5): 845-856, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To describe the mode of onset of SCN8A-related severe epilepsy in order to facilitate early recognition, and eventually early treatment with sodium channel blockers. METHODS: We reviewed the phenotype of patients carrying a mutation in the SCN8A gene, among a multicentric cohort of 638 patients prospectively followed by several pediatric neurologists. We focused on the way clinicians made the diagnosis of epileptic encephalopathy, the very first symptoms, electroencephalography (EEG) findings, and seizure types. We made genotypic/phenotypic correlation based on epilepsy-associated missense variant localization over the protein. RESULTS: We found 19 patients carrying a de novo mutation of SCN8A, representing 3% of our cohort, with 9 mutations being novel. Age at onset of epilepsy was 1 day to 16 months. We found two modes of onset: 12 patients had slowly emerging onset with rare and/or subtle seizures and normal interictal EEG (group 1). The first event was either acute generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS; Group 1a, n = 6) or episodes of myoclonic jerks that were often mistaken for sleep-related movements or other movement disorders (Group 1b, n = 6). Seven patients had a sudden onset of frequent tonic seizures or epileptic spasms with abnormal interictal EEG leading to rapid diagnosis of epileptic encephalopathy. Sodium channel blockers were effective or nonaggravating in most cases. SIGNIFICANCE: SCN8A is the third most prevalent early onset epileptic encephalopathy gene and is associated with two modes of onset of epilepsy.

5.
Brain ; 141(11): 3160-3178, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30351409

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control neuronal excitability and their dysfunction has been linked to epileptogenesis but few individuals with neurological disorders related to variants altering HCN channels have been reported so far. In 2014, we described five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo HCN1 variants. To delineate HCN1-related disorders and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations further, we assembled a cohort of 33 unpublished patients with novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants: 19 probands carrying 14 different de novo mutations and four families with dominantly inherited variants segregating with epilepsy in 14 individuals, but not penetrant in six additional individuals. Sporadic patients had epilepsy with median onset at age 7 months and in 36% the first seizure occurred during a febrile illness. Overall, considering familial and sporadic patients, the predominant phenotypes were mild, including genetic generalized epilepsies and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum. About 20% manifested neonatal/infantile onset otherwise unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. The study also included eight patients with variants of unknown significance: one adopted patient had two HCN1 variants, four probands had intellectual disability without seizures, and three individuals had missense variants inherited from an asymptomatic parent. Of the 18 novel pathogenic missense variants identified, 12 were associated with severe phenotypes and clustered within or close to transmembrane domains, while variants segregating with milder phenotypes were located outside transmembrane domains, in the intracellular N- and C-terminal parts of the channel. Five recurrent variants were associated with similar phenotypes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp, we showed that the impact of 12 selected variants ranged from complete loss-of-function to significant shifts in activation kinetics and/or voltage dependence. Functional analysis of three different substitutions altering Gly391 revealed that these variants had different consequences on channel biophysical properties. The Gly391Asp variant, associated with the most severe, neonatal phenotype, also had the most severe impact on channel function. Molecular dynamics simulation on channel structure showed that homotetramers were not conducting ions because the permeation path was blocked by cation(s) strongly complexed to the Asp residue, whereas heterotetramers showed an instantaneous current component possibly linked to deformation of the channel pore. In conclusion, our results considerably expand the clinical spectrum related to HCN1 variants to include common generalized epilepsy phenotypes and further illustrate how HCN1 has a pivotal function in brain development and control of neuronal excitability.

7.
Int J Legal Med ; 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30191314

RESUMO

We present a novel multiplex assay for the simultaneous detection of 12 polymorphisms within the UGT1A9 sequence, which codes for enzymes involved in phase II biotransformation. The assay combines a multiplexed amplification step with single-base extension sequencing. The method described here is fast, cost-effective, and easy-to-use, combining the relevant features of screening methods for research and diagnostics in pharmacogenetics. To validate the assay, we tested reproducibility and sensitivity and analysed allele frequencies of 110 Caucasian individuals. Furthermore, we describe combining genetic information of individuals consuming Cannabis sativa products with respective plasma concentrations of a metabolite.

9.
Genet Med ; 2018 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093711

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To define the phenotypic and mutational spectrum of epilepsies related to DEPDC5, NPRL2 and NPRL3 genes encoding the GATOR1 complex, a negative regulator of the mTORC1 pathway METHODS: We analyzed clinical and genetic data of 73 novel probands (familial and sporadic) with epilepsy-related variants in GATOR1-encoding genes and proposed new guidelines for clinical interpretation of GATOR1 variants. RESULTS: The GATOR1 seizure phenotype consisted mostly in focal seizures (e.g., hypermotor or frontal lobe seizures in 50%), with a mean age at onset of 4.4 years, often sleep-related and drug-resistant (54%), and associated with focal cortical dysplasia (20%). Infantile spasms were reported in 10% of the probands. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) occurred in 10% of the families. Novel classification framework of all 140 epilepsy-related GATOR1 variants (including the variants of this study) revealed that 68% are loss-of-function pathogenic, 14% are likely pathogenic, 15% are variants of uncertain significance and 3% are likely benign. CONCLUSION: Our data emphasize the increasingly important role of GATOR1 genes in the pathogenesis of focal epilepsies (>180 probands to date). The GATOR1 phenotypic spectrum ranges from sporadic early-onset epilepsies with cognitive impairment comorbidities to familial focal epilepsies, and SUDEP.

10.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

11.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 422-429, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29459493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Segmentation defects of the vertebrae (SDV) are non-specific features found in various syndromes. The molecular bases of SDV are not fully elucidated due to the wide range of phenotypes and classification issues. The genes involved are in the Notch signalling pathway, which is a key system in somitogenesis. Here we report on mutations identified in a diagnosis cohort of SDV. We focused on spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) and the phenotype of these patients in order to establish a diagnostic strategy when confronted with SDV. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used DNA samples from a cohort of 73 patients and performed targeted sequencing of the five known SCD-causing genes (DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6) in the first 48 patients and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 28 relevant patients. RESULTS: Ten diagnoses, including four biallelic variants in TBX6, two biallelic variants in LFNG and DLL3, and one in MESP2 and HES7, were made with the gene panel, and two diagnoses, including biallelic variants in FLNB and one variant in MEOX1, were made by WES. The diagnostic yield of the gene panel was 10/73 (13.7%) in the global cohort but 8/10 (80%) in the subgroup meeting the SCD criteria; the diagnostic yield of WES was 2/28 (8%). CONCLUSION: After negative array CGH, targeted sequencing of the five known SCD genes should only be performed in patients who meet the diagnostic criteria of SCD. The low proportion of candidate genes identified by WES in our cohort suggests the need to consider more complex genetic architectures in cases of SDV.

12.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 96(7): e776-e782, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29338130

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify quantitatively measurable morphologic optical coherence tomography (OCT) characteristics in patients with an acute episode of central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and evaluate their correlation to functional and psychological variables for their use in daily clinical practice. METHODS: Retinal thickness (RT), the height, area and volume of subretinal fluid (SRF)/pigment epithelium detachments were evaluated using the standardized procedures of the Vienna Reading Center. These morphologic characteristics were compared with functional variables [best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast sensitivity (CS), retinal sensitivity/microperimetry, fixation stability], and patients' subjective handicap from CSC using the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). RESULTS: Data from 39 CSC patients were included in this analysis. Three different SRF height measures showed a high negative correlation (r = -0.7) to retinal sensitivity within the central 9°, which was also negatively correlated with SRF area and volume (r = -0.6). The CS score and fixation stability (fixation points within 2°) showed a moderate negative correlation (r = -0.4) with SRF height variables. Comparison of the subjective handicap with morphological characteristics in spectral-domain (SD)-OCT showed SRF height had the highest correlation (r = -0.4) with the subjective problems reported and overall NEI VFQ-25 score. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, SRF height measured in SD-OCT showed the best correlation with functional variables and patients' subjective handicap caused by the disease and therefore seems to be the best variable to look at in daily clinical routine. Even though area and volume also show a correlation, these cannot be so easily measured as height and are therefore not suggested for daily clinical routine.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 39(3): 319-332, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29243349

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive microcephaly or microcephaly primary hereditary (MCPH) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a reduction in brain volume, indirectly measured by an occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) 2 standard deviations or more below the age- and sex-matched mean (-2SD) at birth and -3SD after 6 months, and leading to intellectual disability of variable severity. The abnormal spindle-like microcephaly gene (ASPM), the human ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster "abnormal spindle" gene (asp), encodes ASPM, a protein localized at the centrosome of apical neuroprogenitor cells and involved in spindle pole positioning during neurogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in ASPM cause MCPH5, which affects the majority of all MCPH patients worldwide. Here, we report 47 unpublished patients from 39 families carrying 28 new ASPM mutations, and conduct an exhaustive review of the molecular, clinical, neuroradiological, and neuropsychological features of the 282 families previously reported (with 161 distinct ASPM mutations). Furthermore, we show that ASPM-related microcephaly is not systematically associated with intellectual deficiency and discuss the association between the structural brain defects (strong reduction in cortical volume and surface area) that modify the cortical map of these patients and their cognitive abilities.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(2): 287-292, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29255276

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome is a rare genetic disorder mainly due to de novo and private truncating mutations of CHD7 gene. Here we report an intriguing hot spot of intronic mutations (c.5405-7G > A, c.5405-13G > A, c.5405-17G > A and c.5405-18C > A) located in CHD7 IVS25. Combining computational in silico analysis, experimental branch-point determination and in vitro minigene assays, our study explains this mutation hot spot by a particular genomic context, including the weakness of the IVS25 natural acceptor-site and an unconventional lariat sequence localized outside the common 40 bp upstream the acceptor splice site. For each of the mutations reported here, bioinformatic tools indicated a newly created 3' splice site, of which the existence was confirmed using pSpliceExpress, an easy-to-use and reliable splicing reporter tool. Our study emphasizes the idea that combining these two complementary approaches could increase the efficiency of routine molecular diagnosis.

16.
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet ; 175(4): 417-430, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178447

RESUMO

CHARGE syndrome (CS) is a genetic disorder whose first description included Coloboma, Heart disease, Atresia of choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies and deafness, most often caused by a genetic mutation in the CHD7 gene. Two features were then added: semicircular canal anomalies and arhinencephaly/olfactory bulb agenesis, with classification of typical, partial, or atypical forms on the basis of major and minor clinical criteria. The detection rate of a pathogenic variant in the CHD7 gene varies from 67% to 90%. To try to have an overview of this heterogenous clinical condition and specify a genotype-phenotype relation, we conducted a national study of phenotype and genotype in 119 patients with CS. Selected clinical diagnostic criteria were from Verloes (2005), updated by Blake & Prasad (). Besides obtaining a detailed clinical description, when possible, patients underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, audiometry, temporal bone CT scan, gonadotropin analysis, and olfactory-bulb MRI. All patients underwent CHD7 sequencing and MLPA analysis. We found a pathogenic CHD7 variant in 83% of typical CS cases and 58% of atypical cases. Pathogenic variants in the CHD7 gene were classified by the expected impact on the protein. In all, 90% of patients had a typical form of CS and 10% an atypical form. The most frequent features were deafness/semicircular canal hypoplasia (94%), pituitary defect/hypogonadism (89%), external ear anomalies (87%), square-shaped face (81%), and arhinencephaly/anosmia (80%). Coloboma (73%), heart defects (65%), and choanal atresia (43%) were less frequent.


Assuntos
Síndrome CHARGE/diagnóstico , Síndrome CHARGE/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sistema Nervoso Central/anormalidades , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Nervos Cranianos/anormalidades , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Feminino , França , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Adulto Jovem
17.
Cell Chem Biol ; 23(10): 1302-1313, 2016 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27667560

RESUMO

Phenotypic drug discovery offers some advantages over target-based methods, mainly because it allows drug leads to be tested in systems that more closely model distinct disease states. However, a potential disadvantage is the difficulty of linking the observed phenotype to a specific cellular target. To address this problem, we developed DePick, a computational target de-convolution tool to determine targets specifically linked to small-molecule phenotypic screens. We applied DePick to eight publicly available screens and predicted 59 drug target-phenotype associations. In addition to literature-based evidence for our predictions, we provide experimental support for seven predicted associations. Interestingly, our analysis led to the discovery of a previously unrecognized connection between the Wnt signaling pathway and an aromatase, CYP19A1. These results demonstrate that the DePick approach can not only accelerate target de-convolution but also aid in discovery of new functionally relevant biological relationships.


Assuntos
Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Bibliotecas de Moléculas Pequenas/farmacologia , Células A549 , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Fenótipo , Proteínas Wnt/antagonistas & inibidores , Via de Sinalização Wnt/efeitos dos fármacos
18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 11: 26, 2016 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27004399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Deficient nucleotide excision repair (NER) activity causes a variety of autosomal recessive diseases including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) a disorder which pre-disposes to skin cancer, and the severe multisystem condition known as Cockayne syndrome (CS). In view of the clinical overlap between NER-related disorders, as well as the existence of multiple phenotypes and the numerous genes involved, we developed a new diagnostic approach based on the enrichment of 16 NER-related genes by multiplex amplification coupled with next-generation sequencing (NGS). METHODS: Our test cohort consisted of 11 DNA samples, all with known mutations and/or non pathogenic SNPs in two of the tested genes. We then used the same technique to analyse samples from a prospective cohort of 40 patients. Multiplex amplification and sequencing were performed using AmpliSeq protocol on the Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies). RESULTS: We identified causative mutations in 17 out of the 40 patients (43%). Four patients showed biallelic mutations in the ERCC6(CSB) gene, five in the ERCC8(CSA) gene: most of them had classical CS features but some had very mild and incomplete phenotypes. A small cohort of 4 unrelated classic XP patients from the Basque country (Northern Spain) revealed a common splicing mutation in POLH (XP-variant), demonstrating a new founder effect in this population. Interestingly, our results also found ERCC2(XPD), ERCC3(XPB) or ERCC5(XPG) mutations in two cases of UV-sensitive syndrome and in two cases with mixed XP/CS phenotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that NGS is an efficient technique for the analysis of NER-related disorders on a molecular level. It is particularly useful for phenotypes with combined features or unusually mild symptoms. Targeted NGS used in conjunction with DNA repair functional tests and precise clinical evaluation permits rapid and cost-effective diagnosis in patients with NER-defects.


Assuntos
Reparo do DNA/genética , Síndrome de Cockayne/genética , DNA Helicases/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/genética , Endonucleases/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Mutação , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteína Grupo D do Xeroderma Pigmentoso/genética
19.
Pest Manag Sci ; 72(3): 609-17, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26112069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reliance on and extensive use of pyrethroid insecticides have led to pyrethroid resistance in pollen beetle (Meligethes aeneus). Widespread adoption of best practice in pollen beetle management is therefore needed. Decision support systems (DSSs) that identify the risk period(s) for pest migration can help to target monitoring and control efforts, but they must be accurate and labour efficient to gain the support of growers. Weather data and the phenology of pollen beetles in 44 winter oilseed rape crops across England over 4 years were used to compare the performance of two risk management tools: the DSS proPlant expert, which predicts migration risk according to a phenological model and local weather data, and 'rule-based advice', which depends on crop growth stage and a temperature threshold. RESULTS: Both risk management tools were effective in prompting monitoring that would detect breaches of various control thresholds. However, the DSS more accurately predicted migration start and advised significantly fewer days of migration risk, consultation days and monitoring than did rule-based advice. CONCLUSION: The proPlant expert DSS reliably models pollen beetle phenology. Use of such a DSS can focus monitoring effort to when it is most needed, facilitate the practical use of thresholds and help to prevent unnecessary insecticide applications and the development of insecticide resistance.


Assuntos
Besouros , Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Controle de Insetos/métodos , Animais , Brassica napus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inglaterra , Medição de Risco
20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170A(1): 116-29, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26420639

RESUMO

Xq28 duplications encompassing MECP2 have been described in male patients with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with hypotonia and spasticity, severe learning disability, stereotyped movements, and recurrent pulmonary infections. We report on standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 30 affected patients carrying an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 of various sizes (228 kb to 11.7 Mb). The aim of this study was to seek recurrent malformations and attempt to determine whether variations in imaging features could be explained by differences in the size of the duplications. We showed that 93% of patients had brain MRI abnormalities such as corpus callosum abnormalities (n = 20), reduced volume of the white matter (WM) (n = 12), ventricular dilatation (n = 9), abnormal increased hyperintensities on T2-weighted images involving posterior periventricular WM (n = 6), and vermis hypoplasia (n = 5). The occipitofrontal circumference varied considerably between >+2SD in five patients and <-2SD in four patients. Among the nine patients with dilatation of the lateral ventricles, six had a duplication involving L1CAM. The only patient harboring bilateral posterior subependymal nodular heterotopia also carried an FLNA gene duplication. We could not demonstrate a correlation between periventricular WM hyperintensities/delayed myelination and duplication of the IKBKG gene. We thus conclude that patients with an Xq28 duplication involving MECP2 share some similar but non-specific brain abnormalities. These imaging features, therefore, could not constitute a diagnostic clue. The genotype-phenotype correlation failed to demonstrate a relationship between the presence of nodular heterotopia, ventricular dilatation, WM abnormalities, and the presence of FLNA, L1CAM, or IKBKG, respectively, in the duplicated segment.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Duplicação Gênica , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/genética , Proteína 2 de Ligação a Metil-CpG/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Encefalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Retardo Mental Ligado ao Cromossomo X/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
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